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LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 5, 1894.

on the subject-to proceed in the matter soon

after his accession (Cal. State Papers, Dec. 30,1625). CONTENTS.- No 210.

Nothing further is heard of the scheme. Mr. NOTES:-Sir Francis Barnbam and a proposed Academy of

Thompson Cooper has given a brief account of it Literature, 1-The Orkneys, 2-Curiosities of Superstition in Italy, 4-Gersuma-Occam=Oakum-Post Office Perse in his notice of Edmund Bolton in his little Bioverance - Parliament in Guildhall, 6-Hutton-Cranswick

graphical Dictionary, and some reference to it is - Font-Curious Blunder, 7.

made in the first volume of the Archeologia QUERIES:_Quaint Phrases of John Marston, 7-Best Man

King James's " Book of Sports"-Shrine of St. John of Wapping -Buried Cities-Royal Cosmographers -"Bisoms Inne Shag-ear'd-Matthews Family, 8-Bear-skin Jobber -"Down in the mouth"-General Grosvenor: General. Wolfe-Site of Tomb Wanted-Earliest Glasgow Directory that such must exist, and I shall be grateful if -MSS. of Dr. Andrew Brown - Pemberton's Parlour

any readers of “ N. & Q." can help me to find it. " Reminiscences of Half a century"-Bridgham Family, 9 -Sir Henry Hayes-Castle Foggies-Archbishop's Barge | Assuming the trustworthiness of Rose's state" Itinerary" of Richard of Cirencester-Halsaker, Boynacle,

ments, I cannot comprehend the claims of Sir and Satriston " Vita di Oliviero Cromvelle"-"Day's Journey of the Sun-Prisoner of Gisors-Charles Bannister Francis Barnham to admission to a literary -Authors Wanted, 10.

academy. According to Rose, he was the author of REPLIES:-Wooden Tombs and Effigies, 11-Former Royal

an unprinted history of his family, of which I have Inhabitant at Eastwell, 12-Mould of the Head-Dates on Fonts, 13-Setting the Thames on Fire-The Word Gá been unable to find other mention. A letter from * Hundred of Launditch"-Romano-British Liturgy, 14

him to Mr. Griffith, the Lord Privy Seal's secreGoodwin Sands-"God be with us "the Devil-Fowler Family-Spread - Harris of Boreatton, 15-Reynolds --Sir tary (July 3, 1613), in Lansdowne MS. 255, No.155, John Odingsells Leeke-Red Castle-Glastonbury Thorn and some account of his connexion with Boughton Fifth Centenary of Wycliffe, 16-A Fellowship-Warine

Monchelsea (Monchensey), co. Kent, in Harleian Wose-Napoleonic Prophecy -Christmas Eve ObservanceCaroline, Countess of Dunraven-Lady Bellenden, 17-Aaron MS. 6019, represent all that I have been able to Burr: Turnerelli-Cardinal Pole-University Cap-Daniel

learn of him from the MSS. of the British Museum, Race-Awae: Own: One-Continuation of the “Sentimental Journey." 18-Authors Wanted, 19.

and no printed catalogue of MSS. at the Bodleian NOTES ON BOOKS:-Tuer's “ London Cries" - Palmer's or in the Cambridge University Library refers to " Narrative of Events connected with the Pablication of

him. I have noted, as Rose, with his customary Tracts for the Times" -Gerald Massey's "Natural Genesis." Xotices to Correspondents, &c.

perfunctoriness, has failed to do, several facts of interest concerning his family, but of his personal

history or literary fame I have ascertained little. Notes.

I should be grateful for further information.

Sir Francis was the eldest son of Martin BarnSIR FRANCIS BARNHAM AND A PROPOSED ham. of London and Hollingbourne. co. Kent. ACADEMY OF LITERATURE UNDER JAMES I

AMES I.: | by his second wife, Judith, daughter of Sir Martin THE FAMILY OF LADY BACON.

