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If one truth be taught more clearly than another by the Franco-German war, it is the advantage, nay, the absolute necessity, of fortifying, but of properly fortifying, the capital of a highly centralized country. When we consider France deploring the flower of her youth sacrificed, the destruction wrought in her capital, and the spoliation of two of her fairest provinces, and mulcted in a money payment of £200,000,000, with an addition of £170,000,000 more to her debt, can we avoid the conclusion that no sum spent upon fortifications would have been too large if it had preserved her from such calamities? All that Paris is to France, London is, and more, to the British empire.

The absence of an intermediate line of defence probably led | is rich and populous; London is richer and far more poputo the disaster of Sedan and the fatal investment of Paris, lous. Paris was a tempting prize to an invader; London is while on the other hand the fortresses on the northern more tempting and more accessible. The resources of frontier, out of date and ill adapted as they were to meet France in her soil and in her climate are great, and her the appliances of modern warfare, enabled Faidherbe's raw children are so thrifty that she is self-dependent; but it is levies to hold their ground as successfully as they did. far otherwise with Great Britain. She depends upon foreign countries for half the necessaries of life, and the commerce by which her supplies of food are gathered is mainly centred in her capital. France, as we see, has already recovered from the fall of ber capital; but the fall of England's might be without a rise, for it might be attended with a collapse of commerce from which there should be no recovery. Yet notwithstanding the pressure of unheard of ills, and with the regeneration of her army straining her resources heavily, France finds means to spend £4,000,000 upon the fortifications of Paris. With this example before her eyes shall Great Britain in the full tide of prosperity Paris do less for London? (J. E. P.—C. H, N.)


Abattis, 422.

Barbettes, 432.

Ammunition service of heavy Capitals, fortification of, 466.
guns, 453.
Ancient systems, 440.
Antwerp, new fortress at, de-
scribed (Plates V., VI.), 449;
account of siege of citadel in
1832 (Plate XI.), 458.
Armament of fortresses, 454.
Armour-piercing guns, power of,

Earthworks, 430.
Elementary fortification, 421.
Caponnières, 439.
Embrasures, 432.
Carnot, 442, 463.
Enfilade fire, 426.
Chasseloup, 463.
Entanglements, 423.
Chevaux-de-frise, 423.
Epaulements, 424.
Choumara, 464.
Errard of Bois-le-duc, 441.
Coast batteries, 451.
Escarp, 444, 445.
Coehorn, 441; his system, 462.Field fortification, 430.
Command, 422.
Field-works, general rules
Cordon, 446.
construction of, 433.
Armour plates (Plates VIII and Cormontaigne's system (Plate Fords, obstruction of, 436.
IX.), 451.
III.), 446.
Fortification defined, 421.
Counterscarp, 444.
Forts, 434.
Covered-way, 445.
Fraises, 423.

Army, intrenchment of, 431.
Artillery, penetration of, 428,
448, 450.
Assault, 456.

Crémaillère, lines en, 435, 437.
Crown work, 439.

Freitag, 461.

Crows' feet, 424.

Gabions as entanglement, 423.
Garcia, 466.

Attack of fortified places, 454.
Banquette defined, 421; dimen-
sions of, 428.

Cupolas (Plate X.), 453.

Gatling gun, 465.

Dantzic, detailed account of German system, 448, 465.
siege of, in 1807, 459.

Dead angle, 436.

Bastioned systems of the Neth- Deblai, 429, 435.

erlands, 461.

Bastioned trace, 448.

Bastions, origin of defence by,
440; a modification of tower-
forts, 443.
Berm, 428, 429.
Bousmard, 462.

Bridges, destruction of, 436.

Basteien, Dürer's, 443.

Bastioned lines, 435.

De Ville, 441.

Disappearing carriage, 451.
Ditch, dimensions of, 429, 444;
varieties of, 444.

Gorge, 437.

Defence of fortified places, 457. Grusen metal, 453.
Defilade, 425-428.

Dufour, 463.
Dürer, 443, 465.

Lines of defence, 444.
Lining for armour, 453.
Lunettes, 437.
Magazines, 438.
Mining, 443; details of, 464.
Modern system (Plate IV.), 446.
Moncrieff gun-carriage, 451.
Montalembert, Marquis de, 465.
Noizet, General, 447, 463.
for Outworks (Plate IV.), 448.
Pagan, Comte de, 441.
Palisades, 422.
Parados, 427.

