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Sylvia or Shan-chas-shan, 11,300 feet high, and a summit | paper of the Chinese is not uncommon, and Mr Pickering in the Middle, Western, or Dodds range, 12,800 feet. Be found the cassia tree in the mountains. Travellers are this as it may, Formosa, as far as its vertical relief is con- especially struck with the beauty of some of the wild cerned, is divided into three regions, the mountains flowers, more especially with the lilies and convolvuluses; proper, the broad western versant with its alluvial plains, and our European greenhouses have been enriched by and the narrow eastern versant terminating in a high and several Formosan orchids and other ornamental plants. precipitous coast. The formation of the island appears to The pine apple grows in abundance. In the lowlands of have been due in part at least to volcanic agency; the the western portion, the Chinese have introduced a large Chinese accounts mention a mountain called Ho-shan or number of cultivated plants and fruit trees. Rice is grown Fire Mountain, said to be a small volcano about 20 in such quantities as to procure for Formosa the title of miles south of Kagee; and European explorers have the " granary of China"; and the sweet potato, taro, described the jets of steam and sulphur-springs which millet, barley, wheat, and maize are also cultivated. occur among the calcareous rocks near Tain-sui. Coal, Sugar, tea, indigo, ground pea-nuts, jute, hemp, oil, and sulphur, and petroleum are the only mineral productions ratans are all articles of export, and some of them proof Formosa which are known to exist in quantities suffi- duce no inconsiderable trade. The principal tea district cient to make them of economical importance. is about Banka, but the area devoted to this valuable crop principal coal-fields are in the north of the island, near is rapidly increasing. A large part of the tea finds its Kelung and Tam-sui; and the coal is all shipped in Kelung way to America. In some parts of the island it is harbour. Till 1877 mining operations were conducted probable that coffee may be grown with advantage. after the simple Chinese fashion; but in that year Mr The Formosan fauna has been but partially ascertained; Tyzack, an English engineer, engaged by the Chinese but at least three kinds of deer, wild boars, bears, goats, Government, opened a pit with a regular shaft 300 feet monkeys (probably Macacus speciosus), squirrels, and flying deep, and all the necessary machinery and engines for the squirrels are fairly common, and panthers and wild cats proper working of the mine. The bed of coal is 3 feet are not unfrequent. A poisonous but beautiful green snake thick. The mineral is highly bituminous, and burns very is often mentioned by travellers. Pheasants, ducks, geese, fast, but can be used for steamers ou short voyages. It and snipe are abundant; and Dr Collingwood in his Natuis regularly employed by many foreign vessels, as well as ralist's Rambles in the China Seas mentions Ardea prasinoin the Chinese men-of-war, and in the arsenal at Fuh-chow. sceles and other species of herons, several species of flyIn 1873, 45,000 tons were shipped in foreign ships; in catchers, kingfishers, shrikes, and larks, the black drongo, 1874, 15,221 tons; in 1875, 27,665 tons; and in 1876, the Cotyle sinensis, and the Prinia sonitans. Dogs are kept 31,593 tons. In the plains the soil is generally of sand or even by the savages for hunting. The horse is hardly alluvial clay, covered in the valleys with a rich vegetable known, and his place is taken by the ox, which is regumould. As might be inferred from what has been already larly bridled and saddled and ridden with all dignity. said, the streams that flow eastward are little better than The rivers and neighbouring seas seem to be well stocked torrents; but the western region is traversed by several with fish, and especial mention must be made of the rivers of moderate development-the Taiwanfu and Pakan turtles, flying-fish, and brilliant coral-fish which swarm in rivers, the Black river, the Lokan, the Taika, the Heon-lang, the waters warmed by the Kurosiwo current, that gulfthe Tion-kan, the Tonk-shan, and the Tam-sui. Of these the stream of the Pacific. Shell-fish form an important article Black river is the widest, but the Tam-sui or Tang-shui-khi of diet to both the Chinese and the aborigines along the alone is navigable, allowing sea vessels to proceed about 3 coast a species of Cyrena, a species of Tapes, Cytherea miles inland, and junks of considerable size about 10 miles petechiana, and Modiola teres being most abundant. farther. There is a fine lake 4 miles long by 2 broad called the Tsui-sia-hai, or Lake of the Water Savages, not far from Posia. The scenery of Formosa is frequently of majestic beauty; and to this it is indebted for its European name, happily bestowed by the early Spanish navigators. As seen from the eastern coast "the outline of the mountains is at once beautiful and fantastic; domes and peaks and walllike precipices succeed each other in striking variety; a brilliant verdure clothes their sides, down which dash cascades that shine like silver in the tropical sunlight" (Bridge in Fortnightly Review, 1876). The climate, though a tropical one, is agreeable and healthy, being tempered by the influences both of the sea and the mountains. According to thermometric observations made at Kelung in 1874, the hottest months are June, July, August, and September, with an average of from 8176° to 82.81° F. in the shade, and the coldest month is January, with an average of 57-70°. The thermometer almost reached 90° in the early part of July, and in January was frequently about 52° or 55°. For the same year the rainfall amounted to 118 inches, of which the most fell in January, February, March, and May. The vegetation of the island is characterized by tropical luxuriance, the mountainous regions being clad with dense forest, in which various species of palms, the camphor-tree (Laurus Camphora), and the aloe are conspicuous. Mr Swinhoe obtained no fewer than 65 different kinds of timber from a large yard in Taiwanfu; and his specimens are now to be seen in the museum at Kew. The tree which supplies the materials for the pith

