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The manner of estimating the heating power of coal has already been considered (vol. vi. p. 80).

The heating effect of fuels obtained in practice is always considerably less than that indicated by theory, as the latter supposes complete combustion, a result which cannot be attained in the ordinary system of burning upon a grate of bars with spaces between them for the admission of air, as a certain proportion of unconsumed particles when sufficiently reduced in size to pass through the grate bars fall through with the ashes, forming cinders which represent so much of the useful fuel lost, at any rate for the time. This proportion varies very considerably with the state of the fuel and its proportion of ash. A summary of the different observations upon this point made by Hartig, Playfair, Johnson, and Brix gives the total loss in ash and cinders observed in the coal trials of various countries as follows:

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The evaporative power in these experiments is referred to water at the freezing point, while in the results given in article COAL, vol. vi. p. 81, it is computed from the boiling point. The latter quantities therefore require to be reduced by about one-seventh to bring them into comparison.

In many cases, however, the evaporative factor found by practical experiment in a steam boiler is from a third to nearly a half less than that indicated by theory, the differences covering waste by imperfection of combustion and losses by radiation, &c., in the furnace and flues.

Of the other natural fuels the most important is socalled vegetable refuse, such as cotton stalks, brushwood, straw, and the woody residue of sugar cane after the extraction of the saccharine juice known as megasse or cane trash. These are extensively used in countries where wood and coal are scarce, usually for providing steam in the manufactures where they arise, e.g., straw for thrashing, cotton stalks for ploughing, irrigating, or working presses, and cane trash for boiling down sugar or driving the cane mill. According to Mr J. Head (Proc. Inst. of Civil Engineers, vol. xlviii. p. 75), the evaporative values of 1 Ib of these different articles when burnt in a tubular boiler are coal, 8 b; dry peat, 4 b; dry wood, 3.58-3-52 b; cotton stalks or megasse, 3.2-2.7 b; straw, 2.46-2.30 b. In burning straw it is found most convenient to use a pair of toothed rollers, which pass it continuously into the fire box in a thin layer. Owing to the siliceous nature of the ash, it is also desirable to have a means of clearing the grate bars from slags and clinkers at short intervals, and to use a steam jet to clear the tubes from similar deposits.

Somewhat similar to these are the tan cakes made from spent tanners' bark, which are used to some extent in eastern France and in Germany. They are made by moulding the spent bark into circular cakes, which are then slowly dried by exposure to the air. Their effect is about equivalent to 80 and 30 per cent. of equal weights of wood and coal respectively. The same class of fuel made from exhausted dye-wood is considered to be equal to two-thirds of its weight of coal.

Liquid fuel in the form of natural petroleum, and the heavy or so-called dead or creosote oil obtained in coaltar distilleries, have recently been used to some extent both for heating steam boilers and welding iron. In England the former cannot be used from its high price, apart from the danger caused by the irregular volatility of its constituents; the latter, however, is perfectly manageable when blown into a heated combustion chamber as a fine spray by means of steam jets, where it is immediately volatilized and takes fire. The heating power is very great, one ton of creosote oil being equal to 2 or 21 tons of coal in raising steam.

The common fuel of India and Egypt is derived from the dung of camels and oxen, moulded into thin cakes, and dried in the sun. As might be imagined it has a very low heating power, and in burning gives off acrid ammoniacal smoke and vapour.

Natural gases, consisting principally of light hydrocarbons, have at different times been used as fuel, but the examples of their application are necessarily rare. The most conspicuous example at the present time is afforded. by the Iron City and Siberia Iron Works, near Pittsburg, in Pennsylvania, where puddling and welding furnaces, as well as steam boilers, are entirely fired by the gas from a well bored for oil, 1200 feet deep, which is brought to the works through a pipe several miles in length, and arrives with a pressure of two atmospheres. Ordinary coal gas, such as is used for illuminating, can also be applied for heating purposes, but it is, in spite of its very high calorific power, too expensive for general use. A cheaper material obtained by the distillation of lignite at a high temperature has been tried to some extent in Berlin. The average composition of this is-hydrogen, 42.36; carbonic oxide, 40; marsh gas, 11-37; nitrogen, 3.17; carbonic acid, 2.01; and condensable hydrocarbons, 1.09 per cent. According to Ziurek, a thousand cubic feet of such gas corresponds in heating power to 30 or 33 tb of coal.

