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tropical countries, where the rains are so much of the nature of torrents that the evil presents itself in a magnified degree. Improved cultivation of the land, embracing good drainage, is providing the most effective remedy. Other forms of damage to grain crops result from rain, as where it occurs in undue quantities during the harvest season, and the crops are destroyed before they can be safely stored. This has constantly happened in the northern portions of our own kingdom, and in parts of continental Europe. Inundations from the sea, from rivers, from inland lakes, fall within this category, and great mischief has resulted from these in many parts of the world. White, in his Natural History of Selborne, gives scientific reasons why much-flooded lands remain infertile-the beneficial action of the earth-worms is thereby retarded.

2. Frost. In temperate regions frost is a deadly enemy to vegetation in several forms. In the case of grain cultivation it may, by setting in early, prevent the efficient manipulation of the soil and the sowing of the autumn seed. Or by being protracted beyond the early months of the year, it will prevent spring sowing, and even seriously injure the young crops. Combined with rain it will frequently destroy the vitality of the seed while yet in the ground. In the northern part of our island it not unfrequently destroys the grain before it is fully harvested. Efficient drainage of the soil is almost as effective against the ravages of frost as against the damage from rain. Many famines in Great Britain have been shown to be directly the result of frost. In France, and other wine and olive producing countries, the damage occasioned by frost is immense. Such damage, as well as that occasioned by floods, is there a recognized branch of insurance business.

generally confined to much smaller limits. They are most destructive to grain and fruit produce of all kind when they occur in severe form, and in the summer and autumn months-when they are most prevalent. The damage these occasion has long been the subject of insurance alike in England and other parts of Europe. In France hail-storms are of great frequency, and also of great severity.

5. Insects, Vermin, &c.-Insect plagues appear to have afflicted mankind from a very early period. Thus flies and locusts were among the plagues of Egypt, and concerning the latter we read (Ex. x. 14, 15): "Very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such. For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left; and there remained not any green in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt." The present writer travelled in 1874 through districts in the Western States of America devastated very much in the manner thus described. The famine now raging in North China began in one district at least by a visitation of locusts. In India such visitations have occurred several times. England has been visited on various occasions by plagues of insects, especially in 476 and again in 872. As to vermin, such as rats, mice, &c., destroying the crops, there are but few instances on record. In 1581 there was a plague of mice in Essex, and in 1812-13 a plague of rats in the Madras presidency, which in part occasioned the famine of that year.

We now turn to the artificial causes of famines, some of which hardly admit of being dealt with in the same detail.

6. War.-Warfare has a tendency to create famine in 3. Drought. In all climates of a tropical character one or other of several forms. It too frequently retards drought plays an important part in retarding the develop-cultivation, either by its direct operation, or indirectly by ment of vegetation. When combined with moisture, solar calling the agricultural classes to arms. By its agency, heat affords the most certain means of securing luxuriance; too, the crops of whole districts are either designedly without the moisture there is absolute sterility. The early destroyed or ruinously devastated. Famines in particular Bible records refer to the rising of the waters of the Nile towns or localities are often occasioned by the establishas the event upon which the fertility of Egypt depends.ment of blockades, or through supplies being otherwise About 1060 the overflowing of this great river failed for intercepted or cut off. A large quantity of grain, too, is seven successive years, occasioning one of the greatest probably damaged every year by being kept in military famines of history. Two provinces were wholly depopulated; stores in various parts of Europe; in the event of famine, and in another half the inhabitants perished. Even in tem- however, these stores may become of immense value. perate climates long-continued drought is very disastrous. 7. Defective Agriculture. This may result from one of 4. Other Meteorological Phenomena.-Under this general several causes, as ignorance, indifference, or unsuitability designation has to be included several causes more or less of climate or location. Where the produce of the soil but directly or remotely contributing to famines. (a) Comets. barely meets the current requirements of the inhabitants, The appearance of these has often coincided with periods it is clear that either the failure of one season's crops, or of drought; they are also frequently associated with ex- the sudden influx of any great number of strangers, may cessive heat. But heat, except in so far as it may super-produce at least temporary famine. See Macaulay's Enginduce drought, is not detrimental to the grain crops; land, vol. i. chap. 3, or Wade's British History chronowhile, in relation to fruit crops, and more especially logically arranged, under date 1549 to 1553, &c. that of the vine, not only is the quality of the produce greatly enhanced, but frequently its quantity also. The sale of some of the comet-claret of 1811 recently at £12, 10s. per bottle in Paris is some evidence of the quality. (b) Earthquakes. These would seem to have but little influence in producing famine, except in the immediate locality of their devastations. Where, however, they have produced irruptions of the sea or inland waters, which has not unfrequently been the case, the damage has been extensive, (e) Hurricanes and Storms.-These frequently produce widespread injury in the localities they visit. They also lead to irruptions of the sea, and to the overflow of rivers; but as a rule these occur at periods of the year when the grain and other crops are not sufficiently advanced to sustain serious damage by shaking or otherwise, or have local in their effects-rarely extending beyond 60 miles in their greatest length and some 6 miles in width, and are

