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percussion caps, cartridges, and the employments of paper staining and fustian cutting. Post, p. 180.

And by the Factory Acts Extension Act, 1867 (30 & 31 Vict. c. 103), the Acts have been so extended as to comprise now within their general operation nearly all the manufacturing trades and employments. For, besides the considerable number of them there specifically defined as factories, it is also enacted, that there shall be included within the meaning of that term “any premises, whether adjoining or separate, in the same occupation situate in the same city, town, parish, or place, and constituting one trade establishment, in, or on, or within the precincts of which fifty or more persons are employed in any manilfacturing process.” S. 3.

This statute was accompanied by another passed in the same Session of Parliament, entitled “The Workshop Regulation Act, 1867" (30 & 31 Vict. c. 146), the object of which was to apply some of the principles of the Factory Acts to manufactures conducted on a smaller scale than that which would bring them within the operation of those Acts. See post, p. 219.

By “The Factory and Workshop Act, 1870,” the Acts which had till then been in force for the regulation of bleaching and dyeing works, and print works, were severally repealed, and it was thereby enacted that those works should be factories within the Factory Acts Extension Act, 1867. See supra.

Lastly, in the following Session, two statutes were passed, the first of them being “The Factory and Workshop (Jews) Act, 1871” (34 Vict. c. 19), for the purpose of partially exempting Jews from the restriction against employment on Sunday (post, p. 256); the other and the last statute passed upon the subject), being “The Factory and Workshop Act, 1871" (34 & 35 Vict. c. 104), which, without further extending the operation of the Factory Acts, except in the case of the manufacture of bricks and tiles (s. 5), made a few important changes in the law respecting the enforcement of the Workshop Acts

by the factory inspectors and sub-inspectors, and respecting. the mode of proceeding against offenders against the Factory Acts (k).

The result of the legislation thus cursorily reviewed above is that the principles and general regulations of the Factory Acts are now to a greater or less extent specifically applied to, and do still control the following manufactures, works, or employments, &c., namely S

Blast furnaces (7).
Bleaching and dyeing works (m).
Book-binding (n).

(k) In the statutes of 1867, 1870, and 1871, the legislature introduced a series of "modifications,” for the purpose of meeting the peculiar exigencies of various trades, and of relieving them from some of the requirements of the law. See post, pp. 205, 239, 248, 265.

(1) Any blast furnace or other furnace or premises in or on which the process of smelting or otherwise obtaining any metal from the ores is carried on (which furnace or premises are in the Act referred to as a blast furnace), is one of the meanings assigned to the term “factory” by the Factory Acts Extension Act, 1867. 30 & 31 Vict. c. 103, s. 3, post.

(m) This term under the Factory and Workshop Act, 1870, means any premises, whether in the open air or not, in which the processes of bleaching, beetling, dyeing, calendering, finishing, hooking, lapping, and making up and packing any yarn or cloth of any material, or the dressing or finishing of lace, or any one or more of such pro

esses, or any process incidental thereto, are or is carried on. 33 & 34 Vict. c. 62, s. 3; post.

(n) The term “factory” comprises, under the Factory Acts Extension Act, 1867 (30 & 31 Vict. c. 103, s. 3), any premises in which any of the following manufactures or processes are carried on, namely,

(a.) Paper manufacture .
(b.) Glass manufacture :
(c.) Tobacco manufacture :
(d.) Letterpress printing :
(e.) Bookbinding.

Brass foundries (0).

Bricks and Tiles, not being ornamental bricks and tiles (p). And see Earthenware.

Caps, percussion ().
Cartridges ().
Copper foundries (r).
Copper mills (8).
Cotton (t).
Dyeing. See Bleaching and Dyeing Works.

Earthenware, except bricks and tiles, not being ornamental tiles (u).

Flax (t).
Foundries. See Iron, Copper, Brass.
Furnaces. See Blast furnaces.
Fustian cutting (u).
Glass (v).
Gutta-percha (w).

(c) These foundries, as well as iron and copper foundries, and other premises or places in which the process of founding or casting any metal is carried on, are comprised within the term “ factory.” 30 & 31 Vict. c. 103, s. 3.

