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more heard of, having, as is supposed, foundered at sea. The captain was a stranger to the navigation, and had obstinately persisted in proceeding by the Mozambique Channel instead of stretching as usual into the Indian Ocean south of Madagascar. Every commander of a vessel, as Fielding has remarked, claims absolute dominion in his little wooden world, and in too many instances shows the dangerous consequences of absolute power.
Thus miserably perished William Falconer in the thirtyseventh year of his age. His fame rests on his poem of The Shipwreck, and rests securely. In that work he did not aspire to produce a great effect by a few bold touches, or the rapid and masterly grouping of appalling or horrible circumstances. He labours in detail, bringing before us the events as they arise, and conducting us with an interest constantly increasing towards the catastrophe. Such a tremendous picture of shipwreck as that which Byron has, in wild sportiveness, thrown out in Don Juan, immeasur ably transcends the powers of Falconer, and, indeed, stands alone in its terrible sublimity; but, on the other hand, the naval poet, by the truth and reality of his descriptions, ultimately impresses the mind of the reader, if not with such vivid force, perhaps with even more enduring effect. Some of the classic invocations to the shores of Greece, and some descriptive passages, are a little tawdry, but the grand incidents of the poem are never forgotten. The personification of the ship in its last struggles is sublime as well as affecting, and the reader's anxiety and sympathy with the principal characters and the hapless crew never slumber. Nor are the technical expressions and directions a drawback to the general reader. They are explained in footnotes, and give a truth and reality to the narrative; and they do not occur in the more impassioned scenes. (R. CA.) FALCONET, ÉTIENNE MAURICE (1716-1791), a French sculptor, was born at Paris in 1716. His parents were poor, and he was at first apprenticed to a carpenter, but some of his clay-figures, with the making of which he occupied his leisure hours, having attracted the notice of Lemoine, that sculptor made him his pupil. While dili gently prosecuting his profession he found time to study Greek and Latin, and also wrote several brochures on art, in which many names both ancient and modern of great reputation are treated in a remarkably disparaging way. His artistic productions are characterized by the same defects as his writings, for though manifesting considerable cleverness and some power of imagination, they display in many cases a false and fantastic taste, the result most probably of an excessive striving after originality. One of his most successful statues was one of Milo of Crotona, which secured his admission to the membership of the Academy of Fine Arts. Many of his works, being placed in churches, were destroyed at the time of the French Revolution. At the invitation of the empress Catherine he went to St Petersburg, where he executed a colossal statue of Peter the Great in bronze. On his return to Paris in 1788 he became director of the French Academy of Painting. He died 4th January 1791.
Among his writings are Réflexions sur la sculpture (Par. 1768), and Observations sur la statue de Marc Aurèle (Par. 1771). The whole were collected under the title of Euvres littéraires (6 vols., Lausanne, 1781-82; 3 vols., Paris, 1787).
FALCONRY, the art of employing falcons and hawks in the chase, a sport the practice of which is usually termed hawking. Falconry was for many ages of the Old World's history one of the principal sports. Probably it may be considered as having been always as purely a sport as it is at the present day; for even in the rudest times man must have been possessed of means and appli ances for the capture of wild birds and beasts more
effectual than the agency of hawks, notwithstanding the high state of efficiency to which, as we may still see, welltrained hawks may be brought. The antiquity of falconry is very great. It seems impossible to fix the exact period of its first appearance. There appears to be little doubt that it was practised in Asia at a very remote period, for which we have the concurrent testimony of various Chinese and Japanese works, some of the latter being most quaintly and yet spiritedly illustrated. It appears to have been known in China some 2000 years B.C., and the records of a King Wen Wang, who reigned over a province of that country 689 B.C., prove that the art was at that time in very high favour. In Japan it appears to have been known at least 600 years B.C., and probably at an equally early date in India, Arabia, Persia, and Syria. Sir A. H. Layard, as we learn from his work on Nineveh and Babylon, considers that in a bas-relief found by him in the ruins of Khorsabad "there appeared to be a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist," from which it would appear to have been known there some 1700 years B.C. In all the above-mentioned countries of Asia it is practised at the present day.
Little is known of the early history of falconry in Africa, but from very ancient Egyptian carvings and drawings it seems to have been known there many ages ago. It was probably also in vogue in the countries of Morocco, Oran, Algiers, Tunis, and Egypt, at the same time as in Europe. The older writers on falconry, English and Continental, often mention Barbary and Tunisian falcons. It It is still practised in Africa; the present writer has visited two hawking establishments in Egypt.