8. Defective Transport.―This may arise from such causes as bad roads or want of roads, absence of canals or want of shipping, or from wilful obstruction. In our own country we had the advantage of the great Roman roads from a very early period; but still for cross country purposes the roads remained very bad, or, indeed, did not exist, until comparatively recent times. In 1285 an Act was passed for widening the highways from one market town to another; "but this was intended rather to prevent robbery than to facilitate travelling" (Wade). In consequence of the bad state of the roads it has frequently happened that there was a famine prevailing in one part of the kingdom, with a superabundance of food in another. The introduction of canals, and subsequently of

railroads, removed all possible difficulty in the United

Kingdom. In India at the present moment the chief difficulty in connexion with the famines is the want of the

means of transport.



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in the meantime, has arisen a fierce controversy between those who are in favour of canals, and water carriage generally, and the military authorities, who regard railways as of the first necessity-funds not being immediately forthcoming for both purposes.

9. Legislative Interference. It does not appear altogether | which have abundance. Hence millions starve; and hence, certain whether legislative interference with respect to the import or export of grain originated in relation to the prevention of famines, or in the desire to advance agriculture or to keep down prices within the limits at one time prescribed by law. Probably all these causes contributed to the building up of the system of the Corn Laws, which were only repealed, at the indignant demand of the nation, as recently as 1846. It is clear that all legislative interference must be designed to interfere with the natural course of supply and demand; and to that extent it is dangerous. There is no doubt that the Corn Laws were often called into play to prevent exportation of grain; while they only admitted of its importation when prices reached or exceeded certain predetermined limits. It was the Irish famine of 1845-6 which at least hastened their final repeal.1

10. Currency Restrictions.-Under this head is mainly included the consideration of debasing the coin, and so lessening its purchasing power. But for very direct testimony on more than one occasion we should hardly have included this among the causes of famine. Thus Penkethman (who may be regarded as a high authority) says, under date 1124, "By means of changing the coine all things became very deere, whereof an extreame famine did arise, and afflict the multitude of the people unto death." Other instances, as in 1248, 1390, and 1586, are more particularly set out in the table of famines already referred to.

was attached to them.

11. Speculation.-Under this head has chiefly to be considered that class of dealings known as "forestalling," "ingrossing," and trafficking by "regratours." Offences of this character were prohibited by statute in 1552 (5 and 6 Edward VI. c. 14), and it is seen that much importance Then there was the Act of 1555 (2 and 3 Philip and Mary, c. 15), "An Act that purveyors shall not take victuals within 5 miles of Cambridge and Oxford," on account of the poor estate of the multitude of scholars "having very bare and small sustentation." A further inquiry into the legislative measures taken in this direction would show how little removed from famine con

ditions were the people of England even at a compara-
tively recent period.

