« EelmineJätka »
from the long wars and the shameless greed of courtiers and officials; and it is stated that Fouquet for a time provided the means of meeting the expenses of the state out of his own fortune or by loans obtained on his own credit. He had long been in the confidence of the first minister, Cardinal Mazarin, and was his zealous instrument. But soon after the marriage of Louis XIV. a quarrel broke out between them, and thenceforth each was bent on injuring the other. The increasing deficit in the treasury alarmed the king; inquiries were addressed to Colbert, who was secretly ambitious of succeeding Fouquet as minister of finance, and he consequently made the worst of the case against Fouquet. The extravagant expenditure and personal display of the superintendent served to intensify the ill-will of the king. Fouquet had bought the port of Belle-Isle, and strengthened its fortifications, with a view to taking refuge there in case of disgrace. He had spent enormous sums in building a palace on his estate of Vaux, which in its extent, magnificence, and splendour of decoration, was almost a forecast of Versailles. He had cherished the hope of succeeding Mazarin as first minister, and had even made advances to Mademoiselle de la Vallière. In August 1661 he entertained the king at his palace of Vaux, giving him a fête unrivalled for magnificence, at which Les Fâcheux of Molière was for the first time produced. But the king could not be appeased. By crafty devices Fouquet had been induced to sell his office of procureur général, thus losing the protection of its privileges, and he had paid the price of it into the treasury. The king, however, was only prevented from arresting him at the fête by the pleading of the queen mother. He dissembled for a short time, and the arrest was made about three weeks later at Nantes. Fouquet, after several removals from prison to prison, was sent to the Bastille. His trial extended over several years, and excited the deepest interest. In 1664 he was condemned and sentenced to perpetual exile and confiscation of his property. The sentence, however, was commuted into one of imprisonment for life in the fortress of Pignerol. He bore his fate with manly fortitude, and composed in prison several devotional works. He died at Pignerol, March 23, 1680. The report of his trial was published in Holland, in 15 vols., in 1665-1667, in spite of the remonstrances which Colbert addressed to the states-general. A second edition, under the title of Euvres de M. Fouquet, appeared in 1696. FOUQUIER-TINVILLE, ANTOINE QUENTIN (17471795), was born at Hérouel, a village in the department of the Aisne. Originally a procureur (attorney) attached to the châtelet jurisdiction at Paris, he is said to have been driven by his debts to accept a humble employment under the lieutenant-général de police. When the Revolution broke out he was, as the friend of Danton and Robespierre, appointed public prosecutor to the revolutionary tribunal of Paris, and discharged this office with the most unimpassioned rigour from the 10th of March 1793 to the 28th of July 1794. He dealt as pitilessly with his friends as with his enemies, if only they were charged by the committee of public safety. He sent to the guillotine his protector Danton, just as he had sent Vergniaud and the Girondists. He was not an eloquent speaker, but maintained his accusations with an obstinacy so cold, convincing, and pressing that he never failed to obtain from the judges the sentence of capital punishment, which he always claimed. Although it seems that he had been somewhat unscrupulous in the earlier part of his career, he was, during the period of his bloody mission, inaccessible to bribery; and, having accepted it as his business to provide the guillotine with a constant supply of victims, he might well boast of faithfulness in its discharge. And this he actually did in the pamphlet that he published in
| his own defence, when he had been imprisoned by order of the convention (August 1, 1794), on the motion of Fréron, whose hands had been as deeply imbrued in blood as those of Fouquier. But the men then in power wielded the terrors of the law in a spirit of revenge that made them as unsparing as Robespierre and his companions had been. After a trial which lasted forty-one days, FouquierTinville was in his turn sent to the scaffold, on the 8th of May 1795.
See Mémoire pour A. Q. Fouquier, ex-accusateur public près le tribunal révolutionnaire établi à Paris, et rendu volontairement à la Conciergerie le jour du décret qui ordonne son arrestation, Paris, 1794, 4to; A. J. T. Bonnemain, Les Chemises rouges, ou mémoires pour servir à l'histoire du règne des anarchistes, Paris, 1799, 2 vols. 8vo; Ch. Berriat-Saint-Prix, La Justice révolution naire à Paris, Bordeaux, Brest, Lyon, Nantes, etc., Paris, 1861, 18mo; E. Campardon, Histoire du Tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, Paris, 1861, 2 vols. 18mo (the 2d edition, Paris, 1866, 2 vols. 8vo, has a slightly altered title, Tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris); Mortimer-Ternaux, Histoire de la Terreur d'après les documents authentiques et des pièces inédites, Paris, 1861, &c., 8 vols. 8vo.