Sulphur, phosphorus, and silicon, the other principal combustible elements, are only of limited application as fuels. The first is used in the liquation of sulphur-bearing rocks. The ore is piled into large heaps, which are ignited at the bottom, a certain proportion, from one-fourth to one-third of the sulphur contents, being sacrificed, in order to raise the mass to a sufficient temperature to allow the remainder to melt, and run down to the collecting basin. Phosphorus, which is of value from its low igniting point, receives its only application in the manufacture of lucifer matches, the heat generated by friction against a roughened surface being sufficient to start the flame, which is ultimately communicated to the dry wood, by means of a somewhat less inflammable substance, such as sulphur or paraffin. The high temperature produced by burning phosphorus is due to the product of combustion (phosphoric acid) being solid, and therefore there is less heat absorbed than would be the case with a gaseous product. The same effect is observed in a still more striking manner with silicon, which in the only special case of its application to the production of heat, namely, in the Bessemer process of steel-making, gives rise to an enormous increase of temperature in the metal, sufficient indeed to keep the softest iron melted. The absolute calorific value of silicon is rather less than that of carbon, but the product of combustion (silicic acid) being fixed at all furnace temperatures, the whole of the heat developed is available for heating the molten iron, instead of a considerable part being consumed in the work of volatilization, as is the case with carbonic acid. (H. B.) IX.


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FUENTE DE CANTOS, a town of Spain in the pro- | vince of Badajoz, and midway between the cities of Badajoz and Seville. It has some trade in the produce of the surrounding district, which is fertile; and there are important copper mines in the vicinity. Almost its only manufacture is a coarse sort of frieze. Francisco Zurbaran, the painter, was born there in 1598. Population upwards of 6000. FUENTE DEL MAESTRE, a town of Spain in the province of Badajoz, about 25 miles S.S.W. of Merida. Its manufactures are insignificant, but it has some trade in corn, wine, oil, garbanzos, and other produce of the broad and fertile plain on which it is situated. Population, 5869. FUENTERRABIA, an ancient town and frontier fortress of Spain, in the province of Guipúzcoa and bishopric of Pamplona, 11 miles E.N.E. of San Sebastian and 2 miles from Irun. It stands on the slope of a hill on the west bank of the Bidassoa, and near the point where its estuary begins. At one time it possessed considerable strategic importance, and it has frequently been taken and retaken in wars between France and Spain. The "dolorous rout" of Charlemagne, however, which has been associated by Milton with Fontarabia, is generally understood to have taken place not here but at Roncesvalles, which is nearly 40 miles distant. Unsuccessful attempts to seize Fuenterrabia were made by the French troops in 1476 and again in 1503. In a subsequent campaign (1521) these were more successful, but it was retaken in 1524. The prince of Condé sustained a severe repulse under its walls in 1638, and it was on this occasion that the town received from Philip IV. the rank of city (muy noble, muy leal, y muy valerosa ciudad). After a severe siege it surrendered to the duke of Berwick in the English war of 1719 (18th June); and in 794 it again fell into the hands of the French, who so dismantled it that it has never since been reckoned by the Spaniards among their fortified places. It was by the ford opposite Fuenterrabia that the duke of Wellington, on the 8th of October 1813, by "one of the most daring exploits of military genius," successfully forced a passage into France in the face of an opposing army commanded by Soult. Severe fighting also took place here during the Carlist war in 1837. The town is now considerably dilapidated and decayed. Its inhabitants are employed chiefly in salmon and other fisheries. Population, 772. See Palafox, Sitio y Socorro de Fuente-rabia, Madrid, 1639.