12. Misapplication of Grain.-Under this head is mainly to be noted the excessive use of grain in brewing and distilling, and by burning, whether wilfully or by misadventure. The laws regarding the burning of grain ricks were long and properly very severe, the punishment being capital until within a comparativly recent date. Under date 1315 we find it recorded that the Londoners, "considering that wheat was much consumed by the converting thereof into mault, ordained that from thence it was to be made of other grains." This order was afterwards extended by the king (Edward II.) through the whole kingdom. In later times distilling from grain has been prohibited.

It is clear from what has thus been said that the specific causes of famines which are denominated artificial have nearly all passed away, so far as Britain is concerned; but some of them still assert their force, especially in the East. As to India, the constantly recurring famines in the various provinces have caused great commiseration in England, and much anxiety and cost to the Government,-that of 1874 costing £6,500,000, that of 1877 nearly £10,000,000, and have naturally drawn attention to the fact that the Indian empire, as a whole, produces year by year sufficient food for its aggregate population. The food supply fails at certain points; and there are no adequate means of transportation between the suffering provinces and others

1 Edward I. "caused the wooll and leather to be stayed in England, and there followed great dearth of corne and wine."-Penkethman.

There are other facts regarding the famines of India which require to be known, as they are contrary to the general belief. Thus Mr F. C. Danvers says, in his able Report on the Famines of India (1878) :—

"Famines in India have arisen from several different causes, but the most general cause has not been the failure of the usual rains. Distress has also, however, been caused by hostile invasion, by quently by the immigration of the starving people from distant swarms of rats and locusts, by storms and floods, and not unfreparts into districts otherwise well provided with food supplies, and occasionally by excessive exports of grain into famine-stricken districts, or by combinations of two or more of the above-mentioned circumstances."

But cause. The

Another point may be mentioned, which bears, not only upon the famines of India, but upon those of other countries where they are occasioned by deficiency of rain, or by too much rain, viz., the effect produced on the average rainfall by denuding a country of its growing timber. There can be no doubt that the rainfall in England has been much lessened by the continuous destruction of our forests and even of our hedgerows. In India the cutting down of timber for the purpose of supplying fuel to the locomotive engines on the railways has already produced noticeable effects. The authorities are happily alive to the fact, and remedial measures are already being taken. other results are produced by the same testimony of the French forest department in the Hautes and Basses Alpes is strong, and reaches the practical ques"So great tion of floods and the damage they occasion. indeed were the devastations from which these alpine districts suffered through the denudation of the mountain sides, and the consequent formation of torrents, that intervention of the most prompt description became necessary to prevent the destruction, not only of the grazing grounds themselves, but of the rich valleys below them." planting of these mountains had been going on for some time. (6 Already the beneficial effect of what has been done is felt in the diminution of the violence of the torrents. During the present summer (1875), when so much mischief has been done in the south of France by inundations, the Durance, which rises in the mountains east of Avignon, and which, on former occasions, has been the worst and most dangerous of all the rivers in the south of France, on account of the inundations it has caused, has scarcely been heard of; and it is around the head waters of this river that the chief plantation works have, during the last ten years, been carried on."2

The re

fall has of late engaged much attention. The basis of this In connexion with famines the "sun-spot" theory of raintheory is that all the phenomena connected with the sun ebb and flow once in eleven years, and that from the rela tion of the earth to the sun these maximum and minimum periods regulate terrestrial phenomena. The sun's energy "gives us our meteorology by falling at different times upon different points of the aerial and aqueous envelopes of our planet, thereby producing ocean and air currents; while, by acting upon the various forms of water which exist in those envelopes, it is the fruitful parent of rain, and cloud, and mist. Nor does it stop here. It affects in a more mysterious way the electricity in the atmosphere, and the magnetism of the globe itself."3 So far, however, as the tables

3 See Proceedings of the Forest Conference held at Simla (India), October 1875.

3 "Sun-Spots and Famines," by J. Norman Lockyer and W. W. Hunter, in Nineteenth Century, Nov. 1877, p. 583.

