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not being necessary to salvation. On the

other hand, the proneness to faith of the period (Continued from p. 22.)

designated 'mediaeval did certainly manifest itself Tartarotti supplies a good story, which further in the handing on by the people of the traditional illustrates the view previously expressed. He is superstitions of the earlier religions, and in the genesadly wanting in order and sparing of dates, and ration of new superstitions, which had nearly superthis date I cannot exactly supply, but the authority seded the others. But they again received a fresh is an early ecclesiastical writer. A certain old and immeasurably increased expansion under the wench (vetula) went to her priest and vaunted a new influences of the Renaissance. In an age in service she had rendered him in the night by which the tendency is in the opposite direcmeans of her familiarity with the spirits. “Howtion it seems incomprehensible that such ideas did you get into my room, seeing the door was should ever have entered men's minds. They did, locked ?" inquired the priest. “Oh, for that however, obtain and expand to a formidable extent, matter, passing through closed doors is one of our and were so outrageous and degrading in their easiest feats," she replied. Without answering development that it is scarcely astonishing if the her another word, the priest beckoned her within most deplorable severity was resorted to in coping the rails, and, having closed the gate, belaboured with them, even though it subsequently appeared her with the stem of the crucifix, saying the while, that their discredit was better attained when that “Get thee out of this, my lady sorceress !” When, severity was relaxed. at last, she had to confess she could not pass the It will not, I think, be found uninteresting to closed gate, he let her out, saying, “ You see now briefly note some of the more curious instances how silly you are in believing these foolish dreams.” that fall under one or other of three heads. He clearly treated it as foolish imposition, not as 1. Of the first, those derived from the earlier a crime committed. The language of the celebrated religions, I have already been led to speak, and Benedictine Gratian, in the twelfth century, is shall have to speak again under the third head. quite in conformity with that already cited. So 2. The second seem to have arisen for the most is that of Astesano d'Asti, Angelo di Chivasso, part out of a too literal and material application ot S. Antonino, and Giovanni Mansionario, a Vero- the promises of the Bible. God, it was said, gives nese writer of the fourteenth century, who quotes good gifts to those who ask Him; therefore simple S. John Cbrys., S. Jerome, S. Ambrose, Pope minds seem to have thought it followed that S. Leo, &c., to the same effect.

| whatever they asked for they must, of necessity, To sum up, the mediæval idea concerning witch- receive ; and further, that such immediate results craft would seem to have been that it was partly a actually did habitually occur. The approbation disease and partly a folly to be deplored and expressed by the inspired writers of those who lead reprobated. It was much later that it came to be a good life was expected to display itself in the magaified into a crime ; and it was under this ready reward of temporal good luck. Many stories later treatment that it attained its greatest im- I collected in Rome itself, such as those under the portance. Though Holy Writ and the Churcb, head of “Quando Gesù Cristo girava la Terra," writes Prof. Aberle, under the head of“ Zauberei,” those entitled “ Cento per Uno," Il Mercante e il have both forbidden the use of magical arts under- Mago," &c., are the produce of this spirit. On the taken with the view of procuring Satanic agency, principle of “a bird in hand," the one allusion neither has ever pronounced whether such agency to "an hundredfold in this life” attracted more exists. There is nothing in the Biblical account attention than whole chapters pointing to the of the Egyptian magicians or of the Witch of maxim that the treasure of the Christian is to Endor which does more than record the fact that be in heaven. Certain sacraments and ordinances such agency was believed in by certain persons at are appointed by the Church as means of grace, a certain time; it in no way endorses the belief. and the people argued that if certain great spiritual And in like manner, though many theologians benefits resulted from their general adoption, mora of the period between the fifteenth and eighteenth particular favours ought to follow from their more centuries show by their writings that they mani. minute observance, and also from a frivolous and festly believed that such agency could be induced undue application of them. These fancies became by human action, the Church has never authori. so multiplied that one collection, made by Jean tatively and in plain terms said that it was so. Baptiste Thiers, Doctor of the Sorbonne, in 1703,0 The reason of this is simply that the question is of those expressly condemned as superstitious, fills one of those which revelation passes over, as five thiok and closely printed volumes, to which I

refer the reader.d * Namely, Vincentus Beluacensis (Vincent of Beauvais), about 1220.