The inhabitants of Formosa may be divided into three classes: the Chinese, many of whom have immigrated from the neighbourhood of Amoy and speak the dialect of that district, while others are Hakkas from the vicinity of Swatow; the subjugated aborigines, now largely intermingled with the Chinese; and the uncivilized aborigines of the eastern region, who refuse to recognize the Chinese authority, and carry on raids as opportunity occurs. The semi-civilized aborigines, who have adopted the Chinese language, dress, and customs, are called Fe-pahwan (Anglice Peppo-hoans), while their wilder brethren bear the name of Che-hwan or green savages. They appear to belong to the Malay stock, and their language, according to Gabelentz's investigations in the Zeitschrift der Morgenländ. Gesellschaft, 1859, bears out the supposition.1 They are broken up into almost countless tribes and clans, many of which number only a few hundred individuals, and their language consequently presents a variety of dialects, of which no classification has yet been effected : in the district of Posia alone, says Dr Dickson, of the Presbyterian mission, there are "eight different mutually unintelligible dialects." Mr Corner of Amoy describes the people themselves as of "middle height, broad-chested, and muscular, with remarkably large hands and feet, the eyes large, the forehead round, and not narrow or receding in many instances, the nose broad, the mouth large and dis

1 Compare lists in Journ. of Roy. Geog. Soc., 1873, and in Collingwood's Appendix.

figured with betel." The custom of tattooing is universal. In the north of the island at least, the dead are buried in a sitting posture under the bed on which they have expired. Petty wars are extremely common, not only along the Chinese frontiers, but between the neighbouring clans; and the heads of the slain are carefully preserved as trophies. In some districts the young men and boys sleep in the skull-chambers, in order that they may be inspired with courage. Many of the tribes that have had least intercourse with the Chinese show a considerable amount of skill in the arts of civilization. The houses, for instance, of the village of Ka-fri-ang in the south are described by Rev. W. Campbell as "built of stone, tiled with immense slabs of a slaty kind of rock, and fitted up within with accommodation for sleeping comfortably as well as for cooking, and for storing up abundance of materials for personal and household use." "Manchester prints and other European goods are in pretty general use; and the women, who make a fine native cloth from hemp, introduce coloured threads from the foreign stuffs, so as to produce ornamental devices. The office of chieftain is sometimes held by women. Intermarriage between the Chinese and the natives is very common.

The Chinese portion of the island was till 1876 divided into the districts of Komalan, Tam-sui, Chang-hua, Kia-i, Tai-wan, Feng-shan, of which Komalan or Kapsiulangting was the only one on the eastern side; but the districts of Komalan and Tam-sui have been abolished, and a department of North Formosa established with three dependent magistracies. A highway runs from Bangka in the north to Pangliavu in the south. Beginning at the north we find the following places of importance :-Kelung, the ancient Pe-Kiang, a treaty port in the neighbourhood of the mines; Tam-sui, or properly Howei or Hobay, also a treaty port with 100,000 inhabitants, on the harbour of the same name, which is formed by hills upwards of 2000 feet high and has a depth of 3 fathoms and a bar of 7 feet; Twa-tu-tia, about 13 miles up the Tam-sui river in a tea district, and possessing a population of 20,000; Mengka, Bangka, or Banca, a little higher up the river, one of the most flourishing commercial towns in the north, with 30,000 inhabitants; Teukcham or Teuxham, a walled town at the head of the Tam-sui district, with a population of 40,000 inhabitants; Heong-san and Tiong-Kang, both near the coast; Oulan and Suikang, both inland; Changhwa the capital of a district, and the second city in the island, with a population of 60,000 or 80,000; Chip-Chip, a large town inhabited solely by Chinese; Kagee, or Chin-la-san, and Ung-Kan-bay; Kok-si-Kong, with a small harbour; Taiwanfu, the capital of the island, with 30,000 inhabitants (or, according to another statement, 100,000), a treaty port, and the remains of the Dutch port of Zelandia; Takao or Takow, also a treaty port, in 22° 37' N. lat., 120° 16′ E. long., to the south of Ape's Hill; Pataou or Pitau, a few miles inland, the Feng-shan-hsien of ancient documents; and Tang-Kang, a town of 20,000 inhabitants. Besides these there are many places of several thousands of a population, and the whole of the Chinese territory is dotted with villages and hamlets. The whole island is estimated to contain from one and a half to two million souls, the smaller number being probably nearer the truth. The Chinese influence is rapidly spreading, and the island is more and more attracting the attention of foreigners.