Perhaps the oldest records of falconry in Europe are supplied by the writings of Pliny, Aristotle, and Martial. Although their notices of the sport are slight and somewhat vague, yet they are quite sufficient to show clearly that it was practised in their days-between the years 384 B. C. and 40 A.D. It was probably introduced into England from the Continent about 860 A.D., and from that time down to the middle of the 17th century falconry was followed with an ardour that perhaps no sport in our country has ever called forth, not even our grand national sport of fox-hunting. Stringent laws and enactments, notably in the reigns of William the Conqueror, Edward III., Henry VIII., and Elizabeth, were passed from time to time in its interest. Falcons and hawks were allotted to degrees and orders of men according to rank and station, for instance, to royalty the jerfalcons, to an earl the peregrine, to a yeoman the goshawk, to a priest the sparrow-hawk, and to a knave or servant the useless kestrel. The writings of Shakespeare furnish ample testimony to the high and universal estimation in which it was held in his days. About the middle of the 17th century falconry began to decline in England, to revive somewhat at the Restoration. It never, however, completely recovered its former favour, a variety of causes operating against it, such as enclosure of waste lands, agricultural improvements, and the introduction of fire-arms into the sporting field, till it fell, as a national sport, almost into oblivion. Yet it has never been even temporarily extinct, and it is still very successfully practised at the present day.
In Europe the game or quarry" at which hawks are flown consists of grouse (confined to the British Isles), blackgame, pheasants, partridges, quails, landrails, ducks, teal, woodcocks, snipes, herons, rooks, crows, gulls, magpies, jays, blackbirds, thrushes, larks, hares, and rabbits. In In former days geese, cranes, kites, ravens, and bustards were also flown at. Old German works make much mention of the use of the Iceland falcon for taking the great bustard, a flight scarcely alluded to by English writers. In Asia the list of quarry is longer, and, in addition to all the foregoing, or their Asiatic representatives, various kinds of
bustards, sand grouse, storks, ibises, spoonbills, pea-fowl, jungle-fowl, kites, vultures, and gazelles are captured by trained hawks. In Mongolia and Chinese Tartary, and among the nomad tribes of Central Asia, the sport still flourishes; and though some late accounts are not satisfactory either to the falconer or the naturalist, yet they leave no doubt that a species of eagle is still trained in those regions to take large game, as antelopes and wolves. Mr Atkinson, in his account of his travels in the country of the Amoor, makes particular mention of the sport, as does also Mr Shaw in his work on Yarkand; and in a letter from the Yarkand embassy, under Mr Forsyth, C.B., dated Camp near Yarkand, Nov. 27, 1873, the following passage occurs:- "Hawking appears also to be a favourite amusement, the golden eagle taking the place of the falcon or hawk. This novel sport seemed very successful." It is questionable whether the bird here spoken of is the golden eagle. In Africa gazelles are taken, and also partridges and wildfowl.
The hawks used in England at the present time are the three great northern falcons, viz., the Greenland, Iceland, and Norway falcons, the peregrine falcon, the hobby, the merlin, the goshawk, and the sparrow-hawk. In former days the saker, the lanner, and the Barbary or Tunisian falcon were also employed. (See FALCON.)
Of the foregoing the easiest to keep, most efficient in the field, and most suitable for general use at the present day are the peregrine falcon and the goshawk.
In all hawks, the female is larger and more powerful than the male.
Hawks are divided by falconers all over the world into two great classes. The first class comprises falcons," "long-winged hawks," or "hawks of the lure," distinguished by Eastern falconers as "dark-eyed hawks." In these the wings are pointed, the second feather in the wing is the longest, and the irides are dark-brown. Merlins must, however, be excepted; and here it would seem that the Eastern distinction is the best, for though merlins are much more falcons than they are hawks, they differ from falcons in having the third feather in the wing the longest, while they are certainly "dark-eyed hawks."
The second class is that of "hawks," "short-winged hawks," or "hawks of the fist," called by Eastern falconers "yellow (or rose) eyed hawks." In these the wings are rounded, the fourth feather is the longest in the wing, and the irides are yellow, orange, or deep-orange.