Parapet defined, 421.

Guns, kinds and number of,
Haxo, 463.

Horn work, 439.
Intrenched camps, 446.
Intrenchments, earthen, 430.
Iron-walled forts, 452.

FORTROSE, a royal and parliamentary burgh of Scotland, county of Ross, is situated on the N. side of the Moray Firth, nearly opposite Fort-George, from which it is 2 miles distant, and with which it has regular ferry communication. It was made an episcopal see in the 12th century by David I., but only a small portion of the cathedral now remains. It has a handsome Episcopal chapel and academy, and a good harbour, with a depth of 14 feet water at high tide. On account of the romantic scenery of the neighbourhood, the town possesses considerable attractions as a watering place. The parish church is at Rosemarkie, about a mile eastward. Sir James Mackintosh received his early education at Fortrose. This borough unites with Inverness, Forres, and Nairn in returning one member to parliament. The population of the parliamentary burgh (which includes Rosemarkie) was 1017 in 1871.

FORTUNA, the Latin goddess of Fortune, answering to the Greek Tyche, τún. This deity was of far more importance in Italy than among the Greeks, the special characteristic of the Italian or Latin religion being the worship of abstract qualities. At Rome the culture of Fortune was said to have been introduced and established

of heights of, 425; thickness of, 428.


Relief, 422.
Remblai, 429, 435.
Revetments, 428, 445.
Sappers and Miners, 456.
Sea-forts, 450.
Sebastopol, prolonged defence
of, 457.

Shelter branches, 430.
Shields of iron armour (Plates
VIII, and IX.), 452; curved-
fronted, 453

Siege operations, 455.

Slopes of escarp, &c., 429.
Speckle, 445, 465.

Star-forts, 434; construction of,
Stockades, 424.

Glacis, 445; height and slope of, Permanent fortification, 440.
Places of arms, 445.
Torres Vedras, lines of, 431.
Plevna, defence of, 430.
Towns, open, defence of, 435.
Polygonal system (Plate VII.), Traverses, 427, 438, 445.
448, 465.
Trous-de-loup, 424.
Turrets (Plate X.), 453.
Vauban, Marshal, 441; his sys-
tems (Plate III.), 444-446.
Virgin, General, 466.

Rampart defined, 422, 445.
Ramps, 432.
Ravelin, 445.

Redans, 434, 437.
Redoubts, 434, 438; size of, for Villages, defence of, 436.
given garrison, 438.

Paris, siege of, 467.
Sunken way, 451.
Penetration of shell and shot, Tambours, 424.

Tenailles, 435, 437, 444.
Têtes-de-pont, 435.

| by Ancus Marcius and Servius Tullius; and her temples were especially honoured at Antium and Præneste, where her oracular responses were in the highest repute. She was worshipped under a vast variety of epithets, the most prominent being virilis, as denoting the power which secured to women the affections of their husbands; muliebris, a name connected with the legend which made the women of Rome prevail over the resolution of Coriolanus; publica, privata, conservatrix, primigenia, &c. We hear also of a Fortuna Mammosa, corresponding to the many-breasted Artemis of Ephesus, and to the Teutonic Ciza, Zizi, whose name Tacitus in his Germania, c. 9, seems to have confounded with that of the Egyptian Isis.

FORTUNATE ISLANDS. See CANARY ISLANDS. FORTUNATUS, the legendary hero of one of the most popular of European chap-books. He was a native, says the story, of Famagosta in Cyprus, and after many strange adventures and vicissitudes fell in with the goddess of Fortune in a wild forest, and received from her a purse which was continually replenished as often as he drew from its stores. With this he wandered through many a city and kingdom, and at last arrived at Cairo as a guest of the