FOURCHAMBAULT, a town of France in the department of Nièvre, on the right bank of the Loire, with a station on the railway about 5 miles S.E. of Nevers. It owes its importance to its extensive iron-works, which were established in 1821 by MM. Boignes, and give employment to from 2000 to 5000 workmen. Among the more remarkable chefs d'oeuvre which have been produced at Fourchambault are the metal portions of the Pont du Carrousel, some of the bronzes of the Colonne du Juillet, the framework of the cathedral at Chartres, and the vast spans of the bridge over the Dordogne at Cubzac. The population of the town in 1871 was 5835, and of the commune 6054. FOURCROY, ANTOINE FRANÇOIS, COMTE DE (17551809), a celebrated chemist, son of an apothecary in the household of the duke of Orleans, was born at Paris, June 15, 1755. Some of his ancestors had been distinguished at the bar, but the branch of the family to which he belonged had become greatly reduced in circumstances. At the age of fourteen Fourcroy left the college at Harcourt, where he had profited but little by the instruction of a harsh teacher. Deterred by the ill-success of a friend from going upon the stage, he for two years maintained himself as a copyist and writing-master; he then, in consequence of unjust treatment there received, left the office of his employer. At this juncture, Vicq d'Azyr, who having boarded at his home had become acquainted with the young man's talents, encouraged him to enter upon a medical career. We accordingly now behold Fourcroy a poor and hard-working student of medicine, his lodging a garret, in the middle only of which was it possible to stand upright, and his near neighbour a water-carrier, to whose family of twelve he acted as physician, receiving for his services a good supply of water. To support himself he gave lessons to other students, and made translations for a bookseller, who, 30 years later, when Fourcroy had become director-general of public instruction, conscientiously offered to make up for the meagreness of his former remuneration. In 1777, under the auspices of the Société Royale de Médecine, appeared Fourcroy's first publication, Essai sur les Maladies des Artisans, the translation of a Latin work by Ramazzini, with notes and additions. At length Fourcroy, who was recognized as the most successful alumnus of the Parisian medical school, became an applicant for a gratuitous degree and licence, provision for the granting of which to the best deserving poor student had been made by the bequest of a Dr Diest. It so happened that the faculty of physic at Paris entertained feelings of the most jealous enmity against the newly. founded Société Royale de Médecine, of which Vicq d'Azyr was perpetual secretary, and to humiliate him, and in him the whole society, it rejected his protégé Fourcroy.
Upon this the society itself subscribed the fees requisite for a diploma (£250), which was obtained by Fourcroy in 1780; but as the degree of "docteur regent" was unanimously refused, it was impossible for him to procure any professorship under the faculty. However, in 1784 his reputation as a chemist gained for him, although Berthollet was his fellow candidate, the lectureship of chemistry at the college of the Jardin du Roi, which had become vacant by the death of Macquer, one of the last of the phlogistic school. This post he continued to hold for the next 25 years; and so great were the crowds which his eloquence attracted that it was twice necessary to enlarge his lecture-theatre. Fourcroy was one of the first converts to the theories of Lavoisier, which he designated "La Chimie Française," a name which, as Thomson remarks (History of Chemistry, ii. p. 130), "certainly contributed more than anything else to give the new notions currency, at least in France." Together with Berthollet, Fourcroy was associated with Lavoisier and Guyton de Morveau in 1786 and 1787 in the preparation of a work entitled Méthode de Nomenclature Chimique, published in the latter year. In 1785 a memoir on the tendons, subsequently completed in six parts, gained for him admission into the French Academy of Sciences. He became in 1792 one of the deputies of the National Convention, and in 1793 a member of the Assembly, and soon proved himself one of the most active of the committee for the public instruction. To him was due the enlargement of the Jardin des Plantes, and the formation of a commission for the preservation of works of art. He further was the means of releasing from imprisonment Desault, surgeon of the Hôtel-Dieu, and of preventing the execution of Darcet, though, unfortunately for science, he found no opportunity of rescuing Lavoisier. On the 9th of Thermidor he was appointed a member of the committee for the public safety, and in this capacity he instituted three schools of medicine, assisted in the organization of the École Polytechnique (at that time the École des Travaux Publiques), and was concerned also in the establishment of the École Normale, the Institut, and the Musée d'Histoire Naturelle. After the revolution of the 9th November 1799 he was made a councillor of state; and, being appointed director-general of instruction, he in the course of 5 years superintended the formation of 12 schools of law, over 30 lyceums, afterwards called royal colleges, and 300 elementary schools. His incessant labours at length told on his health, and he suffered greatly from palpitation of the heart. On the 16th December 1809, the very day on which by letters patent he had been created a count of the French empire, with a yearly pension of 20,000 francs, he was signing some despatches when he suddenly exclaimed "Je suis mort," and with those words expired.