The following glossary of the principal terms used in falconry may, with the accompanying woodcut, assist the reader in perusing this notice of the practice of the art. Useless or obsolete terms are omitted:
Bate.-A hawk is said to "bate" when she flutters off from the fist,
perch, or block, whether from wildness, or for exercise, or in the attempt to chase. Bewits.-Straps of leather by which the bells are fastened to a hawk's legs.
Bind.-A hawk is said to "bind" when she seizes a bird in the
air and clings to it. This term is properly only applied to the seizure of large quarry, taken at a height in the air.
Block. The conical piece of wood, of the form of an inverted flowerpot, used for hawks to sit upon; for a peregrine it should be about 10 to 12 inches high, 5 to 6 in diameter at top, and 8 to 9 in diameter at base.
Brail.-A thong of soft leather used to secure, when desirable, the wing of a hawk. It has a slit to admit the pinion joint, and the ends are tied together.
Cadge.-The wooden frame on which hawks, when numerous, are
carried to the field.
Cadger. The person who carries the cadge. Calling off.-Luring a hawk (see Lure) from the hand of an assistant at a distance for training or exercise is called "calling off." Carry.-A hawk is said to " carry when she flies away with the quarry on the approach of the falconer. Cast.-Two hawks which may be used for flying together are called a "cast."
Casting. The oblong or egg-shaped ball, consisting of feathers, bones, &c., which all hawks (and insectivorous birds) throw up after the nutritious part of their food has been digested. Cere.-The naked wax-like skin above the beak. Check.-A hawk is said to fly at "check" when she flies at a bird other than the intended object of pursuit, for instance, if a hawk slipped at a heron goes off at a rook, she flies at check. Clutching. Taking the quarry in the feet as the short-winged hawks do. Falcons occasionally "clutch." Come to.-A hawk is said to "come to" when she begins to get tame.
HALF NATURAL SIZE
Implements used in Falconry.
L Hood; 2. Back view of hood, showing braces a, a, b, b; by drawing the braces b, b, the hood, now open, is closed; 3. Rufter hood; 4. Imping-needle; 5. Jess; d is the space for the hawk's leg; the point and slit a, a are brought round the leg, and passed through slit b, after which the point c and slit c, and also the whole remaining length of jess are pulled through slits a and b; c is the alit to which the upper ring of swivel is attached; 6. Hawk's leg with bell a, bewit b, jess c; 7. Jesses, swivel, and leash; 8. Portion of first wing-feather of male peregrine falcon, "tiercel," half natural size in process of imping; a, the
living hawk's feather; b, piece supplied from another tiercel, with the imping
needle c pushed half its length into it and ready to be pushed home into the living bird's feather.
Intermewed.-A hawk moulted in confinement is said to be "intermewed."
Haggard.-A wild-caught hawk in the adult plumage. Hood.-The cap of leather used for the purpose of blindfolding the hawk. (See woodcut.) Hoodshy.-A hawk is said to be "hoodshy" when she is afraid of, or resists, having her hood put on. Imping. The process of mending broken feathers is called imping." (See 8 in cut.) Imping needle.-A piece of tough soft iron wire from about 13 to 24 inches long, rough filed so as to be three-sided and tapering from the middle to the ends. (See 4 in cut.)
Jesses. Strips of light but very tough leather, some 6 to 8 inches long, which always remain on a hawk's legs-one on each leg. (See cut.)
Leash.-A strong leathern thong, some 2 or 3 feet long, with a knot or button at one end. (See 7 in cut.)
Lure. The instrument used for calling long-winged hawks, -a dead pigeon, or an artificial lure made of leather and feathers or wings of birds, tied to a string.
Man a hawk.-To tame a hawk and accustom her to strangers. Mantle.-A hawk is said to "mantle" when she stretches out a leg
and a wing simultaneously, a common action of hawks when at ease; also when she spreads out her wings and feathers to hide any quarry or food she may have seized from another hawk, or from man. In the last case it is a fault. Make hawk.-A hawk is called a "make hawk" when, as a thoroughly trained and steady hawk, she is flown with young ones to teach them their work.
Mew.-A hawk is said to "mew" when she moults. The place where a hawk was kept to moult was in olden times called her "mew." Buildings where establishments of hawks were kept were called mews -an appellation which in many cases they have retained to this day. Pannel. The stomach of a hawk, corresponding with the gizzard of a fowl, is called her pannel. In it the casting is formed. Passage. The line herons take over a tract of country on their way to and from the heronry when procuring food in the breeding season is called a "passage."
Passage hawks.-Are hawks captured when on their passage or migration. This passage takes place twice a year, in spring and autumn.