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sultan. Among the treasures which the sultan showed him was an old napless hat which had the curious power of transporting its wearer to any place where he desired to be. Of this he feloniously possessed himself, and returned home to Cyprus, where he lived in the free gratification of all his fancies and desires. On his death he left his purse and his hat to his sons Ampedo and Andelosia; but instead of harmoniously putting them to use, they were jealous of each other, and by their recklessness and folly soon landed themselves in the depths of misery. The motif of the story is very obvious: in the words of the preface, the reader should learn that all men should desire reason and wisdom before all the treasures of the world. In its full form the history of Fortunatus is a brisk narrative of considerable length, occupying in Simrock's Die Deutschen Volksbücher, vol. iii., upwards of 158 pages. The scene is being continually shifted from Cyprus to Flanders, from Flanders to London, from London to France; and a large number of secondary characters appear from time to time on the stage. The general features of the style and the allusions seem to indicate a comparatively modern date for the authorship; but the nucleus of the legend can be traced back to a much earlier period. The stories of Jonathas and the three jewels in the Gesta Romanorum, of the emperor Frederick and the three precious stones in the Cento Novelle Antiche, of the Mazin of Khorassan in the Thousand and One Nights, and the flying scaffold in the Bahar Danush, have all a certain similarity. The earliest known edition of the German text of Fortunatus appeared at Augsburg in 1509, and the modern German investigators are disposed to regard this as the original form. Innumerable rifacimentos have been made in French, Italian, Dutch, English, &c., and cheap editions are still common enough on the bookstalls. The story was dramatized by Hans Sachs in 1553, and by Thomas Dekker in 1600; and the latter comedy appeared in a German translation in Englische Komödien und Tragödien, 1620. Tieck has utilized the legend in his Phantasus, and Chamisso in his Peter Schlemihl; and Uhland has left an unfinished narrative poem entitled "Fortunatus and his Sons."

See Dr Fr. W. V. Schmidt's Fortunatus und seine Söhne, cine Zauber-Tragödie, von Thomas Decker, mit einem Anhang, &c. Berlin, 1819; Görres, Die deutsche Volksbücher, 1807.

FORTUNATUS, VENANTIUS HONORIUS CLEMENTIANUS, bishop of Poitiers, and the chief Latin poet of his time, was born near Ceneda in Treviso, in 530. He studied at Milan and Ravenna, with the special object of excelling as a rhetorician and poet, and in 565 he journeyed to France,

where he was received with much favour at the court of

Sigbert, king of Austrasia, whose marriage with Brunhild he celebrated in an epithalamium. After remaining a year or two at the court of Sigbert, he travelled in various parts of France, visiting persons of distinction, and composing short pieces of poetry on any subject that occurred to him. At Poitiers he visited Queen Radegonda, who lived there in retirement, and she induced him to prolong his stay in the city indefinitely. Here he also enjoyed the friendship of the famous Gregory, bishop of Tours, and other eminent ecclesiastics. He was elected bishop of Poitiers in 599, and died about 609. The later poems of Fortunatus were collected in 11 books, and consist of hymns, epitaphs, poetical epistles, and verses in honour of his patroness Radegonda and her sister Agnes, the abbess of a nunnery at Poitiers. He also wrote a large poem in 4 books in honour of St Martin, and several lives of the saints in prose. His prose is stiff and mechanical, but most of his poetry has an easy rhythmical flow.

An edition of the works of Fortunatus was published by Ch. Brower at Fulda in 1603, 2d edition at Mayence in 1617. The best edition is that of M. A. Luschi, Rome, 1785, which was afterwards reprinted in Migne's Patrologic cursus completus, vol. 88.

FORT WAYNE, or, as it is sometimes called, "Summit City," a city of the United States, at the head of Allen county, Indiana, situated 751 miles W. of New York aud 102 N.E. of Indianopolis, at the junction of the St Joseph and the St Mary, which form what is known as the Maumee River. The Wabash and Frie canal passes through the town, and no fewer than eight railway lines branch out from it in various directions. Besides the extensive works maintained by several of the railway companies for the building of carriages, &c., there are a number of engineering establishments, planing mills, flour mills, and tanneries, sash and door works, and a woollen factory. The churches are twenty-seven in all; the educational institutions comprise a high school, a normal school, a Methodist college (founded in 1846), the Concordia Lutheran college (founded in 1850), and two public libraries; and among the other public buildings may be mentioned the court-house, the county jail, the city hospital, and the orphans' home. Interior communication is facilitated by six miles of tramway lines. In the early part of the 18th century the French established a trading post on the site of the present city, which took its name, however, from a fort erected in 1794 by General Wayne. The town was laid out in 1825, but did not become of much importance till the opening of the Wabash and Erie canal in 1840. In that year it attained the rank of a city, though its inhabitants numbered only 2080. By 1850 they had increased to 4282, by 1860 to 10,388, and by 1870 to 17,718.