Traité des Superstitions qui regardent les Sacremens, D'A story of a chancel gate so high that the woman Parts, 1704. did not attempt to get over it has rather a northern Dr. Thiere, however, is so matter of fact that he is flavour.

| personally inclined to reckon in his category of super

I have said superstitions of this class arose, masses could have formed no conception of it in for the most part, from attaching too material an the times when there was no printing, engraving, interpretation to the promises of Holy Writ; but or photography to convey it after their manner, there were others, again, which would seem to there naturally crept in some which were capable have been nothing but the expansion of an un- of abuse. Thus, when rendering the nativity and reasoning devotion- luxuriant overgrowth of infancy of the Saviour detail by detail, it at one parasitical observances in the soil of undisciplined time became the custom in certain dioceses to minds, but without any selfish arrière pensée. Of represent along with the rest the part assigned by buch I will only detain the reader with two in tradition to the ass in aiding the flight of the stances, an early and a late one, both implying a Holy Family into Egypt and its return thence. singular amount of infatuation.

The ceremonial in which this was embodied at (1.) Amid the picturesque acts of symbolism Rouen and Beauvais is thus described by Ducange: by means of which the early Church sought “They chose a beautiful girl and mounted her on an to bring home to the minds of the people the ass richly decorated, with a child in her lap, and the story of the Redemption, and without which the assembled clergy and people led her with great pomp

from the cathedral to the parish church of St. Stephen.

When the assemblage had arrived there, the girl, still stitiong the so-called marriage of the Doge of Venice

riding on the ass, was led to the Gospel side of the altar. with the Adriatic. As the Church has not con

: The high mass immediately began; the introit, ' Kyrie demned it, neither does he condemn it; but he is at eleison. Gloria in excelsis,'Credo,' &c., all were con. great pains to explain that it is to be regarded only included with the modulation Hinhan, to imitate braying. the light of a purely civil ceremony, and that it would | In like manner, at the end of the mass, when the priest, be better if it were not called a marriage. Some passages

turning to the people, said, 'Ite missa est - ter hinhan. of his interesting account of the function will not be out

| nabil,' and the people answered Hinhan, hinhan, of place here. It was instituted, he tells us, in memory

linhan.of the naval victory gained by the Doge Sebastian Ziani over Otho, son of Frederic Barbarossa, and the sove. With whatever purity of religious feeling this reignty over the sea which Alexander III., driven to tableau vivant may have been originally introtake refuge in Venice, is said to have conferred upon duced, it is not difficult to imagine how greatly him. He quotes Del Rio, Disquisit. Magic., c. ii. q. vi. I it might be abused: and Cancellieri. in his $ 3; Sabellius, Decad., i, 1. 7; and Villamont, Peregrinat.

: elaborate collection of ceremonies connected with Sacra, c, xxxiv. d. 3. “The Signoria leaves the palace amid a countless throng of Venetians and foreign visitors the observance of Christmas, assures us it did lead to ascend the Bucentaur, a superb barque, longer than a to superstitions, but was so dear to the people that galley and as high as a vessel, without mast or sail. The the Church had great difficulty in suppressing it. rowers' seats are below the deck, on which is raised a

R. H. BUSK, splendid canopy of joiner's work, all gilt inside, &c. The

(To be continued.)
Doge has his seat in the centre, with the Nuncio and the
Ambassador of France on his right and left, with the
Councillors of the Signoria and other chief authorities all

LETTER OF Henry, EARL OF ARUNDEL, K.G., in due order. The Bucentaur is resplendent with gilding and hung with crimson damask fringed with gold; the

THE LAST OF THE FITZ-ALAN FAMILY.great banner of St. Mark and the standard proper to the

xxvj of Aprill, 1549. ceremony floating on high, the trumpets and hautboys M' Carden These shalbe to requyre you to repare shining on the prow, the majesty of the Senate, habited unto me unto the court to morow. I send for you in purple, and the great number of other official persons bycausse I wold that yo, wth me, shold well make anser and foreigners, render it one of the finest sights that canunto our doyngs. fare ye well. be met anywhere. The majestic craft, surrounded by

Yi lovyng ffrend innumerable galleys, galiots, peots [Dalmatian coasting

ARUNDELL. vessels), and gondolas, starts at the signal of the cannon. To my lovyng ffrend, M' Thomas Carden. So soon as the Bucentaur reaches the mouth of the sea,