FUERO. The Castilian use of this Latin word (forum) in the sense of a right, privilege, or charter is most probably to be traced to the Roman conventus juridici, otherwise known as jurisdictiones, or fora, which in Pliny's time were already numerous in the Iberian peninsula. In each of these provincial fora the Roman magistrate, as is well known, was accustomed to pay all possible deference to the previously established common law of the district; and it was the privilege of every free subject to demand that he should be judged in accordance with the customs and usages of his proper forum. This was especially true in the case of the inhabitants of those towns which were in possession of the jus italicum. It is not, indeed, demonstrable, but there are many presumptions, besides some fragments of direct evidence, which make it more than probable, that the old administrative arrangements both of the provinces and of the towns, but especially of the latter, remained practically undisturbed at the period of the Gothic occupation of Spain.1 The Theodosian Codex and the Breviarium Alaricianum alike seem to imply a continuance of the municipal system which had been established by the Romans; nor does the later Lex Visigothorum, though avowedly designed in some points to supersede the Roman law, appear to have

1 The nature of the evidence may be gathered from Savigny, Gesch. d. Röm. Rechts. See especially i. p. 154, 259 seq.


contemplated any marked interference with the former fora, which were still to a large extent left to be regulated in the administration of justice by unwritten, immemorial, local custom. Little is known of the condition of the subject populations of the peninsula during the Arab occupation; but we are informed that the Christians were, sometimes at least, judged according to their own laws in separate tribunals presided over by Christian judges; and the mere fact of the preservation of the name alcalde, an official whose functions corresponded so closely to those of the judex or defensor civitatis, is fitted to suggest that the old municipal fora, if much impaired, were not even then in all cases wholly destroyed. At all events when the word forum3 begins to appear for the first time in documents of the 10th century in the sense of a liberty or privilege, it is generally implied that the thing so named is nothing new. earliest extant written fuero is probably that which was granted to the province and town of Leon by Alphonso V. in 1020. It emanated from the king in a general council of the kingdom of Leon and Castile, and consisted of two separate parts; in the first 19 chapters were contained a series of statutes which were to be valid for the kingdom at large, while the rest of the document was simply a municipal charter. But in neither portion does it in any sense mark a new legislative departure, unless in so far as it marks the beginning of the era of written charters for towns. The "fuero general" does not profess to supersede the consuetudines antiquorum jurium or Chindaswint's codification of these in the Lex Visigothorum; the "fuero municipal" is really for the most part but a resuscitation of usages formerly established, a recognition and definition of liberties and privileges that had long before been conceded or taken for granted. The right of the burgesses to self-government and self-taxation is acknowledged and confirmed, they, on the other hand, being held bound to a constitutional obedience and subjec tion to the sovereign, particularly to the payment of definite imperial taxes, and the rendering of a certain amount of military service (as the ancient municipia had been). Almost contemporaneous with this fuero of Leon was that granted to Najera (Naxera) by Sancho el Mayor of Navarre (ob. 1035), and confirmed, in 1076, by Alphonso VI. Traces of others of perhaps even an earlier date are occasionally to be met with. In the fuero of Cardeña, for example, granted by Ferdinand I. in 1039, reference is made to a previous forum Burgense (Burgos), which, however, has not been preserved, if, indeed, it ever had been reduced to writing at all. The phraseology of that of Sepulveda (1076) in like manner points back to an indefinitely remote antiquity. Among the later fueros of the 11th century, the most important are those of Jaca (1064) and of Logroño (1095). The former of these, which was distinguished by the unusual largeness of its concessions, and by the careful minuteness of its details, rapidly extended to many places in the neighbourhood, while the latter charter was given also to Miranda by Alphonso VI., and was further extended in 1181 by Sancho el Sabio of Navarre to Vitoria, thus constituting one of the earliest written fora of the "Provincias Vascongadas." In the



Compare Lembke u. Schäfer, Geschichte Spaniens, i. 314; ii. 117. 3 Or rather forus. See Ducange, s. v.

* Cap. xx. begins :-Constituimus etiam ut Legionensis civitas, quæ depopulata fuit a Sarracenis in diebus patris mei Veremundi regis, repopulatur per hos foros subscriptos.