FORUM, the word employed by the Romans to denote any open place in which men congregated for the transaction of mercantile or political business. It is connected with foris, and the same root also appears in the Greek Oúpa, the Sanskrit dvára, and the English door. In the laws of the Twelve Tables it occurs as equivalent to the vestibule of a tomb (Cic., De Leg., ii. 24); in a Roman camp the forum was an open place immediately beside the prætorium; and perhaps the word may at one time have been applied generally to the space in front of any public building or gateway. In the city itself, however, during the period of the early history, forum was almost a proper name, denoting the flat and formerly marshy space between the Palatine and had afforded the accommodation necessary for such public Capitoline hills, which probably even at the regal period meetings as could not be held within the area Capitolina (see ROME). During the days of the republic the city had ber both of fora civilia and of fora venalia came into existonly one forum, but under the empire a considerable numence. To the former class belonged those of Julius and of Augustus, and also that of Nerva, which was sometimes called Transitorium or Pervium. Of the latter order the most important were the Olitorium, Piscatorium, and Boarium. Those called after Trajan, Sallust, Diocletian, and Aurelian were probably intended merely as public lounges. market towns; as, for example, in Appii Forum, Forum The word forum frequently appears in the names of Roman Julii (Frejus), Forum Livii (Forli), Forum Sempronii (Fossombrone). The fora were distinguished from mere vici by the possession of a municipal organization, which, however, was less complete than that of a prefecture. In legal phraseology, which distinguishes the forum commune from the forum privilegiatum, and the forum generale from the forum speciale, the word is practically equivalent to our "court" or "jurisdiction."

FOSBROKE, THOMAS DUDLEY (1770-1842), an English antiquary, was born in London, and was called Dudley after a cousin of that name, esquire of Lebotwood Hall in Shropshire. Fosbroke has given accounts of himself and family in most of his works, accompanied with lists and statements of facts supporting possible alliances.




was of an old Staffordshire family, no individual of which ever attained to any particular eminence. It had long been the custom in this family that one of the sons should enter the church, and the dying wish of the father in this case was that his son should take holy orders. Going to St Paul's school at nine years of age, Fosbroke took in 1785 a Tesdale scholarship at Pembroke College, Oxford, and graduated as M.A. in 1792. In that year he took also deacon's orders and settled in the curacy of Horsley in Gloucestershire, where he remained till 1810, taking priest's orders in 1794. In 1810 Fosbroke removed to Walford in Herefordshire, and passed there the remainder of his life, as curate till 1830, and afterwards as vicar of the parish. In 1796 he published the Economy of Monastic Life, which is, according to his own account, a poem in Spenserian measure and style, written upon Darwin's doctrine of using only precise ideas of picturesque effect, chiefly founded on the sense of vision." Whatever all that may mean the poem is entirely unreadable, although "the reviews were favourable." This with other poetical attempts of Fosbroke's was reprinted at the end of the third edition (1843) of his next book, the British Monachism, 2 vols. 8vo, 1802,-a compilation from manuscripts in the British Museum and Bodleian libraries, with subordinate use of printed authorities, of facts relating to the manners and customs of the monks and nuns of England, which was very favourably received. In the second and third editions this work was much enlarged. In 1799 Fosbroke had been elected fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and resolved to devote himself to the study of archæology. British Monachism, the first result of his studies, was always his favourite work. In 1807 was published by subscription his Abstracts and Records of Manuscripts respecting the County of Gloucester, after which he entered into an engagement with Sir Richard Philips for several important works, including an encyclopædia of antiquities; but owing to the commercial failure of that enterprising gentleman in 1810, these plans fell through. In 1814 he published an Abridgment of Whitby's Commentary on the New Testament; in 1819 a History of the City of Gloucester, from new materials; in 1818 The Wye Tour; and in 1821 its companion, Ariconensia, or Archæological Sketches of Ross and Archenfeld, illustrative of the Campaigns of Caractacus and the Station Ariconium. In 1821 also was issued his edition of the Berkeley Manuscripts, with a history of the castle and town of Berkeley and a life of Jenner. The work for which Fosbroke is best remembered, the Encyclopædia of Antiquities, was first published in 1824, 2 vols. 4to; a second enlarged edition appeared in 1840. This work, though perhaps open to objection on account of a certain incoherence and disproportion, embodies the results of a large amount of reading among manuscript and other obscure sources. A sequel to this, called Foreign Topography, was published in 1828. His other works are A Picturesque and Topographical Account of Cheltenham and its Vicinity (1826); The Tourist's Grammar, or Rules relating to the Scenery and Antiquities incident to Travellers (1826); "A Treatise on the Arts, &c., of the Greeks and Romans" (1833), for Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopædia; "Extracts from Manuscripts relating to English History," and "Illustrations of the Constitution of our Ancient Parliaments," contributed to the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, of which body Fosbroke was elected honorary associate in 1827. He also made extensive researches into the pedigree and history of the Clinton family at the desire of the duke of Newcastle, in the possession of whom three large folio volumes of his MSS. now remain. Fosbroke was in the early part of this century a regular contributor to the Gentleman's Magazine of both original articles and