of the supreme pontiff in Rome, though not used during the celebration of the mass. The fan of Queen Theodolinda (7th century) is still preserved in the treasury of the cathedral of Monza. Fans made part of the bridal outfit, or

illustrating the theory admit of comparison with the
list of famines already referred to-and the tables extend
to the rainfall (as indicated by floods), to frosts, to
drought, and to other meteorological phenomena-there
is no present evidence that such a theory can be up-mundus muliebris, of ancient Roman ladies.

held, even when applied to the famines of India only;
and apparently still less when extended to those of the
whole world. As to Mr Jeula's tables of shipwrecks, which
appear to follow the eleven years' theory, and to which the
doctrine of recurrent storms, induced by the meteorological
influences already named, has been applied-the explana-
tion may be traced to other influences, such as mercantile
depression, &c.

Folding fans had their origin in Japan, and were imported thence to China. They were in the shape still used-a.segment of a circle of paper pasted on a light radiating frame-work of bamboo, and variously decorated, some in colours, others of white paper on which verses or sentences are written. It is a compliment in China to invite a friend or distinguished guest to write some sentiment on your fan as a memento of any special occasion, and this practice has continued. A fan that has some celebrity in France was presented by the Chinese ambassador to the Comtesse de Clauzel at the coronation of Napoleon I. in 1804. When a site was given in 1635, on an artificial island, for the settlement of Portuguese merchants in Nippo in Japan, the space was laid out in the form of a fan as emblematic of an object agreeable for general use. Men and women of every rank both in China and Japan carry fans, even artisans using them with one hand while working with the other. In China they are often made of carved ivory, the sticks being plates very thin and sometimes carved on both sides, the intervals between the carved parts pierced with astonishing delicacy, and the plates held together by a ribbon. The Japanese make the two outer guards of the stick, which cover the others, occasionally of beaten iron, extremely thin and light, damascened with gold and other metals.

It remains to be added that to the direct influence of famines we owe our Poor Laws-that national system of insurance against starvation. "In the 29th yeare of Queen Elizabeth, about January [1586], Her Majesty observing the general Dearthe of Corne, and other victual, groune partly through the unseasonablenesse of the year then passed, and partly through the uncharitable greediness of the Corne-Masters, but especially through the unlawful and over much transporting of graine in forreine parts; by the advice of Her most Hon. Privy Council, published a Proclamation, and a Booke of Orders to be taken by justices for reliefe of the Poore; notwithstanding all which the excessive prices of grain still encreased so that wheate was sold at London for 8s. the Bushel, and in some other parts of the Realme above that price."-Penkethman. To the famine in India in 1781-3 was due the institution of the Monegar Choultry, or the Indian equivalent to the British Poor Law; while in connexion with the Indian famine of 1790-2 was introduced the system of Government relief works, so extensively adopted at the time of the Irish famine of 1846-7 and the Lancashire cotton famine of 1861-5. The first recorded importation of grain into Great Britain took place during the great famine of 1258, when "fifty of shiploads of wheat, barley, and bread were procured from Germany"—hence the first incident which, at a later date, gave rise to our Corn Laws; and in many other ways famines have left their mark upon our history and our institutions. (c. w.) FAN (Latin, vannus; French, éventail), a light implement used for giving motion to the air. Ventilabrum and flabellum are names under which ecclesiastical fans are mentioned in old inventories. Fans for cooling the face have been in use in hot climates from remote ages. A bas-relief in the British Museum represents Sennacherib with female figures carrying feather fans. They were attributes of royalty along with horse-hair fly-flappers and umbrellas. Examples may be seen in plates of the Egyptian sculptures at Thebes and other places, and also in the ruins of Persepolis. In the museum of Boulak, near Cairo, a wooden fan handle showing holes for feathers is still preserved. It is from the tomb of Amen-hotep, of the 18th dynasty, 17th century B.C. In India fans were also attributes of men in authority, and sometimes sacred emblems. A heartshaped fan, with an ivory handle, of unknown age, and held in great veneration by the Hindus, was given to the prince of Wales. Large punkahs or screens, moved by a servant who does nothing else, are in common use by Europeans in India at this day.