The island of Formosa must have been known from a very early date to the Chinese who were established in the Pescadores. The inhabitants are mentioned in the official works of the Yuan dynasty Tung-fan or southern barbarians; and under the Ming dynasty the island begins to appear as Kilung. In the beginning of the 16th century it began to be known to the Portuguese and Spanish navigators, and the latter at least made some attempts at establishing settlements or missions. The Dutch were the first, however, to

take footing in the island; in 1624 they built a fort, Zelandia, on the east coast, where has since risen the town of Taiwan, and the settlement was maintained for thirty-seven years. On the expulsion of the Ming dynasty in China a number of their defeated adherents came over to Formosa, and, under a leader called in European accounts Coxinga, succeeded in expelling the Dutch and taking possession of a good part of the island. In 1682 the Chinese of Formosa rethe empire. In 1714 the Jesuit mathematicians from the court cognized the emperor Kanghi, and since then it has formed part of visited the island. In 1782 occurred a most destructive storm, which laid the public buildings in ruins and wrecked twenty-seven of the imperial war-ships; and in 1788 there broke out a violent rebellion, which was put down only after the loss, it is said, of 100,000 (?) men by disease and sword, and the expenditure of 2,000,000 taels of silver. In the early part of the present century the island was principally known to Europeans on account of the wrecks which took place on its coasts, and the dangers that the crews had to run from the cannibal propensities of the aborigines, and the almost equally cruel tendencies of the Chinese. Among the most notable cases was the loss in 1842 of the British brig Ann," with fiftyseven persons on board, of whom forty-three were executed at Taiwan. By the treaty of Tientsin (1860) Taiwan was opened to European commerce, but Mr Swinhoe found the place quite unsuitable for a port of trade, and the harbour of Tam-sui was selected instead. Shortly afterwards a rebellion broke out, to which several of the Chinese authorities fell victims; and for some time the condition of the foreign settlers was rather precarious, while the trade of the new port was so small that it was English Presbyterian Church established a medical mission first at proposed to relinquish the consulate. In 1865 Dr Maxwell of the Taiwan and afterwards at Takao; and the organization thus originated comprised in 1877 thirteen churches among the Chinese, and upwards of 1000 baptized converts and 3000 attendants at worship. as many among the aborigines of the southern provinces, with The northern provinces are in the hands of the Presbyterian Church of Canada, which commenced its operations in 1872, and had nine stations in 1877. stations in 1877. A Roman Catholic mission has also been in existence in the island since 1859. In 1867 the United States consul at Amoy made a treaty with Tok-a-Tok, a chief of the aborigines of the southern part of the island, by which the safety of foreigners was secured in that district. An attack made on the Protestant and Roman Catholic missions at Feng-shan-hsien in 1868 led the British consul to authorize the occupation of Fort Zelandia approved by the home Government, and the indemnity demanded and Amping by Colonel Gordon; but his action was afterwards disfrom the Chinese restored. In 1872 the crew of a Japanese vessel shipwrecked on the coast being murdered by the savages, the Japanese Government sent an expedition to punish the assassins, and a war between China and Japan would have been the consequence if Wade the English ambassador had not succeeded in bringing them to terms,-China agreeing to pay 500,000 taels as compensation to the friends of the murdered men and to purchase the houses, &c., erected by the Japanese, and the Japanese on their side withdrawing their troops and giving up all claims to occupation. According to Mr Hewlett's report for 1872, the political state of the island is very bad; the official classes, he says, have a proverb 'every three years an outbreak, every five a rebellion," and the reason of this is to be found in their own and



raring violations of justice. A more hopeful account is given by Mr Morrison in 1877; under the enlightened government of Ting, formerly futai of Fuhchow, roads are being constructed throughout the Chinese territory, and other measures adopted for the development of its resources. A telegraph has been laid between Taiwanfu and Takao; and the proposal to make a railway from the south to the north of the island is being seriously discussed. A fort was built at Anping (the port of Taiwanfu) between 1874 and 1876, and two others at Takow. A scheme is in operation for the military reduction of the east coast districts, and a road is being pushed south from Sauo.