reviews. Although without pretension to style as an author or judgment as a critic of antiquities, he was a student and writer of good aims; and despite a recurring tendency to whine at his fate in prefaces, his works can be read with some pleasure and profit. He died at Walford on the 1st January 1842.

FOSCARI, FRANCESCO (d. 1457), doge of Venice, was born probably about 1372. He was of a patrician family, early displayed an ambitious temper, and rose to high honours in the state. He was already a member of the great council, when in 1412 he was named one of the guardians of the young marquis of Mantua; and by his wise administration he won the gratitude both of his ward and of the people. In 1421, being then one of the procuratori of St Mark, he zealously advocated war on behalf of Florence against the powerful duke of Milan. The reigning doge, Tommaso Mocenigo, was opposed to this policy; and when dying two years later, he warned his countrymen against electing Foscari as his successor, on the ground that he would plunge Venice into a disastrous war. The warning, however, was ineffectual; for after six days' deliberations, with nine scrutinies; Foscari was elected doge. His success was ensured by bribery on a large scale. In proclaiming his election, a significant omission was made from the customary formula, the words which recognized the popular share in the appointment being entirely dropped. The ancient formula was never again used. Florence continued to press for an alliance with Venice against Milan, and the negotiations were still going on when, in 1425, the famous Carmagnola, who had for eight years commanded the Milanese armies and made many conquests for his master, the duke Filippo Maria, arrived at Venice, a fugitive in disgrace. His influence gave the decisive impulse to the hesitating Venetians; and in January 1426 a league was formed and war was declared against Milan, Carmagnola being appointed captaingeneral of the army of Venice. Brescia and Cremona were conquered for Venice, and the war was carried on with alternation of success and failure and intervals of peace till 1433, when Foscari consented to treat, and peace was signed at Ferrara. The doge then offered his abdication, but the senate refused to accept it. After another troublous period of nine years he renewed his proposal, when the senate not only refused as before, but exacted from him an oath that he would retain his sovereignty for life. To the toils and harassments of office and of war were added, during his remaining years, great family sorrows. He had four sons, three of whom were already dead. The fourth, Giacopo, connected himself by marriage in 1441 with the noble house of Contarini. Within four years of this event, Giacope was denounced to the council of ten as having received presents from several foreign princes, one of the highest offences a noble could be guilty of. He was tortured in the presence of his father, and, having made a confession, was condemned to perpetual banishment to Napoli di Romania. The aged doge was compelled to pronounce the sentence on his son. Five years later (1450), the assassination of Hermolas Donati, one of the ten, took place at Venice, and suspicion fastened on the banished Giacopo, one of whose servants was seen at Venice at the time. The servant was arrested and repeatedly tortured, but no confession was wrung from him. Giacopo was then recalled from his place of exile, was again put on the rack in his father's presence, and although not a particle of evidence was to be had against him, he was condemned and banished to the isle of Candia. The real assassin was afterwards discovered, but the sentence against Giacopo was unrevoked. He was forbidden all communication with his wife and family, and life became an intolerable burden. In 1456 he wrote a request to the


