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proved April 6, 1652. He leaves “my body to REVOLUTION JUBILEE, Davies, round the edge, be buried in the Chauncel of Great Cotes wyth and Novr. 4th, 1788, in the centre; on the obverse, my wife." Is there any record of a monument or the head of William III. to right, with the legend inscription extant ? His wife Elizabeth was exe- GULIELMUS III DEI GRATIA, 1688. The piece is cutrix; and he bequeaths the “Crane House" in rather larger and thinner than a shilling, with an Grimsby, and a house in Great Grimsby. His ornamental edge, and is made of copper, silverfirst wife's name was Elizabeth or Elsibeth. His plated. “Davies ” is, I presume, the name of the descendants have borne arms, Ar., a chevron sa. issuer. I should be glad to know what were the between three roses gules, the same as those of circumstances of this centenary, and whether it William Smyth, a member of the family of Smyth was common in the eighteenth century to observe of Cuerdley, Lancashire, who was Bishop of Lin- centenaries.

F. HAVERFIELD. cold, and a founder of Brazenose College, obiit Bath College. 1513/14.

N. C. SMITH, I Braxton Cottage, Freshwater, Isle of Wight,

ALLUSIONS IN Webster's “ WHITE Devil."

I have been lately renewing acquaintance with “ROAST-BEEF.”—In the play-going days of my this excellent dramatist, the greatest of English boyhood, the occupants of the one-shilling gallery dramatic writers after Shakespeare and Ben used to show their impatience for the performance Jonson. What does he mean exactly by the to begin by shouting to the orchestra, “Music ! following? “When knaves come to preferment Nosey ! Roast-beef !” I lately met with this last they rise as gallowses are raised in the Low Counword in a passage from one of Horace Walpole's tries, one upon another's shoulders.” “I have letters, quoted in Rockstro's Life of Handel, 1883, seen a serving man carry glasses in a cipress hatp. 269. Writing from Arlington Street, Feb. 24, band, monstrous steady for fear of breaking." 1743, Walpole says, “ Handel has set up an

J. MASKELL. oratorio against the opera, and succeeds. He has hired all the goddesses from the farces, and the

English Exiles In HOLLAND.-In what books singers of roast-beef from between the acts at

can I find trustworthy accounts of the life of the

English exiles at the Hague and Utrecht previous both theatres." Wbat is the meaning of “roastbeef” in this passage ?

to the Restoration of 1660 ?

L. PH, JAYDEE. TAE ROYAL SURNAME.- An editorial note in

Marriage Custom AT WHITBURN. — At a “N. & Q.” (2nd S. xii. 396) says the surname of mar

of marriage wbich recently took place at Whitburn, the late Prince Consort was Weltin. Is this still

| co. Durham, the bride and bridegroom as they considered as correct? Is not our present Queen

left the church received an ovation. An old the last of the House of Hanover; and will not her

custom of giving hot-pots was kept up. There successors be the Weltin dynasty, if the analogy of

were half a dozen steaming compounds of brandy, the Tudors and Stuarts is followed, of taking the ale, sugar, eggs, spices, &c., in the church porch. family surname ? Otherwise, I suppose, they must

Of this the bride and bridesmaids partook, and the be termed the "Saxe-Coburg.Gotha dynasty."

remainder was handed to the congregated group FREDERICK E. SAWYER.

of thirsty souls. What is known of the origin of Brighton.


71, Brecknock Road. OGIER LE Danois.—That Thomas of Erceldoun's fairy adventures have an intimate connexion with

Cock ROAD OR COCKROAD ESTATE, BITTON.those of Ogier le Danois is certain from each of Can any one inform me whether the above-named them taking his fay to be the Virgin Mary. The estate was owned by a William Murray about poem of Les Visions d'Oger dans le Royaulme de the year 1780? William Murray married a Miss Faerie would, perhaps, illustrate this connexion, | Kater, of Bristol.