Among the separate publications of Fourcroy are Leçons élémentaires d'Histoire naturelle, et de Chimie, 2 vols. 8vo, 1782, enlarged, after several editions, to 10 vols. 8vo, with the title Système des Connaissances chimiques, 6 vols. 4to, 1801-2; Mémoires et Observo
tions de Chimie, 8vo, 1784; L'Art de connaître et d'employer les
Médicamens dans les Maladies, 2 vols. 8vo, 1785; Essai sur le Phlogistique et les Acides, 8vo, 1788, from the English of Kirwan, with notes by De Morveau and De Fourcroy; Philosophie Chimique, ou Vérités fondamentales de la Chimie moderne, 8vo, 1795, perhaps his best work, of which several editions and translations appeared; Notice sur la Vie et les Travaux de Lavoisier, 8vo, 1796; Tableaux synoptiques de Chimie, 4to, 1800; Discours sur l'Instruction publique, 8vo, 1802. He was the author of more than 160 papers on chemical subjects, contributed to the Mémoires of the Academy and the Institute, the Annales de Chimie, and the Annales de Musée d'Histoire Naturelle, and was editor of Le Médecin Eclairé. The more important of his later researches were published jointly in his own name and that of Vauquelin, whom he befriended, and was the means of first bringing into notice.
See Palissot de Beauvois, Eloge Historique, 1810; G. Cuvier, "Éloge Historique," Mém. de l'Inst., 1810, pp. xcvi.-cxxviii., and Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat., xvii. 1811, pp 99-132; Thomson, Annals, i., 1818.
FOURIER, FRANÇOIS CHARLES MARIE (1772-1837), one of the most celebrated socialist writers, was born at Besançon in Franche-Comté, on the 7th April 1772. His father was a draper in good circumstances, and Fourier received an excellent education at the college in his native town. After completing his studies there he travelled for some time in France, Germany, and Holland. On the death of his father he inherited a considerable amount of property, which, however, was lost when Lyons was besieged by the troops of the Convention. Being thus deprived of his means of livelihood, Fourier entered the army, but after two years' service as a chasseur was discharged on account of ill-health. In 1803 he published a remarkable article on European politics which attracted the notice of Napoleon, some of whose ideas were foreshadowed in it. Inquiries were made after the author, but nothing seems to have come of them. After leaving the army Fourier entered a merchant's office in Lyons, and some years later undertook on his own account a small business as broker. He obtained in this way just sufficient to supply his wants, and devoted all his leisure time to the elaboration of his first work on the organization of society.