Haste wth dylygence. the musicians sing certain motets. The Patriarch of Venice, who follows in a barque of his own, blesses the

Endorsements—(1) doubtless in Mr. Carden's sea; then the Bucentaur presents its poop towards him, writing :-and the back of the Doge's chair of state is lowered; "My Lord Arundell's letter for my com'ynge to the the master of the ceremonies presents the Doge with Courte ffor crossyng to Skottland." & plain gold ring, equal in weight to two and a half pistoles; this the Doge takes and throws into the sea,

| (2) in another handwriting :flinging it over the helm, first pronouncing in a loud “Kyng Edward and hys Counsell's Warrantts for and distinct voice, these words: Desponsamus te mare | Rebylls." nostrum in signum veri, perpetuique dominii,' After this,

Even a few lines, like the above, entirely in the a quantity of flowers and twigs of sweet-scented shrubs are cast abroad on the sea, by way of crowning the bride. / undoubtedly genuine autograph of 80 eminent a The Bucentaur now, still followed by its cortége, threads personage in the history of the reigns of the its way through the lagunes to the church of San Nicola Tudor sovereigns as the last of the Fitz-Alans, del Lido...... The Patriarch here celebrates a high maes must be of some interest and importance. The with great pomp, at the close of wbich the Signoria returns to S. Marco amid salutes of musketry and ar

letter was formerly in the possession of the tillery from the Castello del Lido, and from all the

late John Gough Nichols, F.S.A., but there is no vessels in port,"

mention of it in his biography of the earl (London,

1834, 4to., pp. 34), so it may be assumed that it 1618.' But is this not a mistake? Howell left England came into his hands subsequently to 1834. I have in 1618; for on April 1 of that year he may be found not yet been able to discover whether it has

writing from Amsterdam, where he says he had newly

landed,' to 'my brother, after Dr. Howell, and now hitherto remained unpublished. A comparison of Bishop of Bristol.' It is quite clear that the letter to some facsimiles shows that the Fitz-Alan letter, Dr. Francis Mansell, quoted by Mr. Clark, was not Harl. MS. 284, 9, is, unlike the above, only signed written until after Howell's return from abroad, because by the earl. Such, too, is the case with Vesp. F. we find him, in the very first sentence, saying, 'I am xiii. 82, which some think was written by his

| return'd safe from my foreign Employment, from my

three years Travel,' &c. Mr. Clark having himself told grandfather, Earl Thomas. The signature only is us 'Howell was abroad from 1618 to 1621,"it will be seen facsimiled in another example, given in plate 20 that this letter to Dr. Mansel could not have been of Nichols's Autographs of Royal, Noble, and written in the same year'ay that in which his first Learned Personages, London, 1829. That was letter, dated 1st March, 1618, Broad Street,' was written, taken from Calig. B. vii. 404, and it agrees with

explaining his business to his father. As we have already

observed, in the printed collection this letter to Dr. the signature of the present letter.

Francis Mansel is dated 'in the same year,' and for that In conclusion, I may remark that the letter matter the same month, and it was, no doubt, Mr. Clark's now printed shows that the storm which was to adoption of the printed date which led him to believe break over the head of Arundel, and to lead to and to say that both letters were written in the same his fine and imprisonment at the beginning of

year. Whether the wrong date was due to a fault of the

printer or the editor of the collection or to Howell him. 1550 (see King Edward's Diary, Jan. 1549/50), was

self, it is impossible to say. As likely as not it was already lowering in the spring of 1549. It would | Howell's, for a great many of the letters were written be agreeable to discover, if possible, what was up to order to satisfy the necessity the author was under Corden's imputed offence in connexion with Scot- for making up a book-a practice since become very land. And was Carden a dependent of the great

common in France, and, we are afraid, in England also.

It is just the sort of mistake an author would, under such earl ? If so, he may have run the risk of such

circumstances, be likely to commit, and when we con. imprisonment as befell others in that position on sider, further, that this letter begins a fresh division of Nov. 8, 1551, when, as Edward VI. relates in his the work, with a long vista of printer's demands Diary, " The erle of Arondell was committed to

spective, a still greater probability attaches to the cor.

rectness of our surmise,” the Tower, with Mr. J. Straodley and S. Albon

Janash. his men, because Crane did more and more confess of him."