Fans were used in the early Middle Ages to keep flies from the sacred elements during the celebrations of the Christian mysteries. Sometimes they were round, with

bells attached-of silver, or silver gilt. Notices of such Martin," after a famous carriage painter and inventor of

Fans were used by Portuguese ladies in the 14th century, and were well known in England before the close of the reign of Richard II. In France the inventory of Charles V. at the end of the 14th century mentions a folding ivory fan. They were brought into general use in that country by Catherine de' Medici, probably from Italy, then in advance of other countries in all matters of personal luxury. The court ladies of Henry VIII.'s reign in England were used to handling fans. A lady in the Dance of Death by Holbein holds a fan. Queen Elizabeth is painted with a round feather fan in her portrait at Gorhambury; and as many as twenty-seven are enumerated in her inventory (1606). Coryat, an English traveller, in 1608 describes them as common in Italy. They also became of general use from that time in Spain. In Italy, France, and Spain fans had special conventional uses, and various actions in handling them grew into a code of signals, by which ladies were supposed to convey hints or signals to admirers or to rivals in society. A paper in the Spectator humorously proposes to establish a regular drill for these purposes.

The chief seat of the European manufacture of fans during the 17th century was Paris, where the sticks or frames, whether of wood or ivory, were made, and the decorations painted on mounts of very carefully prepared vellum (called latterly chicken skin, but not correctly),—a material stronger and tougher than paper, which breaks at the folds. Paris makers exported fans unpainted to Madrid and other Spanish cities, where they were decorated by native artists. Many were exported complete; of old fans called Spanish a great number were in fact made in France. Louis XIV. issued edicts at various times to regulate the manufacture. Besides fans mounted with parchment, Dutch fans of ivory were imported into Paris, and decorated by the heraldic painters in the process called "Vernis

cathedral, and many other churches, exist still.

purposes they
For these
though they
are no longer used in the Western church,
are retained in some Oriental rites. The large

Queen and to the late baroness de Rothschild were ex-
hibited in 1870 at Kensington. A fan of the date of 1660,
representing sacred subjects, is attributed to Philippe de

feather fans, however, are still carried in the state processions Champagne, another to Peter Oliver in England in the

17th century. Cano de Arevalo, a Spanish painter of the 17th century devoted himself to fan painting. Some harsh expressions of Queen Christina to the young ladies of the French court are said to have caused an increased ostentation in the splendour of their fans, which were set with jewels and mounted in gold. Rosalba Carriera was the name of a fan painter of celebrity in the 17th century. Lebrun and Romanelli were much employed during the same period. Klingstet, a Dutch artist, enjoyed a considerable reputation for his fans from the latter part of the 17th and the first thirty years of the 18th century.

The revocation of the edict of Nantes drove many fanmakers out of France to Holland and England. The trade in England was well established under the Stuart sovereigns. Petitions were addressed by the fan-makers to Charles II. against the importation of fans from India, and a duty was levied upon such fans in consequence. This importation of Indian fans, according to Savary, extended also to France. During the reign of Louis XV. carved Indian and China fans displaced to some extent those formerly imported from Italy, which had been painted on swanskin parchment prepared with various perfumes.