Literature.-G. Candidius, A short account of the island of Formosa, 1637, printed in Churchill's Collection, vol. i.; 't Verwaarloozde Formosa, by C. E. S., Amsterdam, 1675, translated into French as "Formose négligée" in the Recueil de voyages pour l'établ, de la Comp. des Indes, t. x.; Valentyn, Oud en Nieuw Oost Indien, t. iv., with a large map of the island; Malte-Brun, "Analyse de quelques mémoires hollandais sur l'ile de Formose," in Annales des Voyages, 1810; Klaproth, "Description de Formose," in Mém. relatifs à l'Asie, t. L, and "Sur la langue des indigènes," in Journal Asiatique, 1822; Lindsay and Gutzlaff, Voyage to the Northern Ports of China, 1883; E. Stevens, "Island of Formosa," in Chinese Repository, vol. ii., 1888; E. C. B., "Dealings of the Chinese Government in Formosa," ," in Chinese Repository, 1837; Lieut. Gordon, "On Coal in the N.E. of Formosa," in Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc., 1849; Robert Swinhoe, "Bericht über die Westküste von Formosa." in Ztschr. für Allgem. Erdk. zu Berlin, 1857, translated from Overland Chinese Mail; "Visit to Formosa," in Jour. of North China branch of Roy. As. Soc., 1859; "Notes on Formosa," in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc., 1864; Additional Notes," in Proceed, Roy. Geog. Soc., 1866; Habersham, My last Cruise, 1857; Biernatzki, Zur Kunde der Insel Formosa," in Ztschr. für Allgem. Erdk., 1857, and "Die Insel Formosa," in Ztschr. für Allgem. Erdk., 1859; Jomard, Coup d'œil sur l'ile Formose, Paris, 1859; E. W. Brooker, "Observations on Tai-wan," In Nautical Mag., 1858, and "Journal of H.M.S. the Inflexible," in Nautical Mag, 1859; A. C. Grus, Renseignements sur les îles Bashee, îles les Formose, &c., 1860; G. Stanley, "Les Côtes O et S. der Formose," in Annales hydrogr., 1867; Formose" in Annales de la prop. de la foi, 1867; Vivien de Saint Martin, "Aperçu IX. 53



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général de l'île de Formose," in Bull. de la Soc. de Géogr., 1868; Guérin and Bernard, "Les aborigènes de l'ile de Formose, Bull. de la Soc. de Géogr, 1868; E. W. Brooker, "Remarks on the Coast of Formosa," in Nautical Magazine, 1868; Bechtinger, Het eiland Formosa, 1871; Thomson, "Notes of a journey in Southern Formosa" in Proceedings of Roy. Geogr. Soc., 1873; Taintor, Aborigines

of Formosa, 1874; Bax, Eastern Seas, 1875; Arthur Corner, Journey in interior

of Formosa" in Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc., 1875; Knoblauch, "Einige Notizen über

Formosa," in Mitth. d. Deutsch. Ges. für Natur- und Völkerkunde Ost Asiens, Yoko

hama, 1875; Kühne, in Annalen der Hydrogr. und mar. Meteor., 1875; Cyprian Bridge, "An Excursion in Formosa," in the Fortnightly Review, 1876; H. J. Allen, "Notes of a journey through Formosa," in Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., 1877; T. L. Bullock, "A trip into the interior of Formosa," in Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., 1877; James Morrison, "Description of the Island of Formosa," in Geographical Magazine, 1877; W. A. Pickering, "Among the Savages of Central Formosa, 1866-1867," in Messenger of Presbyt. Church of England. 1878; and British Consular

Reports. A map of the island is given by E. G. Ravenstein in the Geographical Magazine, Oct. 1874.

FORMOSUS, the successor of Stephen V. (or VI.), as pope, first appears in history when, as bishop of Porto, he was sent on an embassy to the Bulgarians. Having afterwards sided with the German faction against John VIII. he was excommunicated, and compelled to take an oath never to return to Rome, or again to assume his priestly functions. From this oath he was, however, absolved by Martin II., the successor of John VIII., and restored to his dignities; and on the death of Stephen V. in 891 he was chosen pope. The Italian faction had chosen Sergius, and the election of Formosus, which was in opposition to an old rule against the translation of bishops from one see to another, had to be confirmed by recourse to violence, but was rendered secure for a time by the success of the arms of Arnulf of Germany. After the withdrawal of Arnulf, Formosus was compelled to grant the imperial crown to Lambert, son of Guido of Italy, but this act did not pacify the Italian faction, and Formosus was only released from very hard straits by the arrival of Arnulf, who captured the city in the end of 895. In the following year Arnulf was crowned emperor by Formosus, but before the death of the latter in May, the excesses of Arnulf and his soldiers had begun to create a strong opposition to the German power amongst all parties in Italy. By Stephen VI. the body of Formosus was disinterred, and treated with contumely as that of a usurper of the papal throne; but Theodorus II. restored it to Christian burial, and at a council presided over by John IX. the pontificate of Formosus was declared valid and all his acts confirmed.