E. C. MURRAY. and might even show Ogier to have been as good

Bengeo, Hertford. a prophet as Thomas. That poem is spoken of by

Song WANTED. - Can any of your readers Brunet as being in the National Library at Paris; but it cannot be found there now, and of several

furnish the words of a song, current about 1830,

which deserves to be placed on record ? The title copies once known pone can now be traced. Should

may have been “My Home is the World.” The any of your readers kuow of a copy being in Eng. land or elsewhere, or be able to describe the con

first words were, "Speed, speed, my fleet vessel,"

| and the last two lines were : tents of the poem, the information would be useful.


“Speed, speed, my fleet vessel, the sails are unfurled;

O ask me not whither! My home is the world." Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

The idea is that a traveller comes home over the A SILVER MEDAL.--Can any one give me any sea only to find all his friends dead, and to form information about a medal of the following de- the same resolve as Tennyson's Ulysses, of again scription ? On the reverse is the inscription : trying the fortunes of a wandering life. There may have been a dozen stanzas. Several collec- who died in 1712 as major-general in the army tions of ballads and songs have been looked through and governor of Limerick ? The date of the comwithout success, and I turn, as does every sensible mission is that of Monmouth's rebellion, at which littérateur, to “ N. & Q."

FAMA. time several regiments of horse were raised, and Oxford.

several troops added to existing regiments. But "The British SOLDIER's Grave.”—This song

I have failed to find the name of Thonias Fairfax has been sung by the boys in the parish since last

as commanding a troop in either of these ways ; Whitsuntide; but I cannot find one who knows

yet that he did command a troop seems certain the whole of it. Can any of your readers tell me

from the wording of the commission. its author, and where I can find it?

KILLIGREW. M.A.Oxon. BosVILE AND GREENHALGH.-Can any of your Albury, Ware.

readers kindly tell me where I can find the

pedigrees of Thomas Bosvile, who married Joan, OWEN FAMILY OF North WALES.–Will any lo

any daughter of Lord Furnival (see Gatty's Hallamof your many genealogical readers inform me who

shire, ed. 1869, p. 44), and the Rev. James Greenis at present the head of the ancient family of

halgh, Rector of Hooton Roberts, Yorkshire, and Owen (North Wales)? So far as I can see, Mr. | Plumbtre. Nottinghamshire, who married Margaret, Hugh Darby Owen, of Bettws Hall, co. Mont

daughter of the Rev. Thomas Bosvile, of Braith gomery, is the man, but my knowledge of such

well (see Hunter, South Yorkshire, vol. i. p. 133)? matters is too slight to approach certainty.

I have looked through the pedigrees of the Bosvile C. T. Wilson, Lieut.-Col.

family in Hunter's South Yorkshire, but I have MONTENEGRO.-I shall be much obliged for not found any connexion. I have also examined any information as to what books, magazines, or vol. lxxxv. of the Chetham Society for the Greenreviews contain an account of the history and of halgh family with the same result. the past and present social and economical con

Thos. HARGREAVES. dition of Montenegro.


AUTHORS OF Books WANTED.« OPEN WEATHER.”_When is it correct to use “Memoirs of an Unfortunate Young Nobleman Re. this expression ? I thought till recently that turn'd from a Thirteen Years Slavery in America, Where there was no question in the matter ; but having

he had been sent by the Wicked Contrivances of his

Cruel Uncle. A Story founded on Truth, and address'd then been informed that it only applies to wet equally to the Head and Heart. London, Printed for weather, i.e., when the heavens are open, I feel J. Freeman in Fleetstreet; and sold by the Booksellers in put upon inquiry.

J. C. Town and Country. 1743. John R. WODHANS. BLUE-DEVILS.-Can any one give me the origin of the word blue-devils ? I have travelled much

Replies. amongst the Buddhists, with whom the devil is painted a deep blue.