During the 18th century all the luxurious ornamentation of the day was bestowed on fans as far as they could display it. The sticks were made of mother-of-pearl or ivory, carved with extraordinary skill in France, Italy, England, and other countries. They were painted from designs of Boucher, Watteau, Lancret, and other "genre " painters, Hébert, Rau, Chevalier, Jean Boquet, Mad. Verité, are known as fan painters. These fashions were followed in most countries of Europe, with certain national differences. Taffeta and silk, as well as fine parchment, were used for the mounts. Little circles of glass were let into the stick to be looked through, and small telescopic glasses were sometimes contrived at the pivot of the stick. They were occasionally mounted with the finest point lace. An interesting fan (belonging to Madame de Thiac in France), the work of Le Flamand, was presented by the municipality of Dieppe to Marie Antoinette on the birth of her son the dauphin. From the time of the Revolution the old luxury expended on fans died out. Fine examples ceased to be exported to England and other countries. The painting on them represented scenes or personages connected with political events. At a later period fan mounts were often prints coloured by hand. The events of the day mark the date of many examples found in modern collections. Amongst the fanmakers of the present time the names of Alexandre, Duvelleroy, Fayet, Vanier, may be mentioned as well known in Paris. The sticks are chiefly made in the department of Oise, at Le Déluge, Crèvecœur, Méry, Ste Geneviève, and other villages, where whole families are engaged in preparing them; ivory sticks are carved at Dieppe. Water-colour painters of distinction often design and paint the mounts, the best designs being figure subjects. A great impulse has been given to the manufacture and painting of fans in England since the exhibition which took place at South Kensington in 1870. Other exhibitions have since been held, and competitive prizes offered, one of which was gained by the Princess Louise. Modern collections of fans take their date from the emigration of many noble families from France at the time of the Revolution. Such objects were given as souvenirs, and occasionally sold by families in straitened circumstances. A large number of fans of all sorts, principally those of the 18th century, French, English, German, Italian, Spanish, &c., have been lately bequeathed to the South Kensington Museum.

Regarding the different parts of folding fans it may be well to state that the sticks are called in French brins, the two outer guards panaches, and the mount feuille. (J. H. P.)

FANO, a city of Italy in the province of Urbino-ePasaro, is situated in a rich and fertile plain on the shores of the Adriatic, at the mouth of the Metauro, 7 miles S.E. of Pesaro. The town is clean and well built, and is inclosed by old walls, with a lofty bastioned front towards the sea. Its cathedral is an unimposing structure, but some of the churches are fine buildings, richly adorned with marbles and frescoes, and containing several masterpieces of the great Italian painters. In the church of S. Francesco are the splendid tombs of the Malatestas. Fano has a Jesuit college, several monastic edifices, a gymnasium, a public library, and a large and finely adorned theatre. The harbour is so choked up with sand as to be accessible only to vessels of the smallest size. Some silk manufactures and a small trade in corn and oil are carried on, and the town is much resorted to for sea-bathing. The population in 1871 was 6439.

Fano occupies the site of the ancient Fanum Fortuna, so named from the temple of Fortune there. It afterwards took the name of Colonia Julia Fanestris, from a colony of veterans established by Augustus; and a triumphal arch of white marble erected in honour of that emperor still forms one of the gates of the city. Though the town was within the duchy of Urbino it did not belong to the dukes, but was successively held by the Malatesta and the Sforza families, till in 1458 Pius II. incorporated it with the States of the Church. Fano is the birthplace of Clement VIII. It was there that the first printing press with movable Arabic types was established, in 1514, at the expense of Pope Julius II.