Rufter hood.-An easy fitting hood, not, however, convenient for hooding and unhooding-used only for hawks when first captured (see 3 in cut).
Seeling. Closing the eyes by a fine thread drawn through the lid of each eye, the threads being then twisted together above the head,- -a practice long disused in England.
Serving a hawk.- Driving out quarry which has taken refuge, or has "put in."
Take the air.-A bird is said to "take the air" when it seeks to escape by trying to rise higher than the falcon. Tiercel. The male of various falcons, particularly of the peregrine, is called a (" tiercel;" the term is also applied to the male of the
goshawk. Trussing.-A hawk is said to "truss a bird when she catches it in the air, and comes to the ground with it in her talons: this term is not applied to large quarry. (See Bind.) Varvels.-Small rings, generally of silver, fastened to the end of the jesses-not much used now.
Wait on.-A hawk is said to "wait on" when she flies above her master waiting till game is sprung.
Weathering.-Hawks are "weathered" by being placed unhooded in the open air. This term is applied to passage hawks which are not sufficiently reclaimed to be left out by themselves unhooded on blocks,-they are "weathered" by being put out for an hour or two under the falconer's eye. Yarak.-An Eastern term, generally applied to short-winged hawks. When a hawk is keen, and in hunting condition, she is said to be "in yarak."
The training of hawks affords much scope for judgment, experience, and skill on the part of the falconer, who must carefully observe the temper and disposition as well as the constitution of each bird; and various practices are resorted to which cannot be here described. It is through
the appetite principally that hawks, like most wild animals, | her. If her casting is not thrown it is better for him to
retire, leaving the room quite dark, and come in again later.
Young hawks, on being received by the falconer before they can fly, must be put into a sheltered place, such as an outhouse or shed. The basket or hamper should be filled with straw. A hamper is best, with the lid so placed as to form a platform for the young hawks to come out upon to feed. This should be fastened to a beam or prop a few feet from the ground. The young hawks must be most plentifully fed on the best fresh food obtainable--good beefsteak and fresh-killed birds; the falconer when feeding them should use his voice as in luring. As they grow old enough they will come out, and perch about the roof of their shed, by degrees extending their flights to neighbouring buildings or trees, never failing to come at feeding time to the place where they are fed. Soon they will be continually on the wing, playing or fighting with one another, and later the falconer will observe them chasing other birds, as pigeons and rooks, which may be passing by. As soon as one fails to come for a meal, it must be at once caught with a bow net or a snare the first time it comes back, or it will be lost. It must be borne in mind that the longer hawks can be left at hack the better they are likely to be for use in the field,-those hawks being always the best which have preyed a few times for themselves before being caught. Of course there is great risk of losing
hawks when they begin to prey for themselves. When a | is sighted winging his way at a height in the air over an hawk is so caught, she is said to be "taken up" from hack. She will not require a rufter hood, but a good deal of the management described for the passage falcon will be necessary. She must be carefully tamed and broken to the hood in the same manner, and so taught to know the lure; but, as might be expected, very much less difficulty will be experienced. As soon as the eyas knows the lure sufficiently well to come to it sharp and straight from a distance, she must be taught to "wait on." This is effected by letting the hawk loose in an open place, such as a down. It will be found that she will circle round the falconer looking for the lure she has been accustomed to see,-perhaps mount a little in the air, and advantage must be taken of a favourable moment when the hawk is at a little height, her head being turned in towards the falconer, to let go a pigeon which she can easily catch. When the hawk has taken two or three pigeons in this way, and mounts immediately in expectation, in short, begins to wait on, she should see no more pigeons, but be tried at game as soon as possible. Young peregrines should be flown at grouse first in preference to partridges, not only because the season commences earlier, but because, grouse being the heavier birds, they are not so much tempted to "carry" as with partridges.