Mando et concedo et confirmo ut ista civitas cum sua plebe et cum cula cuncta. Amen. omnibus suis pertinentiis sub tali lege et sub tali foro maneat per sæ Isti sunt fueros quæ habuerunt in Naxera in diebus Sanctii regis et Gartiani regis.

6 Ego Aldefonsus rex et uxor mea Agnes confirmamus ad Septempublica suo foro quod habuit in tempore antiquo de avolo meo et in tempore comitum Ferrando Gonzalez et comite Garcia Ferdinandez et comite Domno Santio.

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course of the 12th and 13th centuries the number of such | documents increased very rapidly; that of Toledo especially, granted to the Mozarabic population in 1101, but greatly enlarged and extended by Alphonso VII. (1118) and succeeding sovereigns, was used as a basis for many other Castilian fueros. Latterly the word fuero came to be used in Castile in a wider sense than before, as meaning a general code of laws; thus about the time of Saint Ferdinand the old Lex Visigothorum, then translated for the first time into the vernacular, was called the Fuero Juzgo, a name which was soon retranslated into the barbarous Latin of the period as Forum Judicum;1 and among the compilations of Alphonso the Learned in like manner were an Espejo de Fueros and also the Fuero de las leyes, better known perhaps as the Fuero Real. The famous code known as the Ordenamiento Real de Alcalá, or Fuero Viejo de Castilla, dates from a still later period. As the power of the Spanish crown was gradually concentrated and consolidated, royal pragmaticas began to take the place of constitutional laws; the local fueros of the various districts slowly yielded before the superior force of imperialism; and only those of Navarre and the Basque provinces have had sufficient vitality to enable them to survive to comparatively modern times. While actually owning the lordship of the Castilian crown since about the middle of the 14th century, these provinces, until quite recently, rigidly insisted upon compliance with their consuetudinary law, and especially with that which provided that the señor, before assuming the government, should personally appear before the assembly and swear to maintain the ancient constitutions. Each of the provinces mentioned had distinct sets of fueros, codified at different periods, and varying considerably as to details; the main features, however, were the same in all. In the province of Biscay, the most democratic of the group, the management of public affairs was vested in the junta or assembly of popular representatives, chosen by household suffrage. Its functions included the collection of taxes, the protection and defence of the terri tory, and the nomination of all the officers of government except the corregidor. The inhabitants of the province were exempt from all imposts except the self-imposed ones of their own locality, and from all duties on imported merchandise. They claimed the privileges of Spanish nobility on merely proving their descent from pure Biscayan blood. They were not obliged to appear before any tribunal beyond the bounds of their own lordship, or to tolerate any royal intendant or comptroller within the province, or to allow any royal monopoly as in the rest of Spain, or have any royal establishment except the post-office, or admit royal troops within the territory, or furnish recruits for the royal army. They were privileged to defend their territory with their own means and their own blood, and, moreover, to visit with summary punishment every attempt to interfere with these their constitutional rights. These rights, after having been recognized by successive Spanish sovereigns from Ferdinand the Catholic to Ferdinand VII., were, at the death of the latter in 1833, set aside by the Government of Castaños. The result was a civil war, which terminated in 'a renewed acknowledgment of the fueros by Isabel II. (1839). The provisional Government of 1868 also promised to respect them, and similar pledges were given by the Governments which succeeded. In consequence, however, of the Carlist rising of 1873-76, the Basque fueros were finally extinguished in 1876. The his

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tory of the Foraes of the Portuguese towns, and of the Fors du Béarn, is precisely analogous to that of the fueros of Castile.

Among the numerous works that more or less expressly deal with this subject, that of Marina (Ensayo Historico-critico sobre la antigua Legislacion y principales Cuerpos Legales de los Reynos de Leon y Castilla) still continues to hold a high place. Reference may also be made to Colmeiro's Curso de Derecho Politico segun la historia de Leon y de Castilla (Madrid, 1873); to Schäfer's Geschichte von Spanien, ii. 418–428, iii. 293 seq.; and to Hallam's Middle Ages, c. iv.