duke of Milan to intercede for him, and purposely left the letter open and discoverable. It was presented to the council of ten, and his end was gained, for he was immediately summoned to his native city to answer the charge of seeking foreign intercession. For the third time he was examined before his father, the dege. This time he confessed the crime of which he was accused. He was nevertheless put on the rack no less than thirty times with a view to extort a declaration of innocence, and this in his father's presence. But it was in vain, and the wretched man, torn and dislocated, was once more banished. He died shortly afterwards in Candia. The father henceforth remained in retirement, incapable of discharging the duties of his office. At length through the intrigues of Giacopo Loredano, a member of a family which had a hereditary feud with the Foscari, the council were induced to request his abdication. He pleaded his oath not to resign which they had compelled him to take; but they discharged him of it, declared the dogate vacant, gave him a pension, and expelled him from the palace (1457). They wished him to withdraw by a private staircase to escape the notice of the people, but this he firmly refused to do. Supported by his brother, he slowly descended the giants' stairs, and with the parting words--" My services brought me within these walls, the malice of my enemies drives me away," he took his leave (Oct. 25). A decree of the council prohibited any mention of his name, under penalty of death, thus suppressing all expression of popular regret. On the 30th of the same month his successor was elected, and the announcement of the election by the bell of the campanile agitated him so violently that he ruptured a blood-vessel and died in a few hours. One year after his death it was declared that the council of ten had exceeded their authority. The melancholy story of the Foscari furnished Byron with a theme for a tragedy, and is narrated by Rogers in one section of his Italy-the two poems being published within a few days of each other (1821).

FOSCARINI, MARCO (1696-1763), doge of Venice, historian, was born January 30, 1696. He was of an illustrious patrician family, and his fine character and superior abilities opened for him at an early age the path of public service and advancement. He rose through the regular stages of office to be cavaliere and procuratore of St Mark, and was nominated historiographer of the republic. It was intended that he should take up and continue the story from the point to which it had been brought by Michele Foscarini and the senator Garzoni. But his services were turned into another channel. He was entrusted successively with important embassies to the courts of Vienna, Rome, and Turin, his task being to maintain the strict neutrality of Venice in the wars between the French and the imperialists. During these embassies he drew up, after the manner of Venetian ambassadors, reports of his negotiations and proceedings, and also of his observations of affairs at the various courts. Thus removed from Venice and from access to the public archives, from which the materials of his projected history must have been drawn, it was impossible for him to write it. He undertook, however, to collect materials for a literary history of his country, proposing to treat the subject under two heads, first the useful (or scientific) literature, and secondly the more strictly literary works. In 1752 appeared the first volume of the first division, in four books; and this remains a fragment, no more having been published. Foscarini after his return from Turin was placed at the head of the university of Padua, in the conduct of which he brought about some important reforms. In 1762 he rose to the highest dignity of the state, being elected to succeed Francesco Loredano as doge. Among the other literary remains of Foscarini are an oration on the adminis

tration of Dalmatia, not published till 1831; an account of the imperial court and administration, published in 1843; a report on his Sardinian embassy, &c.; besides several unpublished pieces. He held the dogate for ten months only, dying on the 31st of March 1763. He left a large collection of books and manuscripts, the latter now forming part of the Imperial Library, Vienna.

FOSCARINI, MICHELE (1632-1692), Venetian historian, was born in 1632. By the deaths of his father and mother he became head of his house at the age of nineteen. Of patrician rank, he entered upon official life in 1657, and after filling various posts became in 1662 one of the avoga dori of the republic. Two years later he was appointed governor of Corfu with the title of provveditore and captain. Returning to Venice in 1668, he was selected to fill some of the most honourable offices of the republic. On the death of Battista Nani in 1678, Foscarini was called to succeed him as historiographer of Venice. He continued the history begun by Bembo, and carried on by other writers, from 1669 to 1690, but had not quite completed his work when he died suddenly, March 31, 1692. The Istoria della Republica Veneta was published by his brother Sebastiani in 1696, and has been several times reprinted. Foscarini was author also of two Novelle written in his youth; and he annotated Caramella's Museum illustriorum Poetarum (1653).