(p) 34 & 35 Vict. c. 104, s. 5. This manufacture had been excepted from the provisions of the Factory Acts Extension Act, 1864. See post, p. 189, n. (a).

(9) 27 & 28 Vict. c. 48 (the Factory Acts Extension Act, 1864), ss. 2, 6, 1st and 2nd schedules. Post.

(7) 30 & 31 Vict. c. 103, s. 3. See n. (c), supra. (s) 30 & 31 Vict. c. 103, s. 3.

(t) That is to say, where mechanical power is used to move or work machinery employed in preparing, manufacturing, or finishing, or in any process incident to the manufacture of the material here mentioned. 7 & 8 Vict. c. 15, s. 73 ; post, p. 125. And see 3 & 4 Will. 4, c. 103, s. 1. And as to the cotton and wool manufactures, see also 42 Geo. 3, c. 73.

(u) 27 & 28 Vict. c. 48, ss. 2, 6, 1st and 2nd schedules. (v) 30 & 31 Vict. c. 103, s. 3. See n. (n), supra. (w) The term “factory,” under 30 & 31 Vict. c. 103, includes any

Hair (2)
Hemp (x).
India-rubber (y).
Iron foundries (2).
Iron mills (a).
Jute (6).
Lace (c).
Letterpress printing (d).
Linen (e).
Lucifer matches (F).
Machinery (g).
Metal, articles of, other than machinery (9).
Paper (d).

premises in which steam, water, or other mechanical power is used for moving machinery employed -

(a.) In the manufacture of machinery :
(b.) In the manufacture of any article of metal not being ma-

chinery:
(c.) In the manufacture of india-rubber or gutta-percha, or

articles made wholly or partly of india-rubber or gutta

percha. (x) 7 & 8 Vict. c. 15, s. 73. See n. (t), ante. (y) See n. (w), ante. (z) 30 & 31 Vict. c. 103, s. 3. See n. (c), ante.

(a) This term will comprise any mill, forge, or other premises in or on which any process is carried on for converting iron into malleable iron, steel, or tin plate, or for otherwise making or converting steel. 30 & 31 Vict. c. 103, s. 3.

(6) 7 & 8 Vict. c. 15, s. 73. See n. (t), ante.

(c) This is to be taken as confined to those factories in which machines for the manufacture are moved by steam or water power. 24 & 25 Vict. c. 117, s. 4 ; post.

(d) 30 & 31 Vict. c. 103, s. 3. Note (1), ante.
(e) 3 & 4 Will. 4, c. 103, s. 1.
(f) 27 & 28 Vict. c. 48, ss. 2, 6, 1st and 2nd schedules.
(9) 30 & 31 Vict. c. 103, s. 3. Note (w), ante.

Paper-staining (1).
Percussion caps. See Caps.
Print works (i). See Letterpress printing.
Silk (k).
Tiles. See Bricks and Tiles. Earthenware.
Tobacco (I).
Tow (k).
Wool (k).
Worsted (k).

Besides the specific application of the Acts to the several manufactures, works, and employments above enumerated (which, it will be observed, is independent of the number of persons employed), it has now been also generally enacted, that there shall be included within the term “ factory ” under the Act of 1867, and that there shall be subjected to the provisions of the Factory Acts any premises, whether adjoining or separate, in the same occupation, situate in the same city, town, parish, or place, and constituting one trade establishment, in, or on, or within the precincts of which fifty or more persons are employed in any manufacturing process." 30 & 31 Vict. c. 103, s. 3 ; see post, p. 194 ; and see the notes there.

This important enactment was supplemented by the statute passed in the same Session of Parliament entitled " The Workshop Regulation Act, 1867 ;" whereby those manufactures, works, and employments which (whether as not having been specifically mentioned, or as being carried on too small a scale to be comprehended

(h) 27 & 28 Vict. c. 48, ss. 2, 6, 1st and 2nd schedules.

(i) This term means under the Factory and Workshop Act, 1870, any premises in which any persons are employed to print figures, patterns, or designs upon any cotton, linen, ollen, worsted, or silken yarn, or upon any woven or felted fabric, not being paper, 33 & 34 Vict. c. 62, 8. 3 ; post.

(k) 7 & 8 Vict. c. 15, s. 73. See n. (t), ante, (?) See n. (n), ante,

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