FUGGER, the name of a Swabian family which, by remarkable energy in industry and commerce, acquired enormous wealth, and rose to high rank in the state. founder of the family was John Fugger, a respectable master-weaver at Graben, near Augsburg. His eldest son, John, associated trade in linen with weaving in Augsburg, of which he became a citizen by marriage in 1370. Here he rose to an honourable position, being one of the twelve councillors of the guild of weavers, and an assessor of the Fehmgericht, the much dreaded secret tribunal of Westphalia. He died in 1409, leaving a fortune of 3000 florins. His eldest son, by a second marriage, Andrew, was known as "the rich Fugger," and became the founder of a noble line, Fugger vom Reh, which died out in 1583. Jacob Fugger, the second son of John, was the first of the family who possessed a house in Augsburg, where he greatly extended the business he inherited, and was made head of the guild of weavers. After his death in 1469, his three sons, Ulrich, George, and Jacob, who were men of unusual resource and industry, added immensely to the riches he had left them. Ulrich devoted himself to trade, and his operations were so varied that even the works of Albert Dürer reached Italy by his means. Jacob worked the mines of Tyrol, and his profits were vast enough to enable him, without difficulty, to lend the archduke of Austria 150,000 florins, and to build (in Tyrol) the splendid castle of Fuggerau. The three brothers married ladies of noble families, and were themselves raised to noble rank by the emperor Maximilian, who, being always in need of money, was delighted to honour subjects whose power of aiding him was so extensive. In return for 70,000 gulden he mortgaged to them the county of Kirchberg and the lordship of Weissenhorn; and afterwards, in carrying on war with Venice, he received from them, at the request of Pope Julius II., a subsidy of 170,000 ducats. An evidence of the generous use to which they put their wealth still survives in the Fuggerei at Augsburg, a collection of more than 100 small houses built by the brothers and let by them at low rents to poor tenants. Jacob and the two sons of Ulrich died without heirs, so that the possessions of the family descended to the sons of George. Of these the eldest, Marcus, became a priest, and died in 1511. His two brothers, Raimund and Antonius, then represented the house, and their names were soon well known far beyond the limits of Germany, for they had commerical relations with nearly every part of the civilized world. They were vehement opponents of the Reformation, and freely spent money in support of the church. During the famous diet of Augsburg in 1530, Charles V. enjoyed the splendid hospitality of Antonius in his house in the Weinmarkt; and there is a story that the merchant astonished the emperor by lighting a fire of cinnamon with an imperial bond for money due to him. According to another anecdote, Charles remarked at a later time, when the treasury of the king of France was being shown to him, "There is a linen-weaver in Augsburg who could pay all that out of his own purse.' Whether these things are true or not, the emperor was certainly impressed by the extraordinary resources of the two citizens. He not only made over to them the mortgaged properties of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn, but created them


ounts and invested them with princely privileges. In re- | Kong twice a month. The town is the seat of several urn for the help they gave him in his expedition against important missions, of which the first was founded in he pirates of Algiers in 1535, he conferred on them the 1846. That supported by the American Board had already ight of issuing a gold and silver coinage of their own; and in 1876 issued 1,300,000 copies of Chinese books and he right was repeatedly exercised. Their princely rank tracts. The population of Fuh-Chow is stated by the Boston lid not prevent them from continuing their mercantile Missionary Herald, Feb. 1872, at about 400,000; but areer, and when Antonius died in 1560 he left six million A. E. Hippeslay in Handelsstatistik der Vertagshäfen von old crowns, besides a vast amount of property of various China, Vienna, 1874, the Overland China Mail, June inds in Europe, Asia, and America. He and his brother 1872, and the Church Missionary Record, Sept. 1872, Raimund (who died in 1535) were the founders of two great are all quoted by Behm and Wagner, Bevölkerung der Erde, ines which are still continued. The privileges conferred 1875, as giving the number 600,000. -n the family by Charles V. were confirmed and increased y Ferdinand II.; and since that time, although no member ither of the Raimund or the Antonius line has risen to the ighest distinction in any department, many of them have lone honourable service to the state, and have been famous or their liberality. The fortunes of the family are often ited in evidence of the prosperity of Germany before the country was nearly ruined by the Thirty Years' War. In 593 a collection of portraits of the chief representatives of he Fugger race, engraved by D. Custos of Antwerp, was ssued at Augsburg. Editions with 127 portraits appeared t Augsburg in 1618 and 1620, the former accompanied by genealogy in Latin, the latter by one in German. An dition which was published at Ulm in 1754 includes 139 portraits.