FOSCOLO, ÚGO (1778-1827), the Italian writer who next to Alfieri has most contributed to free the literature of his country from the pedantries and affectations of the 17th and 18th centuries, was born at Zante on the 26th of January 1778. On the death of his father, a physician at Spalatro, in Dalmatia, the family removed to Venice, and in the university of Padua Foscolo prosecuted the studies begun in the Dalmatian grammar school. The fact that amongst his Paduan masters was the Abbé Cesarotti, whose version of Ossian had made that work highly popular in Italy, was not without influence on Foscolo's literary tastes, and his early knowledge of modern facilitated his studies in ancient Greek. His literary ambition revealed itself by the appearance in 1797 of his tragedy Tieste-a production which obtained a certain degree of success. Foscolo, who from causes not clearly explained, had changed his Christian name Niccolo to that of Ugo, now began to take an active part in the stormy political discussions which the fall of the republic of Venice had provoked. He was a prominent member of the national committees, and addressed an ode to Napoleon the liberator, expecting from the military successes of the French general, not merely the overthrow of the effete Venetian oligarchy, but the establishment of a free republican government. The treaty of Campo Formio (17th Oct. 1797), by which Napoleon handed Venice over to the Austrians, gave a rude shock to Foscolo, but did not quite destroy his hopes. The state of mind produced by that shock is reflected in the lotters of Jacopo Ortis, a species of political Werther,for the hero of Foscolo embodies the mental sufferings and suicide of an undeceived Italian patriot just as the hero of Goethe places before us the too delicate sensitiveness embittering and at last cutting short the life of a private. German scholar. The story of Foscolo, like that of Goethe, had a groundwork of melancholy fact. Jacopo Ortis had been a real personage; he was a young student of Padua, and committed suicide there under circumstances akin to those described by Foscolo. At this period Foscolo's mind appears to have been only too familiar with the thought of suicide. Cato and the many classical examples of selfdestruction scattered through the pages of Plutarch appealed to the imaginations of young Italian patriots as they had done in France to those of the heroes and heroines of the Gironde. In the case of Foscolo as in that of Goethe,

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ffect produced on the writer's mind by the composition | embarrassment, and at last consigned him to a prison; and e work seems to have been beneficial. He had seen

when released, he felt bitterly the change in his social position, and the coldness now shown to him by many whom he had been accustomed to regard as friends. His general bearing in society-if we may accept on this point the testimony of so keen an observer and so tolerant a man as Sir Walter Scott-had unhappily not been such as to gain and retain lasting friendships. He died at Turnham Green on the 10th of October 1827. Forty-four years after his death, in 1871, his remains were brought to Florence, and with all the pride, pomp, and circumstance of a great national mourning, found their final resting place beside the monuments of Macchiavelli and Alfieri, of Michel, angelo and Galileo, in Italy's Westminster Abbey, the church of Santa Croce. To that solemn national tribute Foscolo was fully entitled. For the originality of his thoughts and the splendour of his diction his country honours him as a great classic author. He had assigned to the literature of his nation higher aims than any which it previously recognized. With all his defects of character, and through all his vicissitudes of fortune, he was an illjudging but always a sincere and courageous patriot. He was, if ever Italian deserved those titles, the precursor and prophet of the unity and independence which his country now enjoys.