FORRES. See ELGIN, vol. viii. p. 130. FORSKAL, PETER (1736-1763), a celebrated Oriental traveller and naturalist, was born in Sweden in 1736. He studied at Göttingen, where he published a dissertation entitled Dubia de Principiis Philosophie Recentioris, which gained him some reputation. Thence he returned to his native country; but in 1759 he alienated the good-will of the Government by the publication of a pamphlet entitled Pensées sur la Liberté Civile. His acquaintance with natural history, however, had gained him the friendship of Linnæus, who recommended him to Frederick V. of Denmark. From that sovereign he obtained the title of professor at Copenhagen, and Frederick also appointed him to accompany Carsten Niebuhr in an expedition to investigate Arabia and Egypt. He died of the plague at Jerim in Arabia, July 11, 1763. His friend and companion Niebuhr was entrusted with the care of editing his MSS., and published in 1775 Descriptiones Animalium, Avium, Amphibiorum, Piscium, Insectorum, Vermium, quæ in itin. Orient. observavit Petrus Forskal. In the same year appeared also an account of the plants of Arabia Felix and of Lower Egypt, under the title of Egyptiaco-Arabica, which is important as containing the first discussion of the relation of vegetation to climate.

FORST, originally FORSTA or FORSTE, a town of Brandenburg, Prussia, circle of Sorau, is situated on the Neisse, 44 miles S.E. of Frankfort-on-the-Oder. Its principal industries are tanning and the manufacture of woollen cloth; and it has also a considerable cattle trade. Near the town are the ruins of an old castle. Forst was

founded in the 13th

century, and was burned down by the Hussites in 1430. From 1667 it belonged to the dukes of Sachsen-Merseburg, from 1740 to the palatinate of Saxony, and from 1815 to Prussia. Population in 1875 (including Altforst, united to it in 1874), 14,148.

FORSTER, FRANÇOIS (1790-1872), a French engraver, was born at Locle in Neufchâtel, 22d August 1790. In 1805 he was apprenticed to an engraver in Paris, and he also studied painting and engraving simultaneously in the École des Beaux Arts. His preference was ultimately fixed on the latter art, and on his obtaining in 1814 the first "grand prix de gravure," the king of Prussia, who was then with the allies in Paris, bestowed on him a gold medal, and a pension of 1500 francs for two years. With the aid of this sum he pursued his studies in Rome, where his attention was devoted chiefly to the works of Raphael. In 1844 he succeeded Tardieu in the Academy. He died at Paris, 27th June 1872. Forster occupied the first position among the French engravers of his time, and was equally successful in historical pieces and in portraits.

Among his works may be mentioned-The Three Graces, and La Vierge de la légende, after Raphael; La Vierge au bas-relief, after Leonardo da Vinci; Francis I. and Charles V., after Gros; St Cecilia, after Paul Delaroche; Albert Dürer and Henry IV., after Porbus; Wellington, after Gérard; and Queen Victoria, after Winterhalter.

FÖRSTER, FRIEDRICH (1791-1868), a German historian, brother of Ernst Joachim Förster the painter, was born at Münchengrosserstädt on the Saale, September 24, 1791. After receiving his early education in the gymnasium at Altenburg, he studied theology at Jena, but subsequently devoted his attention for a time chiefly to archæology and the history of art. On the uprising of Prussia against France in 1813 he joined the army, where he soon attained the rank of captain. At the close of the war he was appointed professor at the school of engineering and artillery in Berlin, but on account of certain democratic writings he was dismissed from that office in 1817. He then became connected with various literary journals, and in 1830 undertook with his brother an art tour in Italy. Shortly after his return he received an appointment at the royal museum of Berlin, with the title of court councillor. Förster was the founder and secretary of the Wissenschaftlichen Kunstverein (scientific art union) of Berlin. He died at Berlin, 8th November 1868.

The following are his principal works:-Der Feldmarschall Blücher und seine Umgebungen, Leipsic, 1821; Friedrich's d. Gr. Jugendjahre, Bildung, und Geist, Berlin, 1822; Albrecht von Wallenstein, Potsdam, 1834; Wallenstein's Process, Leipsic, 1844; Geschichte Friedrich Wilhelms I., Königs von Preussen, 3 vols., Potsdam, 1884Potsdam, 1836-39. He also wrote a number of popular historical 35; and Die Höfe und Cabinete Europas im 18ten Jahrh., 3 vols., works, the principal of which are Neuere und neueste preuss. Geschichte, and Geschichte der Befreiungskriege, 1813, 1814, and 1815, both of which have reached several editions; and besides editing an edition of Hegel's works, and adapting several of Shakespeare's and other dramatists' plays for the theatre, he is the author of a number of poems, which were collected and published at Berlin 1838, and of a historical drama, Gustav Adolf, 1832. The beginning of an autobiography of Förster was published at Berlin in 1873, under the title Kunst und Leben.