open tract of country free from water. Though he has no chance whatever of competing with a falcon in straightforward flight, the heron has large concave wings, a very light body proportionately, and air-cells in his bones, and can rise with astonishing rapidity, more perpendicularly, or, in other words, in smaller rings, than the falcon can, with very little effort. As soon as he sees the approach of the falcon, which he usually does almost directly she is cast off, he makes play for the upper regions. Then the falcon commences to climb too to get above him, but in a very different style. She makes very large circles or rings, travelling at a high rate of speed, due to her strength and weight and power of flying, till she rises above the heron. Then she makes her attack by stooping with great force at the quarry, sometimes falling so far below it as the blow is evaded that she cannot spring up to the proper pitch for the next stoop, and has to make another ring to regain her lost command over the heron, which is ever rising, and so on, the "field" meanwhile galloping down wind in the direction the flight is taking till she seizes the heron aloft, "binds" to him, and both come down together. Absurd stories have been told and pictures drawn of the heron receiving the falcon on its beak in the air. It is, however, well known to all practical falconers that the heron has no power or inclination to fight with a falcon in the air; so long as he is flying he seeks safety solely from his wings. When on the ground, however, should the falcon be deficient in skill or strength, or have been mutilated by the coping of her beak and talons, as was sometimes formerly done in Holland with a view to saving the heron's life, the heron may use his dagger-like bill with dangerous effect, though it is very rare for a falcon to be injured. It is never safe to fly the goshawk at a heron of any description. Short-winged hawks do not immediately kill their quarry as falcons do, nor do they seem to know where the life lies, and seldom shift their hold once taken even to defend themselves; and they are therefore easily stabbed by a heron. Rooks are flown in the same manner as herons, but the flight is generally inferior. Although rooks fly very well, they seek shelter in trees as soon as possible.
The training of the great northern falcons, as well as that of merlins and hobbies, is conducted much on the above principles, but the jerfalcons will seldom wait on well, and merlins will not do it at all.
The training of short-winged hawks is a simpler proThey must, like falcons, be provided with jesses, swivel, leash, and bell. In these hawks a bell is sometimes fastened to the tail. Sparrow-hawks can, however, scarcely carry a bell big enough to be of any service. hood is seldom used for short-winged hawks,-never in the field. They must be made as tame as possible by carriage on the fist and the society of man, and taught to come to the fist freely when required-at first to jump to it in a room, and then out of doors. When the goshawk comes freely and without hesitation from short distances, she ought to be called from long distances from the hand of an assistant, but not oftener than twice in each meal, until she will come at least 1000 yards, on each occasion being well rewarded with some food she likes very much, as a freshkilled bird, warın. When she does this freely, and endures the presence of strangers, dogs, &c., a few bagged rabbits should be given to her, and she will be ready to take the field. Some accustom the goshawk to the use of the lure, for the purpose of taking her if she will not come to the fist in the field when she has taken stand in a tree after being baulked of her quarry, but it ought not to be necessary to use it.
Falcons or long-winged hawks are either "flown out of the hood," i.e., unhooded and slipped when the quarry is in sight, or they are made to "wait on " till game is flushed. Herons and rooks are always taken by the former method. Passage hawks are generally employed for flying at these birds, though we have known some good eyases quite equal to the work. For heron-hawking a well-stocked heronry is in the first place necessary. Next an open country which can be ridden over-over which herons are in the constant habit of passing to and from their heronry on their fishing excursions, or making their " passage." A heron found at his feeding place at a brook or pond affords no sport whatever. If there be little water any peregrine falcon that will go straight at him will seize him soon after he rises. It is sometimes advisable to fly a young falcon at a heron so found, but it should not be repeated. If there be much water the heron will neither show sport nor be captured. It is quite a different affair when he
For game-hawking eyases are generally used, though undoubtedly passage or wild-caught hawks are to be preferred. The best game hawks we have seen have been passage hawks, but there are difficulties attending the use of them. It may perhaps be fairly said that it is easy to make all passage hawks "wait on" in grand style, but until they have got over a season or two they are very liable to be lost. Among the advan tages attending the use of eyases are the following:-they are easier to obtain and to train and keep; they also moult far better and quicker than passage hawks, while if lost in the field, they will often go home by themselves, or remain about the spot where they were liberated. Experience, and, we must add, some good fortune also, are requisite to make eyases good for waiting on for game. Slight mistakes on the part of the falconer, false points from dogs, or bad luck in serving, will cause a young hawk to acquire bad habits, such as sitting down on the ground, taking stand in a tree, raking out wide, skimming the ground, or lazily flying about at no height. A good game hawk in proper flying order goes up at once to a good pitch in the airthe higher she flies the better-and follows her master from field to field, always ready for a stoop when the quarry is sprung. Hawks that have been successfully broken and judiciously worked become wonderfully clever, and soon learn to regulate their flight by the movements of their master. Eyases were not held in esteem by the old falconers, and it is evident from their writings that these hawks have been very much better understood and man