Calthorpe, Knight, of London, and grandson of In the meagre notice of Sir Francis Barn- | Francis Barnham, merchant, who was elected ham given in Rose's Biographical Dictionary Alderman of Farringdon Without on December 14, it is stated that he and his father-in-law 1568, and Sheriff of London in 1570. Martin Sampson Lennard were, about 1620, nominated Barnham was Sheriff of London in 1598, was members of a proposed academy of literature, to knighted on July 23, 1603 (Nichols's Progresses of be called the Academy Royal, and to be attached James I., i. 214), and dying on December 12, to the Order of the Garter. Of the scheme 1610, at the age of sixty-three, was buried in St. of this academy something more than Rose Clement's, Eastcheap (Stow's London, ed. Strype, tells us may be learnt from two volumes among bk. ii. p. 183). Of the three younger brothers of the Harleian MSS. (6103 and 6143), where its Martin Barnham, Benedict (the most important original projectors explain their intentions at member of the family) was educated at St. Alban's length, but its history has never been written and Hall, Oxford (Wood's Antiquities, ed. Gutch, p.659), is very obscure. The object was to establish a was a liveryman of the Drapers' Company, became brotherhood under royal favour to foster learning Alderman of Bread Street Ward on October 14, and to direct the labours of all “writers in 1591, and served the office of sheriff in the same humanitie." Between 1617 and 1620 the project year. He joined the Society of Antiquaries, obtained much influential support, and Bucking- originally formed by Archbishop Parker in 1572, ham and the king freely assented to it. In 1622 of which Aubrey, Camden, and Spelman, among a James I. bade Prince Charles take the necessary number of smaller antiquaries, were conspicuous steps for putting it in practice (Cal. State Papers, members, the dissolution of which about 1612 June 25, 1622), but James died before anything had originally suggested the formation of a literary was done, and Charles I. was solicited in vain by academy (Archeologia, i. xx). Benedict died on Edmund Bolton—who had taken an active part in April 3, 1598, at the age of thirty-nine, and an arranging the preliminary details, and has been elaborate monument was erected above his grave credited with the authorship of the Harleian MSS. in St. Clement's, Eastcheap (Stow, ut supra). Wood tells us that he left 2001. to St. Alban's by the genial flow of the Gulf Stream, present, on Hall, Oxford, to rebuild “its front next the a near approach, an agreeable contrast with the street," and that “as a testimony of the bene- deep blue of the surrounding sea. Their irregular faction” his arms were engraved over the gateway outlines of shore and of fell are also striking and on the plate belonging to the "house." He and in some cases fantastic. Precipitous headmarried Alice, the daughter of Humphrey Smith, lands, with summits looking out like sentinels Queen Elizabeth's silkman, stated to be of an through mist and cloud, over the broad expanse of ancient Leicestershire family. By her he had four the Atlantic, and with bases which receive the full daughters, of whom Elizabeth, the eldest, married swing of the billows that roll and break against Mervin, Lord Audley and Earl of Castlebaven, of them, (present a bare, rugged, and defiant apinfamous memory, and Alice, the second daughter, pearance; while grassy slopes that rise from the became in 1606 the wife of Sir Francis Bacon water's edge around many of the inland bays (Spedding's Life, iii. 290). Sir Francis Barnham -in many cases 80 surrounded by land as to was thus related by marriage to one of the two resemble lakes - seem quite pastoral. Lovers most eminent men of the age.