During the early part of his life, and while engaged in commerce, he had become deeply impressed with the conviction that social arrangements resulting from the principles of individualism and competition were essentially imperfect and immoral. He proposed to substitute for these principles co-operation or united effort, by means of which full and harmonious development might be given to human nature. The scheme, worked out in detail in his first work, Théorie des Quatre Mouvements (2 vols., Lyons, 1808, published anonymously), has for foundation a particular psychological proposition and a special economical doctrine. Psychologically Fourier held what may with some laxity of language be called natural optimism,-the view that the full, free development of human nature or the unrestrained indulgence of human passion is the only possible way to happiness and virtue, and that misery and vice spring from the unnatural restraints imposed by society on the gratification of desire. This principle of harmony among the passions he regarded as his grandest discovery-a discovery which did more than set him on a level with Newton, the discoverer of the principle of attraction or harmony among material bodies. Throughout his works, in uncouth, obscure, and often unintelligible language, he endeavours to show that the same fundamental fact of harmony is to be found in the four great departments,— society, animal life, organic life, and the material universe. In order to give effect to this principle and obtain the resulting social harmony, it was needful that society should be reconstructed; for, as the social organism is at present constituted, innumerable restrictions are imposed upon the free development of human desire. As practical principle for such a reconstruction Fourier advocated co-operative or united industry. In many respects what he says of co-operation, in particular as to the enormous waste of economic force which the actual arrangements of society entail, still deserves attention, and some of the most recent efforts towards extension of the co-operative method, e.g., But the full realization of his scheme demanded much more to house-keeping, were in essentials anticipated by him. than the mere admission that co-operation is economically more efficacious than individualism. Society as a whole must be organized on the lines requisite to give full scope to co-operation and to the harmonious evolution of human nature. The details of this reorganization of the social structure cannot be given briefly, but the broad outlines may be thus sketched. Society, on his scheme, is to be divided into departments or phalanges, each phalange numbering about 1600 persons. Each phalange inhabita IX. 62
a phalanstère or common building, and has a certain portion of soil allotted to it for cultivation. The phalanstères are built after a uniform plan, and the domestic arrangements are laid down very elaborately. The staple industry of the phalanges is, of course, agriculture, but the various series and groupes into which the members are divided may devote themselves to such occupations as are most to their taste; nor need any occupation become irksome from constant devotion to it. Any member of a group may vary his employment at pleasure, may pass from one task to another. The tasks regarded as menial or degrading in ordinary society can be rendered attractive if advantage is taken of the proper principles of human nature: thus children, who have a natural affinity for dirt, and a fondness for "cleaning up," may easily be induced to accept with eagerness the functions of public scavengers. It is not, on Fourier's scheme, necessary that private property should be abolished, nor is the privacy of family life impossible within the phalanstère. Each family may have separate apartments, and there may be richer and poorer members. But the rich and poor are to be locally intermingled, in order that the broad distinction between them, which is so painful a feature in actual society, may become almost imperceptible. Out of the common gain of the phalange a certain portion is deducted to furnish to each member the minimum of subsistence; the remainder is distributed in shares to labour, capital, and talent,-five-twelfths going to the first, four-twelfths to the second, and three-twelfths to the third. Upon the changes requisite in the private life of the members Fourier was in his first work more explicit than in his later writings. The institution of marriage, which imposes unnatural bonds on human passion, is of necessity abolished; a new and ingeniously constructed system of licence is substituted for it. Considerable offence seems to have been given by Fourier's utterances with regard to marriage, and generally the later advocates of his views are content to pass the matter over in silence, or to veil their teaching under obscure and metaphorical language.
The scheme thus sketched attracted no attention when the Théorie first appeared, and for some years Fourier remained in his obscure position at Lyons. In 1812 the death of his mother put him in possession of a small sum of money, with which he retired to Bellay in order to perfect his second work. The Traité de l'Association Agricole Domestique was published in 2 vols. at Paris in 1822, and a summary appeared in the following year. After its publication the author proceeded to Paris in the hope that some wealthy capitalist might be induced to attempt the realization of the projected scheme. Disappointed in this expectation, he returned to Lyons. In 1826 he again visited Paris, and as a considerable portion of his means had been expended in the publication of his book, he accepted a clerkship in an American firm. In 1829 and 1830 appeared what is probably the most finished exposition of his views, Le Nouveau Monde Industriel. In 1831 he attacked the rival socialist doctrines of St Simon and Owen in the small work Piéges et Charlatanisme de deux Sectes, St Simon et Owen. His writings now began to attract some attention. A small body of adherents gathered round him, and the most ardent of them, Victor Considérant, published in 1834 his Destinée Sociale, undoubtedly the most able and most important work of the Fourierist school. In 1832 a newspaper, Le Phalanstère ou la Réforme Industrielle was started to propagate the views of the school, but its success was not great. In 1833 it declined from a weekly to a monthly, and in 1834 it died of inanition. It was revived in 1836 as Le Phalange, and in 1843 became a daily paper, La Democratie Pacifique. In 1850 it was suppressed.