LINES ON A STATUE.- I do not know whether 28, Linden Gardens, W.

many readers of “N. & Q.” have lately seen the AN IMPORTANT ERROR OF DATE IN THE Foundling Hospital for Wit, 1786, vi. 222, and

following lines, which are quoted from The New "EPISTOLÆ HO-ELIANÆ." — Perhaps you will

relate to one of the best public statues in London: think it worth while to preserve in permanent

" Or a black marble Statue of a Slave standing in form in the pages of “N. & Q." the following

one of the Inns of Courl. interesting observations, which I have extracted

“In vain, poor sablo son of woe, from a long and able review, appearing in the

Thou seek'st a tender ear; Western Mail, Nov. 29, of a new work entitled

In vain thy tears with anguish flow, Glamorganshire Worthies, just issued from the

For mercy dwells not here. private printing-press of Mr. G. T. Clark, F.S.A.,

From cannibals thou fly'st in vain; of Dowlais House. In dealing with the author's

Lawyers less quarter give; life of the Elizabethan admiral Sir Robert Mansel,

The first won't eat you till you 're slain,

The last will do't alive." the reviewer says, inter alia :

"As 'agent abroad' for his new manufactory in Broa 1 Street, London, he employed James Howell, a son of

DISTRESSED, A PECULIAR USAGE OF THE WORD. curate of Llangammarch, in Breconshire, and the author -Dr. Edward Young, in the preface to the Seventh of a truly delightful series of Familiar Lellers. Howell, | Night of his Night Thoughts, uses the word disin that which Mr. Clark rightly terms his first letter

tressed in a somewhat peculiar sense, as if it were for first it is in point of time, though not in point of place, at least not in our edition, which is the ninth, of equivalent to the nautical phrase, “Driven by the Epistolæ Ho-Elianæ-describes at some length the stress of weather": " Though the distrust of main of his employment' under Sir Robert Mansel on futurity is a strange error ; yet it is an error into the Continent.

which bad men may naturally be distressed. For “At this point we come to an interesting literary

it is impossible to bid defiance to final ruin withdifficulty-one which, as far as we are aware, has never been noticed before, and out of which, it is possible, Mr. out some refuge in imagination, some presumption Clark may help us. In the same year. (1618), Mr. of escape.” The senses of the verb given in Clark is found saying, 'he [Howell] writes to Dr. Mansel, Latham-Johnson, viz., “Harass, make miserable, probably from London'; and then follows an extract, I crush with calamity," do not seem quite applirather too long to quote, from Howell's letter with refer

cable to the above extract. “Driven by circum

: ence to his own and Sir Robert's glass-making affairs. Now it is quite true that this letter from Howell "To Dr, Fr, Mansel, at All Souls, in Oxford,' is dated :5 Mar, “stress of weather," seems more exactly to have


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R. H. Busk.

been the meaning in the author's mind. The Dignare in tempore isto sine infestatione Gallinæ * et latter phrase is used by Dryden in his translation | Turcarum nos custodire.

| Miserere nostri, potens Rex, miserere nostri. of the Æneid, bk. i. (vol. xiv. p. 245, ed. Scott):

Fiat vindicta nostra super Gallos et Turcas quom " I know not, if by stress of weather driven, admodum speravimus in te. Or was their fatal course di


In te semper speravimus, non confundemur in æternum.
At last they landed."


PESSIMUS.”—The sentence “ Malus ubi bonum se specimen from Wilfrid Holme's Fall of Rebellion,

simulat tunc est pessimus : a bad man is worst sig. I iij, back, printed in 1573:

when he pretends to be a saint," occurs among “Loe leprous lurdeins lubrike in loquacities,

Bacon's “Ornamenta Rationalia; or, Elegant Vah vaporous villeins, with venim vulnerate, Sentences" (The Essays of Lord Bacon, including Proh prating parentecides, plexious to pinnositie, Fie frantike fabulators, furibund and fatuate,

his Moral and Historical Works, '" Chandos Out oblatrant oblict obstacle and obcecate,