of the picturesque may find much of the attracOf Sir Francis's early career I know nothing. tion of southern lako scenery, combined with He was knighted on July 23, 1603, at Whitehall, the sterner beauties of the ocean. Some of the on James I.'s accession, at the same time as his smaller islands, or holms as they are called, father (Nichols, ut supra). He inherited in 1613, have low indented shore lines, on the bright from Belknap Rudston, the brother of his father's sand of which the waves lap and curl; while first wife, the estate of Boughton Monchelsea with often on some inland part of their surface they which genealogists identify him. He married seem gathered up into heaps, resembling in Elizabeth, daughter of Sampson Lennard, of their contorted forms so many marino monsters Chevening, co. Kent, who was an antiquary of crouching in the water, or making ready for some eminence in his day. In 1624 he was one a spring. The entire absence of trees enables of the commissioners empowered to enforce one at a glance to seize on these natural inmartial law against disorderly soldiery at Dover equalities of outline. Many of the islands have (Rymer's Foedera, xvii. 647). Sir Francis was appa- received names of animals, from some fancied rently long-lived. He represented Maidstone in the resemblance of this sort. There is at least Long Parliament, was an intimate friend of Sir one horse, the Horse of Copinshay. Several Roger Twysden, who describes him as “a right small islands are called calves; there is a Hen honest gentleman," mildly supported the Parlia- and Chickens; and one rock bears the commonmentarians during the war, and urged the release of place name of the Barrel of Butter. his eldest son, Robert, imprisoned by the Kentish The Norsemen, who gave names to most of committee in 1649 (Archæologia Cantiana, ii. 181, the islands, were close observers of nature, and 195; iv. 185). He was the father of fifteen chil- quick to seize any peculiar characteristic of dren, of whom a younger son, William, was Mayor men or things. Any oddity of personal appearof Norwich in 1652. His eldest son, Robert, who ance never failed to give rise to a nickname ; seems to have been a Royalist, and probably took which, however, conveyed no opprobrium, part in the Kentish rising of 1648, received a but was applied to the most illustrious among baronetcy from Charles II. on August 14, 1663, them. From the want of family names, the use of resided at Boughton, and died in 1685. He was such sobriquets as Fair Haired, Blue Tooth, Bare succeeded in the title by a grandson, with whose Legs, and countless others to be found in the death, in 1728, the baronetcy became extinct. sagas, seems to have been the only means that

My authorities for the statements not otherwise remained to identify one another with precision. supported are Hasted's Kent, the Remembrancia Tbis faculty of observation was developed in the of London, and Burke's E.clinct Baronetage. Of poetry of their scalds. Through a sort of rude the dates of Sir Francis's birth and death, or of any rhetoric, devoid of imagination, things are therein clue to his history between 1624 and 1642, I am called by names coined from some other attribute wholly ignorant.

S. L. LEE. than that indicated by the ordinary name. A

spade is no longer called a spade, but it may be

an earth-opener, Had the Norsemen then been THE ORKNEYS,

a little more imaginative-in which case no doubt Much attention has been given of late, by holi- they would not have come up to our modern idea of day travellers and others, to the Orkneys, and them, nor played the important part that has been deservedly 80; for few places offer a greater variety assigned them in the world's history — or been of objects to attract and interest. Their position, possessed of a little more knowledge of natural dotted around the northern extremity of our history we should have had less homely and island, is extremely picturesque. During the more appropriate names to enumerate. One or summer months their bright green shores, watered two of the islands are flat-one, Sanday or the Sandy Isle, is uniformly so. It consists of a The name Orcades, from which has been derived nacleus of sand banks, surrounded by narrow Orkney, was, no doubt, given to the islands by the outlying ridges, and looks like a large octopus Romans, from their proximity to Cape Orcas, floating on the surface of the water, with its Dunnet Head. That the name was not of native arms distended, waiting for its prey. When origin, any more than that of Pomona, is attested the north wind bowls around the storm-swept by a document drawn up by Thomas, Bishop of islands, the prey, unfortunately, does not fail to Orkney, with the aid of his clergy, in the year arrive. Once caught between these low spurs 1446, wherein it is stated that on the arrival of of land, that remain upperceived until too near the Northmen, A.D. 872, the land was not called to be avoided, a ship seldom escapes. These “ Orchadie," but the land of Pets—the northern are nature's sterner aspects, as seen during the manner of writing Picts-in proof of which is winter months. During the months of June, July, adduced tbe name of Petland Firth, the strait that and August the scene is different. The long separates the islands from Scotland. This name northern twilight prevails from the end of May is still generally pronounced in Orkney Petland, till the beginning of August. The sun then just and not Pentland, Firth. Saxo, the historian, dips below the horizon, as if his setting was a mere terms the islands Petia. The document referred form; the daylight remains uninterrupted. This to goes on to state that, on the invasion of the is the proper season to visit the islands. The charm Northmen, the islands were occupied by two of these long evenings must be seen and felt peoples, called Peti, or Picts, and Papæ. These to be appreciated.