Fourier did not live to see the success of his newspaper, and the only practical attempt during his lifetime to establish a phalanstère was a complete failure. In 1832 M. Baudet Dulary, deputy for Seine-et-Oise, who had become a convert, purchased an estate at Condé sur Vesgre, near the forest of Rambouillet, and proceeded to establish a socialist community. The capital supplied was, however, inadequate, and the community broke up in disgust. Fourier was in no way discouraged by this failure, and till his death, in October 1837, lived in daily expectation that wealthy capitalists would see the merits of his scheme, and be induced to devote their fortunes to its realization. It may be added that subsequent attempts to establish the phalanstère have been uniformly unsuccessful.
For an examination of the principles on which Fourier's socialist scheme is based, reference must be made to the general articles COMMUNISM and SOCIALISM, but a word must be added as to the character of the man and his works. Fourier seems to have been of extremely retiring and sensitive disposition. He mixed little in society, and appeared, indeed, as if he were the denizen of some other planet. Of the true nature of social arrangements, and of the manner in which they naturally grow and become organized, he must be pronounced extremely ignorant. The faults of existing institutions presented themselves to him in an altogether distorted manner, and he never appears to have recognized that the evils of actual society are immeasurably less serious than the consequences of his arbitrary scheme. Out of the chaos of human passion he supposed harmony was to be evolved by the adoption of a few theoretically disputable principles, which themselves impose restraints even more irksome than those due to actual social facts. With regard to the economic aspects of his proposed new method, it is of course to be granted that co-operation is more effective than individual effort, but he has nowhere faced the question as to the probable consequences of organizing society on the abolition of those great institutions which have grown with its growth. His temperament was too ardent, his imagination too strong, and his acquaintance with the realities of life too slight to enable him justly to estimate the merits of his fantastic views. That this description of him is not expressed in over-strong language must be clear to any one who not only considers what is true in his works, and the portion of truth is by no means a peculiar discovery of Fourier's,but who takes into account the whole body of his specu lations, the cosmological and historical as well as the economical and social. No words can adequately describe the fantastic nonsense which he pours forth, partly in the form of general speculation on the universe, partly in the form of prophetic utterances with regard to the future changes in humanity and its material environment. From these extraordinary writings it is no extreme conclusion that there was much of insanity in Fourier's mental constitution.
Ch. Pellarin, Fourier, sa Vie et sa Théorie, 5th ed., 1872; Sargant, Social Innovators, 1859; Reybaud, Réformateurs Modernes, 7th ed., 1864; Stein, Socialismus und Communismus des heutigen Frankreichs, 2d ed., 1848; Booth, Fortnightly Review, N. S., vol.
(R. AD.) FOURIER, JEAN BAPTISTE JOSEPH (1768-1830), French mathematician, was born at Auxerre, March 21, 1768. He was the son of a tailor, and was left an orphan in his eighth year; but through the kindness of a friend, who observed in him the promise of superior abilities, admission was gained for him into the military school of his native town, which was then under the direction of the Benedictines of Saint-Maur. He soon distinguished himself as a student, and made rapid progress, delighting most of all, but not exclusively, in mathematics. It was his wish to enter the artillery or engineer corps, but failing
in this, he was appointed professor of mathematics in the school in which he had been a pupil. This post he held for about four years (1789-1794), and during this time he was frequently called to lecture on other subjects, rhetoric, philosophy, and history. On the institution of the normal school at Paris he was sent to teach in it, and was afterwards attached to the polytechnic school. Fourier was one of the savants who accompanied Bonaparte to Egypt in 1798; and during this expedition he was called to discharge important political duties in addition to his scientific ones. He was for a time virtually governor of half Egypt, was for three years secretary of the institute of Cairo, and undertook to deliver the funeral orations for Kléber and Desaix. On his return to France he was nominated prefect of Grenoble, and was created baron and chevalier of the Legion of Honour. He took an important part in the preparation of the famous Description de l'Egypte, and wrote the