FANSHAWE, SIR RICHARD (1608-1666), poet and statesman, was the youngest son and tenth child of Sir Henry Fanshawe, remembrancer of the exchequer under James I. He was born early in June 1608, at Wareham Park, Hertfordshire. At the age of seven he lost his father, and was soon placed by his mother under the care of the famous schoolmaster, Thomas Farnabie. In November 1623 he was admitted fellow commoner of Jesus College, Cambridge, under Dr Beale. In January 1626 he entered the Middle Temple, but his mother dying soon after, and the study of the law being distasteful to him, he travelled in France and Spain, learning the languages of those countries, and observing the customs of the people. On his return, in 1635, he was appointed secretary to the English embassy at Madrid under Lord Aston, and was resident there until Sir Arthur Hopton's appointment in 1638. As soon as the civil war broke out he very prominently joined the Royalist party, being at this time on terms of somewhat affectionate intimacy with Charles I. In 1644, being with the court at Oxford, he had the degree of D.C.L. conferred upon him, and the same year he was appointed secretary at war to the prince of Wales, with whom he set out for the western counties, Scilly, and then Jersey. It was during this stormy period that Fanshawe first appeared as a poet: in 1647 he published his translation of the Pastor Fido of Guarini, the remaining copies of which he re-issued in 1648 with the addition of a number of other poems, original and translated. his attention was again directed to public affairs by his appointment as treasurer to the navy under Prince Rupert, which he held till the latter was forced, in 1650, to escape to the West Indies. Fanshawe then proceeded to Paris, where he was created baronet, and sent to Madrid as envoy extraordinary. He was, however, immediately afterwards sent for to Scotland, but was captured on the way at the battle of Worcester in 1651. He was sent to London, and kept in such close confinement that his health broke down; but Cromwell, finding that he was really dangerously ill, allowed him to choose a place of residence, with the proviso that he was not to stir from it more than 5 miles. It was during his captivity that he published, in 1652, his Selected Parts of Horace, Prince of Lyricks, a very graceful work, in which he keeps as close as possible to the metrical form of the Odes. He chose to retire to Tankerley Park, in

In 1648


and afterwards wrote them out in a fuller form.
the encouragement of Mr Dance, he wrote to Sir H. Dav
enclosing these notes. "The reply was immediate, kin
and favourable." He continued to work as a journeyma
bookbinder till 1st March 1813, when, at the recommend
tion of Sir H. Davy, he was appointed assistant in the lab
ratory of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. He w
appointed director of the laboratory 7th February 182
and in 1833 he was appointed Fullerian professor
chemistry in the Institution for life, without the obligati
to deliver lectures. He thus remained in the Instituti
for 54 years. He accompanied Sir H. Davy in a to
through France, Italy, Switzerland, Tyrol, Geneva, &
from October 13, 1813, to April 23, 1815.

Yorkshire, the seat of Lord Strafford, and gave himself up
entirely to literature. In 1654 he completed translations
of two of the comedies of the Spanish poet Antonio de
Mendoza, which were published after his death, in 1671,
under the title of Querer per solo querer: to Love only for
Love's Sake, and Fiestas de Aranjuez. But the great labour
of his retirement was the translation of the national epic of
the Portuguese poet Camoens. This version of the Lusiad
was printed in folio in 1655, with very fine engravings. It
is in ottava rima, and there is prefixed to it a translation of
the long Latin poem entitled Furor Petroniensis, which
forms an episode in the Satyricon. Moreover, in 1658
Fanshawe published a Latin version of the Faithful
Shepherdess of Fletcher, and a letter dedicating the
unprinted translations of Mendoza's plays to the queen of
Sweden. In February 1659 he broke through his bail,
and joined Charles II. at Breda; he was enthusiastically
received and loaded with promises. But when the Restora-
tion was complete he did not, to his great disappointment,
find himself made secretary of state. In 1661 he repre-
sented the university of Cambridge in parliament, and was
presently sent out to Portugal as envoy extraordinary; he
was shortly after appointed ambassador to the same court,
and negotiated the marriage between Charles II. and the
Infanta. At the end of the year he returned to England,
only to be sent out as ambassador to Lisbon again in 1662.
In 1663 he was recalled to be sworn one of his majesty's
privy council. In the beginning of 1644 he was sent as
ambassador to Philip IV. of Spain, and arrived at Cadiz in
February of that year, to receive such an ovation as
no English envoy had ever before enjoyed. During
the whole of 1665 he was engaged in very delicate
diplomatic relations between England, Portugal, and
Spain; and in January 1666 he travelled to Lisbon in the
endeavour to bring about a peace between the last-men-
tioned powers. But he had scarcely returned to Madrid
when he was somewhat peremptorily recalled to England.
It is not known whether this affected his health, but at all
events he fell ill at Madrid, and died there, after a short
illness, on the 26th of June 1666. His widow, Lady
Fanshawe, drew up a charming memoir of her husband,
which was first printed in 1829. To this circumstance and
to his public position we owe the fact that of no poet of
do we possess more copious materials for biography
than of Fanshawe. He was a very tall courtly man, with
short curling brown hair, and fine eyes. As an original
poet we have very little means of judging his merit: a fine
upon occasion of his Majesty's Proclamation in 1630,"
and some rough, but richly-coloured sonnets, are the best of
his own verses which have come down to us. But as a
translator he is one of the illustrious figures in our litera-
ture, whether Italian, Latin, Portuguese, or Spanish
His Pastor Fido and his
Inusiad have never been surpassed by later scholars. As a
verse-writer his chief fault is ruggedness; his active life
gave him but scant opportunity for revision. His letters
his works has ever been issued.
were edited in 1724 and since, but no collected edition of