latter have been proved to be Irish monks, Some persuasion is necessary to induce who appear to have obtained a footing on the natives of a southern country to visit the islands at a very early period. They had also north. There has existed, since the time of preceded the Northmen in Iceland. Ari, the hisHebrew prophets and the earliest historians and torian of Iceland, states that before the arrival of poets, something like a prejudice against the north. the Northmen there were men settled there called It has been regarded as the land of darkness and Papa, and that they were Christian and holy men desolation, while the south' has been described as who had come from the west; for there were found the region of luxuriant vegetation and of romance. after them Irish books and other articles, from The sun has always attracted the wonder and the which it was easily understood that they were aspirations of our race, who have followed its Westmen. They were found settled in West course in their migrations from east to west; and Papey and in Papyli. It may be seen from the to its fancied home both the Grecian sage and the Irish books, adds Ari, that at this time there was untutored savage have looked, in the hope of there much intercourse between the countries. Any enjoying another state of existence. An old reader who may wish to pursue this matter further commentator on Horace places the Fortunate will find it treated in the work of the Irish monk, Isles beyond the Orkneys. He was no doubt Dicuil, De Mensura Orbis Terrarum, of which there badly informed as to the position of the latter. It is a good recent edition (Berlin, G. Parthey, 1870). could only be owing to their supposedly western The early residence of these monks in Orkney position that they could be imagined to be near is indicated by many names of islands and places the fabled Islands of the Blest.

yet remaining. We find Papa Stronsay, Papa The Orkneys are frequently mentioned by Westray, Papdale, Papley-tbe latter often a classical authors in connexion with Thule and family name-Egilsey, i. c., the Church - isle ; the ends of the earth. Pomponius Mela states Enballow, i.e., Egin - Helga; the Holy Isle, them to be thirty in number; Solinus, a later Daminsey, i. e., St. Adamnan's Isle. There writer, gives the number as three, which is sur are also remains of chapels dedicated to St. posed to be an error for thirty-three. This latter Columba, St. Ninian, St. Bridget, and St. Tredwriter says, in describing the izlands, “Thule well. The town of Kirkwall-Kirkuivag, i, e., the larga et ditissima et ferax pomarum est.” Thule Bay of the Kirk-took its name from a church is large, and very rich and fertile in fruits. A that has now disappeared. The Northmen are blandering copyist, paying no attention to the said to bave destroyed, on their arrival, all the preusual contracted form of writing the gen. pl. by vious inhabitants of the islands; hence the knowa stroke across the letter preceding the termina- ledge of the Christian religion thus early introduced tion, copied the text, “Thule larga et ditissima was obliterated by the pagan superstitions of the et ferax pomona est.” A succeeding copyist wrote newcomers. pomona with a capital letter, and thereby gave a Numerous prehistoric monuments are to be Dame to the principal island in the Orkney group, found on the islands, the most striking of which which has been received by geographers, but has are the Stones of Stennis, a circle of monoliths never been accepted by the inhabitants, who call only second iu importance to that of Stonehenge. it the Mainland. By the saga writers it is called Their erection dates from a remote antiquity, Meginland, or Hrossey, i. e., the Horse Island. many centuries before the arrival of the Northmen. There are also very numerous remains of buildings fate does not appear, however, to have put an end termed Peights (Picts) Houses. This name has to his sect, which lingered on, perhaps as late been given too indiscriminately to buildings of as the tenth century. Of his writings some fragvarious sorts, intended evidently for defence, for ments are preserved in Grabe, Spicilegium SS. sepulture, and for the performance of superstitious Patrum, and they are frequently cited in the rites. The fact of certain of them having sub- Philosophumena. terraneous chambers devoid of air and light, and The demonographers of the sixteenth to the of such dimensions as not to allow a person eighteenth century continually allude to the flight within them to stand upright, has probably given across the Forum as effected by the aid of demons;5 rise to the notion that the Peight was a dwarf. and, only to cite one, Menghi, cap. xiv. lib. ii., The two words in Orkney have become synony- treats it as such an accepted fact that he brings mous, and seem to be still further confused with | it forward among his proofs that demons do actually the names of the dvergs and trolls of northern super- and bodily transport persons through the air at the stition. These latter were the Titans of the Norse bidding of magicians.h mythology. It is an old saying in Orkney that the Strega, and lamia, the two most common cathedral of St. Magnus, at Kirkwall, was “a' appellations for a witch, bave both remained in biggit in a night by the Peights."