deal of a great national future rudely shattered; but he
ot despair of his country, and sought relief in now
ng to gaze on the ideal of a great national poet. At
, whither he repaired after the fall of Venice, he was
ged in other literary pursuits besides the composition
tis. The friendship formed there with the great poet
i was ever afterwards remembered with pride and
cude. The friendship formed with another celebrated
nese poet soon gave place to a feeling of bitter enmity.
hoping that his country would be freed by Napoleon,
rved as a volunteer in the French army, took part in
battle of the Trebbia and the siege of Genoa, was
ded and made prisoner. When released he returned
ilan, and there gave the last touches to his Ortis,
shed a translation of and commentary upon Calli
us, commenced a version of the Iliad, and began his
dation of Sterne's Sentimental Journey. The result of
morandum prepared for Lyons, where along with other
n delegates he was to have laid before Napoleon the
of Italy, only proved that the views cherished by him
is country were too bold to be even submitted to the
cor of France. The year 1807 witnessed the appear-
of his Carme sui Sepolcri, of which the entire spirit
anguage may be described as a sublime effort to seek
e in the past from the misery of the present and the
ness of the future. The mighty dead are summoned
their tombs, as ages before they had been in the
er-pieces of Greek oratory, to fight again the battles of
country. The inaugural lecture on the origin and
of literature, delivered by Foscolo in January 1809
appointed to the chair of Italian eloquence at Pavia,
conceived in the same spirit. In this lecture Foscolo
I his young countrymen to study letters, not in
ence to academic traditions, but in their relation to
dual and national life and growth. The sensation
aced by this lecture had no slight share in provoking
lecree of Napoleon by which the chair of national
ence was abolished in all the Italian universities.
afterwards Foscolo's tragedy of Ajax was represented
ith little success at Milan, and its supposed allusions
poleon rendering the author an object of suspicion, he
orced to remove from Milan to Tuscany. The chief
of his stay in Florence are the tragedy of Ricciarda,
Ode to the Graces, left unfinished, and the completion
version of the Sentimental Journey. His version of
e is an important feature in his personal history.
serving with the French, he had been at the Bou-
camp, and had traversed much of the ground gone
oy Yorick; and in his memoir of Didimo Cherico, to
the version is ascribed, he throws much curious light
is own character. He returned to Milan in 1813,
the entry of the Austrians; thence he passed into
erland, where he wrote a fierce satire in Latin on his
cal and literary opponents; and finally he sought the
s of England at the close of 1816.
ring the eleven years passed by Foscolo in London,
his death there, he enjoyed all the social distinction
the most brilliant circles of the English capital confer
reigners of political and literary renown, and ex-
ced all the misery which follows on a disregard of
st conditions of domestic economy. His contributions
Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews, his dissertations
lian on the text of Dante and Boccaccio, and still
his English essays on Petrarch, of which the value
enhanced by Lady Dacre's admirable translations of
of Petrarch's finest sonnets, heightened his previous
as a man of letters. But his want of care and fore-
ht in pecuniary matters involved him in much

Ample materials for the study of Foscolo's character and career may be found in the complete series of his works published in Florence by Le Monnier. The series consists of Prose letterarie, in 4 vols., 1850; Epistolario, in 3 vols., 1854; Prose politiche, 1 vol., 1850; Poesie, 1 vol., 1856; Lettere di Ortis, 1 vol., 1858; Saggi di critici storico-letterario, Ist vol. 1859, 2d vol. 1862. To this series must be added the very interesting work published at Leghorn in 1876, Lettere inedite del Foscolo, del Giordani, e della Signora the summer of 1878, Vita di Ugo Foscolo, di Pellegrino Artusi, di Stael, a Vincenzo Monti. The work published at Florence in throws much doubt on the genuineness of the text in Foscolo's writings, as given in the complete Florence edition, whilst it furnishes some curious and original illustrations of Foscolo's fami(J. M. S.) liarity with the English language.

FOSS, EDWARD (1787-1870), a solicitor by profession, was the author of a considerable number of works on legal antiquities, the most important of which are his Judges of England, in 9 vols., and his Biographia Juridica, a Biographical Dictionary of English Judges. The accuracy and extensive research of the author have made these especially the larger work-of great historical authority.

FOSSANO, a city of Italy, in the province of Cuneo, on the Stura, about 40 miles from Turin. It is a well-built prosperous place, with a cathedral, an academy of science and letters, a public library, a philharmonic academy, and a veterinary college. Silk and leather are manufactured, and a trade is maintained in grain and cattle. In the 11th century Fossano was a little borough, but in the 13th it was peopled by a body of refugees and raised to considerable importance. The Astigiani family surrounded it with walls shortly afterwards; and in 1314 Filippo d'Acaia laid the foundation of the great four-towered castle, which still forms one of its most striking features. The population in 1871 was 7272 for the town, and 16,544 in the commune.

FOSSANO, AMBROGIO STEFANI DA, better known as Ambrogio Borgognone, or simply Il Borgognone, was the foremost painter of the Milanese school, so far as it is possible to speak of a Milanese school independently of Leonardo da Vinci. It is well known how, when Leonardo left Florence to settle at Milan, the influence of his powerful genius presently transformed and dominated the art of those parts of Lombardy. Borgognone was approximately contemporary with Leonardo, but represented, at least during a great part of his career, the tendencies of Lombard art anterior to the arrival of that master-the tendencies which he had adopted and perfected from the hands of his predecessors Foppa and Zenale. predecessors Foppa and Zeuale. We are not precisely

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