FUH-CHOW, more usually Foo-CHOw, and in German FU-TSCHAU, a city of China, capital of the province of Fuh-keen, and one of the principal ports open to foreign commerce. In the local dialect it is called Hokchin. It is ituated on the river Min, about 35 miles from the sea, in 26° 5′ N. lat. and 119° 20′ E. long., 140 miles N. of Amoy, and 280 S. of Hang-Chow. The city proper, lying early three miles from the north bank of the river, is urrounded by a wall about 30 feet high and 12 feet hick, which makes a circuit of upwards of five miles and s pierced by seven gateways surrounded by tall fantastic watch-towers. The whole district between the city and he river, the island of Nantai, and the southern banks of he Min are occupied by extensive suburbs; and the river tself bears a large floating population. Communication rom bank to bank is afforded by a long stone bridge supported by forty solid stone piers in its northern section and by nine in its southern. The most remarkable establishnent of Fuh-Chow is the arsenal situated about three miles lown the stream at Pagoda Island, where the sea-going vessels usually anchor. It was founded in 1867, and is conducted under the direction of French engineers according o European methods. In 1870 it employed about 1000 workmen besides fifty European superintendents. The port was opened to European commerce in 1842; and in 1853 the firm of Russell and Co. shipped the first cargoes of tea from Fuh-Chow to Europe and America. The Eurobean firms now number thirteen; and the tea trade is econd in importance only to that of Shanghai. In 1867 550,239 piculs of tea were exported; in 1869, 581,003 piculs; in 1872, 642,841 piculs; in 1875, 723,732 piculs; and in 1876, 617,579. The total trade in foreign vessels n 1876 was imports to the value of £1,531,617 and exports to the value of £3,330,489. The number of vessels that entered in the same year was 275, and of these 211 were British, 27 German, 11 Danish, and 9 American. A large trade is carried on by the native merchants in imber, paper, woollen and cotton goods, oranges, and olives; but the foreign houses mainly confine themselves to

FÜHRICH, JOSEPH VON (1800-1876), a painter and contemporary of Cornelius and Overbeck, was born at Kratzau in Bohemia in 1800. Deeply impressed as a boy by rude pictures adorning the wayside chapels of his native country, his first attempt at composition was a sketch of the Nativity for the festival of Christmas in his father's house. He lived to see the day when, becoming celebrated as a composer scriptural episodes, his sacred subjects were transferred in numberless repetitions to the roadside churches of the Austrian state, where humble peasants thus learnt to admire modern art reviving the models of earlier ages. Führich has been fairly described as a "Nazarene," a romantic religious artist whose pencil did more than any other to restore the old spirit of Dürer and give new shape to countless incidents of the gospel and scriptural legends. Without the power of Cornelius or the grace of Overbeck, he composed with great skill, especially in outline. His mastery of distribution, form, movement, and expression was considerable. In its peculiar way his drapery was perfectly cast. Essentially creative as a landscape draughtsman, he had still no feeling for colour; and when he produced monumental pictures he was not nearly so successful as when designing subjects for woodcuts. That such a man as Führich should have lived and prospered in the same city as Rahl and Makart proves that Vienna had room for every form of artistic development. But Führich's fame extended far beyond the walls of the Austrian capital; and there are few in Germany who are not acquainted with his illustra tions to Tieck's Genofeva, the Lord's Prayer, the Triumph of Christ, the Road to Bethlehem, the Succession of Christ according to Thomas à Kempis, the Prodigal Son, and the verses of the Psalter. His Prodigal Son, especially, is remarkable for the fancy with which the spirit of evil is embodied in a figure constantly recurring, and like that of Mephistopheles exhibiting temptation in a human yet demoniacal shape. Führich became a pupil of Bengler in the Academy of Prague in 1816. His first inspiration was derived from the prints of Dürer and the Faust of Cornelius, and the first fruit of this turn of study was the Genofeva series. In 1826 he went to Rome, where he added three frescos to those executed by Cornelius and Overbeck in the Palazzo Massimi. His subjects were taken from the life of Tasso, and are almost solitary examples of his talent in this class of composition. In 1831 he finished the Triumph of Christ now in the Raczynski Palace at Berlin. In 1834 he was made custos and in 1841 professor of composition in the Academy of Vienna. After this he completed the monumental pictures of the church of St Nepomuk, and in 1854-61 the vast series of wall paintings which cover the inside of the Lerchenfeld church at Vienna. In 1872 he was pensioned and made a knight of the order of Franz Joseph; 1875 is the date of his illustrations to the Psalms. He died on the 13th of March 1876.