historical introduction. He held his prefecture for 14 years; and it was during this period that he carried on his elaborate and fruitful investigations on the propagation of heat in solid bodies. His first memoir on the mathematical theory of heat was crowned by the Academy. On the return of Napoleon I. from Elba in 1815, Fourier published a royalist proclamation, and left Grenoble as Napoleon entered it. He was then deprived of his prefecture, and, although immediately named prefect of the Rhône, was soon after again deprived. He now settled at Paris, was elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1816, but in consequence of the opposition of Louis XVIII. was not admitted till the following year, and was afterwards made perpetual secretary in conjunction with Cuvier. In 1822 he published his most celebrated work, entitled La Théorie Analytique de la Chaleur, which by its new methods and great results made an epoch in the history of mathematical and physical science. Of this work M. Cousin said that the grandeur of its results was no more to be questioned than their certainty, and that in the opinion of scientific Europe the novelty of the analysis on which they rest is as evident as its completeness. In 1827 Fourier was received at the French Academy, and the same year succeeded Laplace as president of the council of the polytechnic school. In 1828 he became a member of the Government commission established for the encouragement of literature. He died at Paris, May 16, 1830. After his death appeared his remarkable work entitled Analyse des équations determinées, which was written in his youth and left unfinished. It was completed and edited by M. Navier in 1831. In addition to the works above mentioned, Fourier wrote many memoirs on scientific subjects, and éloges of distinguished men of science.
FOURMONT, ETIENNE (1683-1745), a French Orientalist, was born at Habelai, near Saint Denis, in 1683. He studied in Mazarin College, and afterwards in the seminary of Trente-trois. Here his attention was attracted to Oriental languages, and shortly after leaving the seminary he published a Traduction du Commentaire du Rabbin Abraham Aben Esra sur l'Ecclésiaste. He subsequently studied at Navarre, and in 1705 brought out Nouvelle Critique Sacrée, which gained him the notice of the professors of the Sorbonne. In 1711 Louis XIV. appointed Fourmont to assist a young Chinese, Hoan-ji, in compiling a Chinese grammar, and notwithstanding that Hoan-ji died in 1716, Fourmont persevered alone at the task assigned him, and published in 1737 Meditationes Sinica, and in 1742 Grammatica Sinica. Besides numerous other works connected with Oriental literature, he is the author of Ré flexions Critiques sur les Histoires des Anciens Peuples, Paris, 1735, and several dissertations printed in the Memoires of the Academy of Inscriptions. He became professor of Arabic in the Royal College in 1715. In 1713
he was elected a member of the Academy of Inscriptions, in 1738 a member of the Royal Society of London, and in 1741 a member of that of Berlin. He died at Paris in December 1745. He must not be confounded with Michel Fourmont (1690-1746), his youngest brother, who also was a member of the Academy of Inscriptions, was professor of the Syriac language in the Royal College, and was sent by the Government to copy inscriptions in Greece. FOURNIER, PIERRE SIMON (1712-1768), French engraver and typefounder, was born at Paris, September 15, 1712. He was the son of a printer, and was brought up to his father's business. After studying drawing under the painter Colson, he practised for some time the art of wood-engraving, and ultimately turned his attention to the engraving and casting of types. He designed many new characters, and his foundry became celebrated not only in France but in foreign countries. Not content with his practical achievements, he sought to stimulate public interest in his art by the production of various works on the subject. In 1737 he published his Table des Proportions qu'il faut observer entre les Caractères, which was followed by several other technical treatises. In 1758 he assailed the title of Guttenberg to the honour awarded him as inventor of printing, claiming it for Schöffer, in his Dissertation sur l'Origine et les Progrès de l'Art de graver en Bois. This gave rise to a controversy in which Schöpflin and Baer were his opponents. Fournier's contributions to this debate were collected and reprinted under the title of Traités historiques et critiques sur l'Origine de l'Imprimerie. His principal work, however, was the Manuel Typographique, which appeared in 2 vols. 8vo in 1764, the first volume treating of engraving and type-founding, the second of printing, with exainples of different alphabets. It was the author's design to complete the work in four volumes, but he did not live to execute it. He died at Paris, October 8, 1768.