use, the one in the mouth of the people, and the J. G. FOTBERINGHAM. other in the writings of the learned in such matters, (To be continued.)

almost unaltered from old Roman times. Strega is the strix, the screech-owl, of which it was fabled

on the authority of Ovid and Pliny that it sucked CURIOSITIES OF SUPERSTITION IN ITALY. the blood of young children, or strangled them in (Continued from 6th S. viii. 442.)

| the cradle; and the word has remained in Italian With regard to the association of St. Paul in only in this figurative sense, for a screech-owl is all traditions of this episode, it might suffice to now civetta. observe that in the early traditions concerning St. Peter's pontificate in Rome the “twin Simon Magus, and De Simonis Volatu, &c., Naples,

1755. apostles” are never separated, and a painter of

• Moses Barcephas, quoted by Moroni, lxvi. 160. That the thirteenth century would never think, pro- he had a great following at one time is found in Orig.. bably, of introducing one without the other. That Contro Celso; Justin Martyr; St. Clement, &c. (P. St. Paul, already confined in the neighbouring | Franco).. Tullian dungeon, united his prayers with those of

? His chief work seems to have been the Book of the St. Peter is, however, according to P. Franco, men

| Contradictions or Great Negation, à topaoic meyálo

9, men (Moroni and P. Franco). Of his doctrines and followers tioned by several early writers. Another item

speaks St. Irenæus, Contr. Hæres., i. 23 (P. Franco, of the tradition was that in St. Peter's prayer for note 98). the discomfiture of the impostor was a distinct % So had the painters of the preceding centuries, petition that he might not be killed on

| Among the obscure early paintings in the collections at the spot, but survive long enough to repent

the Vatican, Siena, Turin, and other places, the subject

may be seen thus treated-quaint demons carrying the of his errors. Instead of thus employing the magician through the air. I have a copy of one ascribed respite obtained for him, he made another to Giotto in the private collection of a friend, which I attempt at showing his power of flying, from a should be happy to show any one interested in the subject, villa called Brunda at L'Ariccia, whither his dis

I have thought it admissible to treat the subject ciples carried him to cure him of his wounds.

thus at length not only on account of its intrinsic rela

tion to my subject, but also because I have so often Again he fell; and, not yet convicted of his follies,

found that the two altarpieces in St. Peter's represent. be ordered that he should be buried alive, pro ing the subject, as well as the stone whereon St. Peter is mising that he would in that case rise again whole said to bave knelt that day, preserved in Sta. Francesca the third day-an order executed by his dis

Romana in the Foro Romano, excite the curiosity of ciples Marcellus and Apuleius.d His miserable

visitors to Rome to make acquaintance with the legend, which I think has not before been provided completely

and handily in English, He quotes to this effect Sulpic. Sev., Stor. Sac., ii. In the list of Italian words derived from Latin ap28; St. Cirill Geros., Catech., vi, 15; St. Mass. Torin., pended to Dr. Andrews's English rendering of Freund's Omel., Ixxii. ; and most distinctly of all St. Isid. Ispal., Lexicon, striscia is noted as derived from strix. I on in bis Chron., “ Adjurante eos [dæmones] Petro, per find no meaning to striscia, however, in any Italian dicDeum, Paulo vero orante (Simon) dimissus crepuit."' tionary to which I have had access, connecting it with Similar testimony may be found in Cuccagni, Vita di . a screech-owl; striscia means "a strip" of anything, Pietro, iii. cap. ix.

and sometimes in poetry a serpent. Since writing the Eccid. Gerus., ii. 2; Costit. A post., vi. 9 (in P. Franco's above I have met in the Compendio dell' Arte Essorcista note 150)

la misderivation of the word lamia, which coincides Eccid. Gerus., 1.c.; Arnob., Contro i Gent, ii. 12; 1 with this fortuitously in a very odd way. In lib, iv. p. 236, Lucidi, Mem. Stor. dell' Aric., ii. i. 317 (note 151). Girolomo Menghi, the author, derives lamia' from

1 Arnobius, quoted by Moroni, lxvi. 160, who also laniare, "to destroy," "to rend in strips," as denoting refers to Golt., Dissertation on the Flight and Fall of “one so cruel as to tear in strips her own children"

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