FULDA. The monastery of Fulda occupies the place in opium and tea. Commercial intercourse with Australia the ecclesiastical history of mid Germany which Monte and New Zealand is on the increase. The principal Cassino holds in Italy, St Galle in south Germany, Corvey mports, besides opium, are shirtings, T cloths, lead and in north Germany, Tours in France, and Iona in Scotland. cin, medicines, rice, tobacco, and beans and pease. Two It was the centre of a missionary work, both of conversion aud steamboat lines afford regular communication with Hong-reformation, organized on monastic principles. The monastery

of Fulda was only one of several founded by Boniface, the so-called "apostle of Germany," but it was specially favoured by its founder, who selected it for his burying place, and it was by far the most important. The first abbot was Sturmius, the son of noble Christian parents in Noricum, who along with several other youths left their homes to follow Boniface, and were trained by him for missionary work. Boniface, notwithstanding his intense hatred of the Celtic missionaries, the true apostles of Germany, was content to imitate their mode of evangelical work; and the monastery of Fulda, though under Benedictine rule, in almost all respects resembled the great missionary institutions of Tours and Iona. Sturmius was sent by his master to seek for a convenient place for the monastery, and after two unsuccessful efforts he at length found a spot on the banks of the Fulda which Boniface approved of. A grant of the site, with four miles of surrounding demesne, was obtained from Carloman. Boniface himself superintended the clearing of the forest and the erection of the building. He sent Sturmius for a year to Italy to visit monasteries, and especially to study the mode of life in the great Benedictine convent of Monte Cassino. The Benedictine rule was adopted, and Sturmius with seven companions began their work of preaching, education, and civilization. They taught the rude tribes agriculture, masonry, and the other arts of peace. Soon a school was formed, and the educational organization seems to have resembled in the closest way that of the great Celtic monasteries. The school at Fulda speedily became the most famous portion of the monastery, and was the centre of the earlier mediæval theological learning. Rabanus Maurus, the first of the schoolmen, was a teacher in the convent school, and many of the most famous princes of the times were educated in the lay-school. When Alcuin laid the basis of the university system of medieval Europe, it was to Fulda as well as to Durham and Scotland that he looked for help in carrying out his designs. Fulda became the parent of many other missionary monasteries, the most famous of these being Hirschau in Swabia. In 968 the abbot of Fulda was recognized as primate of the other abbeys of Germany; but wealth and power brought corruption. In the beginning of the 11th century the monastery had to be reformed, and this was done by turning out the old monks, bringing a number of new ones from Scotland, and reestablishing in all its strictness the old Benedictine rule. The later history of Fulda has merely an antiquarian and local interest. Its practical work was done when the evangelization of Germany was complete; for Fulda, like the Celtic monasteries, was fitted for missionary work and little else. Investigations have shown curious sympathies with the Reformation of the 16th century among the abbots and monks of Fulda.