Classics," p. 111). A addict algoes in acerbitie acclamant,

The verse is l. 181 of Publii Syri Sententice, Magnall in mischeefe, malicious to mugilate, p. 19, Anclam., 1838:-“Malus bonum ubi se Repriuing your Roy so renoumed and radiant."

simulat, tunc est pessimus." This is “old English verse,” according to the The line has received another notice still. Ven. Elizabethan title-page. The book was on

Bede, in his Proverbiorum Liber, takes it for one “ The . xiiij. day of July componed and compiled,

of his sentences, as follows : "Malus ubi se simulat In the .xxix. yeare of the raigne of the , viij. Henry bonum, ibi est pessimus” (Opp., t. ii. p. 293, royall,

Basil, 1563). By V Vilfride Holme vnlearned, simply combined......

The sentiment agrees with St. Augustine's In Huntingdon in Yorkshire commorant patrimonial."

“Simulata æquitas non est æquitas sed duplex F. J. FURNIVALL.

iniquitas” (in Ps. Ixiii., Opp., tom. viii. col. 650a, SECOND CENTENARY OF THE LIBERATION OF Basil., 1560). VIENNA FROM THE TURKS.-On occasion of the Having lately seen an inquiry for the line above, late celebration of this event in Rome and but not remembering in what place, I beg to offer Austria I received the following curious old para- these references through “N. & Q." phrase of the Te Deum, which it seems that at

ED. MARSHALL. The moment of what was felt to be essentially a A NORTHAMPTONSHIRE SAYING.–The followvictory of Christianity it was not thought profane / ing lines have been current in Northamptonshire to address to the leader of it-John Sobieski. It and perhaps elsewhere) for upwards of a century: has lately been found in the Vatican archives :

"As tall as your knee, they are pretty to see ; Te Polonum laudamus, te strenuum confitemur.

As tall as your head, they wish you were dead." Te æternum bellatorem omnis Ecclesiæ veneratur.

Tibi omnes Christi fideles, tibi Veneti et Italicæ po- | It is almost needless to add that the lines refer to testates;

one's children.

E. WALFORD, M.A. Tibi Pontifex et Cæsar incessabili voce proclamant; L 2, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. Fortis, fortis, fortis Rex Poloniæ Pleni sunt cæli et terra multitudine virtutis tuæ.

BIOGRAPHY OF LORD LYTTON. — About six Te imperii electorum chorus, te bellatorum laudabilis numerus.

weeks or two months ago I was favoured by a Te ecclesiasticus laudat exercitus, te per Orbem terra. communication from a gentleman whose letter I rum auxiliatorem Sancta confitetur Ecclesia,

have unfortunately mislaid, and whose name I Patrem immensæ fortitudinis.

cannot recall, but who kindly offered to place at Venerandum verum tuum filium.

my disposal certain published references to my Sanctum quoque auxilium tuum. Tu Rex gloriæ Catholicorum.

father, collected by him as materials for a bioTu Cæsaris semper auxiliator.

graphy of the late Lord Lytton, which he had Tu ad liberandam Viennam non horruisti pericula

abandoned on hearing that I was myself engaged mortis.

upon the same task. Tbe loss of my corresponTu devicto Turcarum aculeo aperuisti portas letitiæ. Ident's letter bas deprived me of the means of Tu ad dexteram sedes Cæsaris in civitate liberata. Judex Turcarum crederis esse persecuturug.

privately communicating my thanks to him for Te ergo quægumus vindictam accipe et illos usque in his obliging offer, and my desire to hear from him finem persequere.

again on the subject of it. If, therefore, you will Æterna fac cum sanctis quiete numerari.

be so good as to accord to this expression of my Salva populum catholicum et maledic gallicæ inquietudini.

wishes a place in your columns, the service will be Et desere eos et opprime illos usque in æternum.

gratefully appreciated.

LYTTON. Per singulos dies benedicimus te.

17, Hill Street, W. Et laudamus nomen Poloniæ in sæculum et in gæculum Bæculi.

* Louis XIV, was on the side of the Turks.



Brittany, signed P. (or F.) Ford, and dated 1845. We must request correspondents desiring information

| I shall be obliged for any information about this on family matters of only private interest, to affix their artist, if his works are well known or considered of names and addresses to their queries, in order that the value, &c.