FORSTER, JOHANN GEORG ADAM (1754-1794), an eminent German naturalist and writer on scientific subjects, was born at Nassenhuben, a small village near Dantzic, in November 1754. His father, Johann Reinhold Forster, a man of great scientific attainments but an intractable temper, was at that time pastor of the place; the family are said to have been of Scotch extraction. In 1765 the elder Forster was commissioned by the empress Catherine to inspect the Russian colonies in the province of Saratov, which gave his son an opportunity of acquiring the Russian language and the elements of a scientific education. After a few years the father quarrelled with the Russian

Government, and suddenly embraced the resolution of pro- | ceeding to England, where he obtained a professorship of natural history and the modern languages at the famous nonconformist academy at Warrington. His violent temper soon compelled him to resign this appointment, and for two years he and his son earned a precarious livelihood by translations in London, a practical education, however, exceedingly useful to the younger Forster, who became a thorough master of English, and acquired many of the ideas which chiefly influenced his subsequent life. At length the turning point in his career came in the shape of an invitation for him and his father to accompany Captain Cook in his third voyage round the world. Such an expedition was admirably calculated to call forth Forster's peculiar powers. He attained no remarkable distinction as an original discoverer or investigator, but his insight into nature was accurate and penetrating; he conceived of her as a living whole, and reproduces her vitality in his animated pages. His account of Cook's voyage is almost the first example of the glowing yet faithful description of natural phenomena which has since made a knowledge of them the common property of the educated world,-a prelude to Humboldt, as Humboldt to Darwin and Wallace. The publication of this great work was, however, impeded for some time by differences with the Admiralty, during which Forster proceeded to the Continent to obtain an appointment for his father as professor at Cassel, and found to his surprise that it was conferred upon himself. The elder Forster, however, was soon provided for elsewhere, being appointed professor of natural history at Halle. At Cassel Forster formed an intimate friendship with the great anatomist Soemmerring, and about the same time made the acquaintance of Jacobi, who inspired him with a mystical spirit from which he subsequently emancipated himself. These were the days of secret societies, masonic lodges, and conventions of illuminati. Forster was for a long time deeply implicated in their proceedings, the purpose of which remains obscure. The want of books and scientific apparatus at Cassel induced him to resort frequently to Göttingen, where he betrothed himself to Therese Heyne, the daughter of the illustrious philologist, a clever and cultivated but heartless woman, who became the evil genius of his life. To be able to marry he accepted (1784) a professorship at the university of Wilna, where he found himself greatly misplaced. The penury and barbarism of Polish circumstances are graphically described in his and his wife's letters of this period. After a few years' residence at Wilna he resigned his appointment to participate in a scientific expedition projected by the Russian Government, and upon the relinquishment of this undertaking became librarian to the elector of Mayence. In 1790 he published his travels in the Netherlands, with special reference to the art of the country-a work displaying the same power of exposition in æsthetic matters as he had previously shown in the description of the aspects of nature. This was his last work. The principality of Mayence was now involved in the vortex of the French Revolution, and Forster unhappily suffered himself to be drawn into a position incompatible either with fidelity to his master the elector, or allegiance to his country. With his liberal sympathies and deficiency in political insight, he might be excused for welcoming the French as deliverers, but in promoting the actual incorporation of Mayence with France, he justly incurred the execration of patriotic Germans, notwithstanding the unquestionable purity of his intentions. Domestic sorrows were added to public calamities: Forster found himself not only deserted by his wife but deprived of his children. It is difficult It is difficult to determine whether his apparent resignation should be ascribed to romantic self-sacrifice or to the apathy of an exhausted spirit. The situation was nearly the same as that

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of George Sand's Jacques, and the catastrophe not very dissimilar. Forster died suddenly and opportunely, January 1794, in Paris, whither he had gone as deputy from Mayence in the worst days of the Reign of Terror. sonal character was most amiable; he was high-minded, disinterested, ingenuous to a fault; but he was weak, impulsive, ill-starred throughout his life, and totally unequal to the difficult circumstances in which he ultimately found himself. As an author he stands very high; he is almost the first and almost the best of that valuable class of writers who have made science and art familiar by representing them in their essential spirit, unencumbered with technical details. Schlegel remarks that no other German prose writer carries his reader so far, leaving him not merely enriched with positive knowledge but animated with the passion for further progress; that the books of no other such writer convey so lively an impression of having been composed outside the study in the free air; and that no other is animated by so constant a sense of the infinite perfectibility of human nature.