FOWL (Danish Fugl, German Vogel), originally used in the sense that Bird1 now is, but, except in composition,-— as Sea-Fowl, Wild-Fowl, and the like,-practically almost confined2 at present to designate the otherwise nameless species which struts on our dunghills, gathers round our barn-doors, or stocks our poultry yards the type of the genus Gallus of ornithologists, of which four well-marked species are known. The first of these is the Red JungleFowl of the greater part of India, G. ferrugineus,-called by many writers G. bankiva,—which is undoubtedly the parent stock of all the domestic races (cf. Darwin, Animals and Plants under Domestication, i. pp. 233-246). It inhabits Northern India from Sindh to Burmah and Cochin China, as well as the Malay Peninsula and many of the islands as far as Timor, besides the Philippines. It occurs on the Himalayas up to the height of 4000 feet, and its southern limits in the west of India proper are, according to Jerdon, found on the Raj-peepla hills to the south of the Nerbuilda, and in the east near the left bank of the Godavery, or perhaps even further, as he had heard of its being killed at Cummum. This species greatly resembles in plumage what is commonly known among poultry-fanciers as the "Black-breasted Game" breed, and this is said to be especially the case with examples from the Malay countries, between which and examples from India some differences are observable-the latter having the plumage less red, the ear-lappets almost invariably white, and slate. coloured legs, while in the former the ear-lappets are crimson, like the comb and wattles, and the legs yellowish.
1 Bird (cognate with breed and brood) was originally the young of any animal, and an early Act of the Scottish parliament speaks of
'Wolf-birdis," i.e., Wolf-cubs.
2 Like Deer (Danish Dyr, German Thier). Beast, too, with some men has almost attained as much specialization.
If the Malayan birds be considered distinct, it is to them | apprenticeship of five years at Exeter, he went to London that the name G. bankiva properly applies. This species in 1814, and entered the office of David Laing, where is said to be found in lofty forests and in dense thickets, he remained till he commenced practice for himself. His as well as in ordinary bamboo-jungles, and when cultivated first work of importance was the Court of Bankruptcy in land is near its haunts, it may be seen in the fields after Basinghall Street, finished in 1821. Although he gained the crops are cut in straggling parties of from 10 to 20. in the following year the first premium for a design for The crow to which the cock gives utterance morning and the new London bridge, a design by another architect evening is described as being just like that of a Bantam, was ultimately agreed upon and carried out. Among but never prolonged as in some domestic birds. The hen Fowler's other designs for bridges is that for the one breeds from January to July, according to the locality; constructed across the Dart at Totness. He was also the and lays from 8 to 12 creamy-white eggs, occasionally architect for the markets of Covent Garden and Hungerford, scraping together a few leaves or a little dry grass by way the new market at Gravesend, and Exeter lower market; of a nest. The so-called G. giganteus, formerly taken by and besides several churches he designed Devon lunatic some ornithologists for a distinct species, is now regarded asylum (1845), the London fever hospital (1849), and the as a tame breed of G. ferrugineus or bankiva. The second hall of the Wax Chandlers' Company, Gresham Street good species is the Grey Jungle-Fowl, G. sonnerati, whose (1853). For some years he was honorary secretary of the range begins a little to the northward of the limits of the institute of British architects, and he was afterwards created preceding, and it occupies the southern part of the Indian vice-president. He retired from his profession in 1853, peninsula, without being found elsewhere. The cock has and died at Great Marlow, Bucks, September 26, 1867. the shaft of the neck-hackles dilated, forming a horny plate, the terminal portion of which is like a drop of yellow sealing-wax. His call is said to be very peculiar, being a broken and imperfect kind of crow, quite unlike that of G. ferrugineus, and impossible, says Jerdon, to describe. The two species, where their respective ranges overlap, occasionally interbreed in a wild state, and the present readily crosses in confinement with domestic poultry, but the hybrids are nearly always sterile. The third species is the Cingalese Jungle-Fowl, G. stanleyi (the G. lafayettii of some authors), peculiar to Ceylon. This also greatly resembles in plumage some domestic birds, but the cock is red beneath, and has a yellow comb with a red edge, and purplish-red cheeks and wattles. He has also a singularly different voice, his crow being dissyllabic. This bird crosses readily with tame hens, but the hybrids are believed to be infertile. The fourth species, G. varius (the G. furcatus of some authors), inhabits Java and the islands eastwards as far as Flores. This differs remarkably from the others in not possessing hackles, and in having a large unserrated comb of red and blue, and only a single chin wattle. The predominance of green in its plumage is another easy mark of distinction. Hybrids between this species and domestic birds are often produced, but they are most commonly sterile. Some of them have been mistaken for distinct species, as those which have received the names of G. æneus and G. temmincki.