J. L. McC. answers may be addressed to them direct,

Countess Family. I shall be much obliged BATTLE OF SEDGEMOOR, 1685.-Some curious to any of your readers who will, through the words occur in Roberts's Life of the Duke of Mon- medium of your paper, give any information as to mouth (1844, vol. ii. p. 50), which perhaps MR. the name and antecedents of a family of Huguenots WEAVER has already explained. I missed his the members of which, escaping from France on the earlier notices. The duke marched from Bridge- revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, were water by the Causeway, with Chedzoy on his right, forced by a storm upon the coast of Ireland, where down Bradney Lane to Peasy Farm, with Baw they landed, taking the name of Countess. One of dripp, at the foot of Polden Hill, on his left. The their descendants, Admiral George Countess, died rhines on North Moor were crossed by steanings, about the beginning of this century. His crest was old Bussex Rhine by Penzoy Pound, being close a demi-lion starting from a crown, his arms three to Weston-soyland, and Middlezoy being about harts' horns. I do not know whether these were two miles off. After the battle twenty-two prisoners the original crest and arms of this family, or were at once hanged, four of them in gemmaces, whether they were adopted after the change of ¿. e. chains, from the branches of a large tree at name. Bussex. The same author, in his History of Lyme Regis (1834, p. 182), says that “connected with

MASCOLL OF PLUMSTED.-In “A Booke of fish• the Guildhall is the gaol, which has received the ing with Hooke and Line......made by L. M,"

singular name of Cockenwhile, a mode of pro- (usually taken to be Leonard Mascall), and printed nouncing cockmoile which has reference to cock- by John Wolfe in 1590, the writer, speaking of crowing and labour," and he then asks if cocken the carp, says : “ The first bringer of them into while may not be a corruption of coquinaille, a England (as I have beene credibly enformed) was pack of thieves. May it ? EDWARD MALAN.

maister Mascoll, of Plumsted, in Sussex, who also

brought first the planting of the pippin in EngNOSTRADAMUS.—There is an edgraved portrait land." Is anything now to be learned of this Mascoll, of this person, seated writing at a table, on which who, if the above statement be correct, must have is a bottle containing faces of the sun and moon, lived in the middle of the fifteenth century? REBIS on neck of the bottle. Is any explanation

Tho. SATCHELL. of this to be found in any of his or other works on Downshire Hill, N.W. the subject ?

GEORGE ELLIS. St. John's Wood.


I picked up, among some miscellaneous archæoRELIGIOUS DELUSION.-Mr. W. E. H. Lecky, logical plates exposed for sale, one headed as above. in his History of European Morals from Augustus

and representing a female figure in a costume to Charlemagne, says (translating from the Annales generally similar to those on the Braunche or Dominicanorum Colmariensium) that “in the Peacock” brass at Lyon. This is described as year 1300 a beautiful English girl appeared in being the “ Effigy of Margriete, wife of Willem Milan, who imagined herself to be the Holy

Wenemaer. She died September, 1352." The Ghost, incarnate for the redemption of women,

engraving is by R. B. Utting, and the size of the and who accordingly was put to death" (vol. ii.

| plate octavo. Can any of your readers inform me p. 92). Do any English authorities mention this where the brass is from which the above was woman; or is there any means of ascertaining who taken or

og who taken, or give me any description of it? V. M. she was ?

EDWARD PEACOCK, Bottesford Manor, Brigg.


LINCOLNSHIRE. — I shall be greatly obliged to the Athenæum of January 12 announces the death

any of your readers who will help me to the of Father Bruzza, the epigraphist, whose name is

record of the baptism of the above-named clergynew to me. I take much interest in inscriptions,

man (the probable date is 1579), or for any other ancient and modern, and works relating to them,

information as to his birth and parentage. The and should feel greatly obliged by being informed

following facts are known concerning him : Gradu. who and where Father Bruzza was, and what he

ated at St. John's, Cambridge, B.A., 1600 ; M.A., has written. John W. BONE, F.S.A.

| 1604; appointed Vicar of Winterton, 1604/5; 26, Bedford Place.

Rector of West Halton, 1611/12; ejected from

living on the suit of the Bishop of Norwich, 1614; P. OR F. FORD, PAINTER.-I have a very good appointed Vicar of Burton-on-Stather, 1614; water-colour drawing, a view on the coast of Rector of Great Cotes, 1624 ; died 1651/2; will

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