Forster's writings have been frequently collected. The most important have been mentioned above, but there are numerous minor essays of great value and artistic completeness. His correspondence with his friend Soemmerring has been recently published by Hettner, and is full of interest. The biography by Moleschott is very agreeably written, but is rather a delineation of a typical naturalist than of the actual man, and its account of Forster's political career is vitiated by the writer's own deficiency in patriotic feeling. The other side of the question is presented with unnecessary asperity in Klein's George Forster in Mayence. There are excellent critical estimates by Schlegel and Gervinus, the latter prefixed to the seventh volume of Forster's writings. (R. G.)

FORSTER, JOHN (1812-1876), an English historian, biographer, journalist, and critic, was born April 2, 1812, at Newcastle, where his father, a member of the Unitarian Church, followed the occupation of a butcher. He was well grounded in classics and mathematics at the grammarschool of his native town, and gave early promise of future distinction. After a brief residence at Cambridge he removed in 1828 to London, where he attended law classes in connexion with the recently founded university, but devoted himself chiefly to literary pursuits. The earlier productions of his pen were contributed to various liberal papers, particularly to The True Sun, The Morning Chronicle, and The Examiner. As literary and dramatic critic for the last-named journal, he from the outset showed much conscientiousness, discrimination, and tact, and the influence of his powerful individuality soon made itself strongly felt. He had not long passed his twentieth year when the publication of his Lives of Eminent British Statesmen began. This work, originally undertaken for Lardner's Cyclopædia, and published separately in 1840 under the title of The Statesmen of the Commonwealth of England, with a Treatise on the Popular Progress in English History, was immediately recognized as a work of great interest and value, entitling its author to high literary rank. Thenceforward he was a prominent figure in that distinguished circle of literary men which included such names such names as Bulwer, Talfourd, Fonblanque, Landor, Carlyle, Dickens. In 1843 he was called to the bar by the benchers of the Inner Temple; but while highly valuing this honourable connexion with the legal profession, he never became or sought to become a practising lawyer. His energies were mainly devoted to laborious historical investigations, while relaxation was sought chiefly in lighter forms of literary activity. For some years he edited the Foreign Quarterly Review; in 1846, on the retirement of Charles Dickens, he took charge for almost a year of the Daily News; in 1847, on the resignation of Albany Fonblanque, he became editor of the Examiner, and this post he retained till 1856. From 1836 onwards he contributed to the Edinburgh, Quarterly, and Foreign Quarterly

Reviews a variety of articles, some of which were republished | attainted of treason in the first parliament of Edward IV. in two volumes of Biographical and Historical Essays in When Henry subsequently fled into Scotland, he is sup 1858. In 1848 appeared his Life of Oliver Goldsmith, posed to have appointed Fortescue, who appears to have which, especially as revised and improved in a second accompanied him in his flight, chancellor of England. In edition (1854), has taken an acknowledged place as one of 1463 Fortescue accompanied Queen Margaret and her the most admirably executed biographies to be found in court in their exile on the Continent, and returned with the whole range of English literature. Continuing his them afterwards to England. During their wanderings original researches into English history at the period of abroad the chancellor wrote for the instruction of the the Revolution, he published in 1860 two volumes, respect- young Prince Edward his celebrated work De laudibus ively entitled Arrest of the Five Members by Charles I.— legum Angliæ. On the defeat of the Lancastrian party, A Chapter of English History rewritten, and The Debates on he made his submission to Edward IV., from whom he rethe Grand Remonstrance, with an Introductory Essay on ceived a general pardon dated Westminster, October 13, English Freedom. These were followed by his Biography 1471. He died at an advanced age, but the exact date of of Sir John Eliot, published in 1864, an elaborate and his death has not been ascertained. finished picture from one of his earlier studies for the Lives of the Statesmen. In 1868 appeared his biography of his friend Walter Savage Landor. For several he years had been collecting materials for a life of Swift, but his studies in this direction were for a time suspended in consequence of the death of Charles Dickens, with whom he had long been on terms of intimate friendship. The first volume of Forster's Life of Dickens appeared in 1871, and the work was completed in 1874. Towards the close of 1875 the first volume of his Life of Swift was published; and he had made some progress in the preparation of the second, when he was seized with an illness of which he died on the 1st of February 1876. He lies buried in Kensal-Green Cemetery, where a just and discriminative inscription tells that he was noted in private life for the robustness of his character and the warmth of his affections; for his ceaseless industry in literature and business, and the lavish services which, in the midst of his crowded life, he rendered to his friends; for his keen appreciation of every species of excellence, and the generosity of his judgments on books and men." In 1855 Forster had been appointed secretary to the Lunacy Commission, and for some years after 1861 he held the office of a commissioner in lunacy. In 1860 he received the honorary degree of LL.D. from the university of Edinburgh. His valuable collection of manuscripts, along with his books and pictures, was bequeathed to the South Kensington Museum.