attracts his versatile muse.

Faraday's earliest chemical work was in the pat opened by Davy, to whom he acted as assistant. He mad a special study of chlorine, and discovered two new chl rides of carbon. He also made the first rough experimen on the diffusion of gases, a phenomenon first pointed of by Dalton, the physical importance of which has bee more fully brought to light by Graham and Loschmid He succeeded in liquefying several gases; he investigate the alloys of steel, and produced several new kinds of gla intended for optical purposes. A specimen of one of the heavy glasses afterwards became historically important as th substance in which Faraday detected the rotation of th plane of polarization of light when the glass was placed the magnetic field, and also as the substance which was fir repelled by the poles of the magnet. He also endeavoure with some success to make the general methods chemistry, as distinguished from its results, the subject special study and of popular exposition. See his work o Chemical Manipulation.

But Faraday's chemical work, however important i itself, was soon completely overshadowed by his electric discoveries. The first experiment which he has recorde was the construction of a voltaic pile with seven halfpenc seven disks of sheet zinc, and six pieces of paper moistene with salt water. With this pile he decomposed su phate of magnesia (first letter to Abbott, July 12, 1812 Henceforward, whatever other subjects might from tim to time claim his attention, it was from among electric phenomena that he selected those problems to which applied the full force of his mind, and which he kept pe sistently in view, even when year after year his attempts t solve them had been baffled.

His first notable discovery was the production of the co tinuous rotation of magnets and of wires conducting th electric current round each other. The consequences d ducible from the great discovery of Örsted (21st July 1820 were still in 1821 apprehended in a somewhat confuse manner even by the foremost men of science. Dr Wollasto indeed had formed the expectation that he could make th

conducting wire rotate on its own axis, and in April 182 he came with Sir H. Davy to the laboratory of the Roys Institution to make an experiment. Faraday was not ther at the time, but coming in afterwards he heard the conversa tion on the expected rotation of the wire.

In July, August, and September of that year Faraday, a the request of Mr Phillips, the editor of the Annals of Philo sophy, wrote for that journal an historical sketch of electro magnetism, and he repeated almost all the experiments h This led him in the beginning of September t

FARADAY, MICHAEL, chemist, electrician, and philosopher, 1791, and died at Hampton Court, 25th August 1867, his father worked as a blacksmith. Faraday himself became described. His parents had migrated from Yorkshire to London, where apprenticed to Mr Riebau, a bookbinder. written to his friend Benjamin Abbott at this time give a lucid account of his aims in life, and of his methods of wire. He did not succeed in making the wire or the self culture, when his mind was beginning to turn to the magnet revolve on its own axis. This first success of experimental study of nature. In 1812 Mr Dance, a customer of his master, took him to hear four lectures by

The letters

discover the method of producing the continuous rotation o the wire round the magnet, and of the magnet round the

Faraday in electromagnetic research became the occa sion of the most painful, though unfounded, imputations

Sir Humphry Davy. Faraday took notes of these lectures, against his honour. Into these we shall not enter, re

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