See the life of Sturmius in Pertz's Monumenta Germ., ii.; Rettberg's Kirchen-Gesch. Deutschlands; Milman's Latin Christianity, bk. iii. 5; and for the reformed tendencies of Fulda an interesting article in Niedner's Zeitsch. für Hist. Theologie, 1846.

FULHAM, a suburb of London, in the county of Middlesex, is situated on the Thames, 5 miles S.W. of St Paul's, and opposite Putney, with which it is connected by a curious old wooden bridge erected in 1729. In 1642 a bridge of boats was constructed across the river at this point by the earl of Essex, in order to convey his army into Surrey. Fulham has been connected with the see of London from a period long anterior to the conquest. The village is irregularly built, and has a somewhat old-fashioned and antique appearance. It contains an orphanage, a reformatory, and other charitable institutions. In the neighbourhood there are a number of gentlemen's seats, and of old mansions which have been occupied by persons of celebrity. There are extensive nurseries and market

gardens in the parish, and in the village there is a large pottery. The parish church, in the Decorated English style, possesses a picturesque tower 95 feet in height. In the church and churchyard there are a number of fine monuments of distinguished persons, including those of the bishops of London. The Palace has been the summer residence of the bishops of London since the time of Henry VII, with the exception of the period of the Commonwealth when it was sold to Colonel Edmund Harvey. It is a large brick structure of various dates and of small architectural merit. The grounds, which are surrounded by a moat, are 40 acres in extent. They are remarkable for the beauty of their arrangements, and contain many rare plants and shrubs. Fulbam is included in the parliamentary borough of Chelsea. The population of the parish in 1871 was 23,350.

FULLER, ANDREW (1754-1815), a distinguished preacher and theological writer of the Baptist denomination, was born on the 6th of February 1754, at Wicken, in Cambridgeshire, where his father was a small farmer, and received the rudiments of his education at the free school of Soham to which place his parents had removed about 1760. Early in life he began to assist in the work of the farm, and he continued to do so till he was twenty years of age In his seventeenth year he became a member of the Baptist church at Soham, and soon afterwards began to exercise his gifts as an exhorter with so great approval that, in the spring of 1775, he was called and ordained as pastor of that congregation. In 1782 he removed to Kettering in Northamptonshire, where, besides other advantages, he enjoyed that of frequent intercourse with some of the most eminent ministers of the denomination, such as Ryland, Sutcliff, and the Halls. About that time the Calvinism prevalent among the Baptists of England had come to be mingled and overlaid with many crudities which the Genevan Reformer would have disowned as foreign to his system; and for many years Fuller's intellectual and spiritual development had been much impeded, not only by the narrowness of his outward circumstances, and by the defects of his early education, but also by the contracted religious views of those to whom he had been accustomed to look for guidance. Even before leaving Soham, however, he had written the substance of a treatise, in which he had sought to counteract that hyper-Calvinism which, "admitting nothing spiritually good to be the duty of the unregenerate, and nothing to be addressed to them in a way of exhortation excepting what related to external obedience," had so long perplexed his own mind. This work he published, under the title The Gospel worthy of all Acceptation, soon after his settlement in Kettering; and although it immediately involved him in a somewhat bitter controversy which lasted for nearly 20 years, it was ultimately successful, as from its ability and force it deserved to be, in considerably modifying the views prevalent among English Dissenters with regard to the matters of which it treats. In 1793 he pub

lished a treatise in which the Calvinistic and Socinian systems were examined and compared as to their moral tendency. This work, which, along with another against Deism, entitled The Gospel its own Witness, is regarded as the production on which his reputation as a theologian mainly rests, was attacked by Toulmin and Kentish, to whom he replied in a supplementary pamphlet in which the weak side of Socinianism was still further exposed. Fuller also published an admirable Memoir of the Rev. Samuel Pearce, of Birmingham, and a volume of Expository Lectures in Genesis, besides a considerable number of smaller pieces, chiefly sermons and pamphlets, which have been issued in a collected form since his death, and like everything he did gave evidence of great intellectual vigour and acuteness as well as of deep religious convictions. Perhaps the most

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