FORT DE FRANCE, formerly PORT ROYAL, the capital of the French island of Martinique, one of the smaller Antilles, is situated on the west coast of the island, on the north side of a well-sheltered bay. It is the residence of the governor, and possesses a court of justice and u chamber of commerce. The harbour, which is commanded by a fort, is good and safe, and connected with it there is a floating dock and a repairing dock. The town possesses sugar works, and its chief exports are sugar, coffee, and rum. Its trade will be considerably increased by the railway to St Pierre. During the war with France Port Royal was for a time the headquarters of the British West Indian fleet. The population of the town is about 11,500. FORTESCUE, SIR JOHN, an eminent English lawyer in the reign of Henry VI., was descended from an ancient family in Devonshire, and, in all probability, was born at Norris, near South Brent in Somersetshire, towards the close of the 14th century. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford. During the reign of Henry VI. he was three times appointed one of the governors of Lincoln's Inn. In 1441 he was made a king's sergeant at law, and in the following year chief justice of the king's bench. As a judge Fortescue is highly commended for his wisdom, gravity, and uprightness; and he seems to have enjoyed great favour with the king, who is said to have given him some substantial proofs of esteem and regard. He held his office during the remainder of the reign of Henry VI., to whom he steadily adhered; and having faithfully served that unfortunate monarch in all his troubles, he was

Fortescue's masterly vindication of the laws of England, though received with great favour by the learned of the profession to whom it was communicated, did not appear in print until the reign of Henry VIII., when it was published by Whitechurch in 16mo, but without a date. In 1516 it was translated by Mulcaster, and printed by Tottel; and again in 1567, 1573, and 1575, and also by White in 1598, 1599, and 1609. It was likewise printed, with Hengham's Summa Magna et Parva, in 1616 and 1660, 12mo; and In 1737 it appeared again with Selden's notes in 1672, in 12mo. in folio; and, in 1775, an English translation, with the original Latin, and Selden's notes, besides a variety of remarks relative to the history, antiquities, and laws of England, was published in 8vo. Waterhouse's Fortescue Illustratus, which appeared in 1663, though prolix and defective in style, may be consulted with advantage. Another valuable and learned work by Fortescue, written in English, was published in 1714, under the title of The Difference between an Absolute and Limited Monarchy, as it more particularly regards the English Constitution, and accompanied with some remarks by John Fortescue Aland, of the Inner Temple, London; and a second edition with amendments appeared in 1719. In the Cotton Library there is a manuscript of this work, in the title of which it is said to have been addressed to Henry VI.; but many passages show Of Fortescue's plainly that it was written in favour of Edward IV. other writings, which were pretty numerous, the most important are-1. Opusculum de Natura Legis Naturæ, et de ejus censura in successione Regnorum Supremorum; 2. Defensio juris Domus Lancastria; 3. Genealogy of the House of Lancaster; 4. Of the Title of the House of York; 5. Genealogia Regum Scotia; 6. A Dialogue much of the Times we live in. between Understanding and Faith; 7. A Prayer Book which savours In 1869 his descendant, Lord Clermont, printed for private distribution The Works of Sir John Fortescue, now first collected and arranged, and A History of the Family of Fortescue in all its branches (see Lambeth Review, 1872).

FORTH, one of the largest rivers in Scotland. It is formed of two streams rising to the north of Ben Lomond, (one of them passing through Loch Chon and Loch Ard), which unite above Aberfoyle. The river flows eastward in a direct course for above 100 miles, receiving in its progress the Goodie, the Teith, and the Allan above Stirling, and below it the Devon, the Carron, the Avon, the Almond, the Leith, the Esk, the Leven, the Tyne, and others; and it discharges itself into the German Ocean in about 56° 10′ N. lat. The windings or "links" of the Forth above and below Stirling are extremely tortuous. From its junction with the Teith to the “ carse " or alluvial plain below Gartmore they extend about 28 miles, although the distance in a direct line is only about 20. From Stirling harbour to Alloa, where it widens into an estuary, the length of the river is 10 miles, though the distance in a straight line is not more than 5. Fron Grangemouth to North Queensferry the depth increases in the first mile from 10 to 15 feet, in the second to 25, and in the third mile to 53 feet, while the remaining part of the distance-7 miles, including the great anchorage of St Margaret's Hope-has a depth generally of about 60 feet at low water. At Queensferry the firth is 2 miles wide; between Dysart and Aberlady about 12; and between St Abb's Head and Fifeness, where it joins the Germau Ocean, it is from 35 to 40 miles. Near Queensferry, between Inchgarvie and the North shore, it deepens to 37 fathoms. The bed of the river consists to a great extent of mud, the depth of the deposit in some places being

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