FOWLER, JOHN (1826-1864), inventor of the steam plough, was born at Melksham, Wilts, July 11, 1826. He learned practical engineering at Middlesborough-on-Tees, and in 1849 invented a machine for laying drain tiles, which was at first worked by horses but afterwards by steam. In 1852 he began experiments in steam cultivation, and at the Chester meeting in 1858 he received for his steam plough the Royal Agricultural Society's prize of £500. In conjunction with two partners he established in 1861, at Leeds, the well known firm of Fowler & Co. He died 4th December 1864. See AGRICULTURE.
Several circumstances seem to render it likely that Fowls were first domesticated in Burmah or the countries adjacent thereto, and it is the tradition of the Chinese that they received their poultry from the West about the year 1400 B.C. By the Institutes of Manu, the date of which is variously assigned from 1200 to 800 B.C., the tame Fowl is forbidden, though the wild is allowed to be eaten showing that its domestication was accomplished when they were written. The bird is not mentioned in the Old Testament nor by Homer, though he has 'AléкTwp (Cock) as the name of a man, nor is it figured on ancient Egyptian monuments. Pindar mentions it, and Aristophanes calls it the Persian bird, thus indicating it to have been introduced to Greece through Persia, and it is figured on Babylonian cylinders between the 6th and 7th centuries B.C. It is sculptured on the Lycian marbles in the British Museum (circa 600 B.C.), and Blyth remarks (Ibis, 1867, p. 157) that it is there represented with the appearance of a true Jungle-Fowl, for none of the wild Galli have the upright bearing of the tame breed, but carry their tail in a drooping position. For further particulars of these breeds see POULTRY. (A. N.) FOWLER, CHARLES (1792-1867), architect, was born at Collumpton, Devon, May 17, 1792. After serving an
FOWLER, WILLIAM (c. 1560-1614), one of the poets who frequented the court of James VI. before his accession to the throne of England, was born about the year 1560. After attending St Leonard's College, St Andrews, between 1573-74 and 1578, he seems to have selected the legal profession, and in 1580, when about twenty years of age, he was at Paris studying the civil law. He subsequently became private secretary and master of requests to Anne of Denmark, wife of James VI. On the occasion of the baptism of Prince Henry on 30th August 1594, the preparation of the pageants exhibited "was by the king's majesty committed to the lord of Lindores and Mr William Fowler"; and the description of these "rareshows and singular inventions was published at the time. The sister of Fowler, Susannah, was married to Sir John Drummond, Knight, and gentleman usher of the black rod, and was mother of the celebrated poet Drummond of Hawthornden. On the title of some of his works Fowler styles himself P. of Hawick, thus indicating that he was parson or rector of Hawick. He is frequently styled Sir William Fowler, but there is no evidence that he was ever knighted. That Fowler was a man of very superior literary merit is evinced by his works, which are still preserved. The first of these is a collection of sonnets entitled The Tarantula of Love; the other is a translation from the Italian of the Triumphs of Petrarch. These two manuscripts were presented by his nephew, Drummond of Hawthornden, to the library of the university of Edinburgh in 1626, and it is understood both will shortly be published. Fowler was a great favourite at court. He prefixed a panegyrical sonnet to The Furies, a composition of James VI., while the king in return performed a similar office for his Triumphs of Petrarch, in a strain of versification which for vigour and fluency was vastly superior to his common style. Besides the above, two volumes of his manuscript notes, scrolls of poems, &c., are preserved among the Drummond MSS., in the library of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Specimens of Fowler's verses were published in 1823 by Leyden in his Scottish Descriptive Poems, and are also to be found in other collections illustrating the poetry of the period.