W. E. M.

THE ALDINE ANCHOR. Thomas LEVER.-Can any reader give me any

(6th S. viii. 426 ; ix. 54.) particulars of the parentage, date, and place of

The Aldine anchor is, perhaps, the most celebirth (in Lancashire) of Thomas 'Lever. Master brated of all printers' marks. It is singularly of St. John's College, Cambridge. appointed graceful in design, eminently characteristic of the Master of Sherburn Hospital, Durham, in 1562 ? distinguished scholar wh

in 1562? distinguished scholar who first adopted it, and is Any particulars of him previous to 1650 would affixed to a series of works which contributed oblige. I do not require references to Mr. Arber's more than those of any single printer or family of reprint.

J. P. H.

printers to the progress of learning and literature

in Europe. The origin of the mark and the THOMAS FAIRFAX.-I have before me a commis. earliest book in which it appeared are, therefore, sion, dated June 20, 1685, of an officer in the matters of considerable interest, and statements troop of horse commanded by Capt. Thomas more or less inaccurate, and showing a very imFairfax. Who was this Fairfax ?' Not the perfect knowledge either of the books themselves Thomas who became sixth Baron Fairfax, settled or of what has been written on the subject, are in Virginia, and died unmarried in 1782, leaving constantly cropping up in the pages of “N. & Q." the title to be established by the descendants, in and other literary and bibliographical periodicals. another line, of his ancestor Henry Fairfax, of| One of your correspondents announces the disOglethorpe, who died 1665, by which branch, also covery of an Aldine Philostratus containing the Bettled in Virginia, the barony is held to the anchor, dated 1501, and thus earlier than the little present day. Was he the Thomas Fairfax- Dante of 1502, for which, the writer says, “the younger son of Sir William Fairfax, Knt., of anchor is usually said to have been first used." Sleeton, slain before Montgomery Castle 1644– Another writer puts forward the claim of the second Juvenal, with the date of 1501. Now, con. As to the second Juvenal, with the date 1501, sidering that the Manutii and their impressions the statement at the end that it is printed “in have been the subjects of at least a dozen works, and ædibus Aldi et Andrece Soceri” shows that 1508 that one of them--the Annales de l'Imprimerie des is the earliest date that can be attributed to the Alde of Renouard—is the acknowledged authority book, and that the words “Mense Augusti M.DI." on the subject, and the model for all books of the are simply copied by mistake from the edition kind, it might be expected that before making printed in that year. a communication respecting an Aldine edition a In the first edition of his Annales, published in writer would refer to Renouard, and would also 1803, Renouard did not express any opinion as to look carefully into the book itself to see if there the earliest volume in which the anchor appeared, were any, and if any, what, indications of the date but in his second edition (1825) be suggested for of publication. The Philostratus and Juvenal the first time that the Dante with the date are well known, and will be found described in August, 1502, was the earliest : “C'est avec cette Renouard as well as in other bibliographical works. édition qu'Alde a commencé l'usage de sa marque To be complete (which it rarely is), the Philo- typographique, l'ancre Aldine, qu'il a su rendre si stratus should have the following contents: A title- célèbre" (vol. i. p. 81). And again, vol. ii. page containing the large anchor and dolphin and p. 97: “Il n'en fit cependant usage (de l'ancre) que the words ALDUS, MA , RO., as usually to be found quelques années après, en août 1502, sur le Dante in the later folios of the elder Aldus ; 126 pp. in-8°, dont plusieurs exemplaires n'ont point d'ancre, containing the Greek text of the life of Apollonius ce qui prouve qu'elle a été ajoutée pendant le and the tract of Eusebius against Hierocles, ending tirage, et établit d'une manière positive le temps with “ Venetiis apud Aldum Mense Martio M.Di." où elle a été employée pour la première fois." And Then, after a blank folio, comes a long Latin pre- both these remarks stand without any qualification face by Aldus addressed to Zenobio Acciolo, dated in the third edition, and form the authority on “ Mense Maio M.DIIII."; then, after six more pre- which the Dante has been since held to be the liminary folios, the Latin translation of the two earliest volume bearing the anchor. But I venture works, and on the recto of the last folio, “ Venetiis to think this is not so, and that there is strong in Ædibus Aldi Mense februario M.D.11." This is probability that the Sedulius of 1502 (forming followed by one more folio, the recto of which is the second volume of the series known as the blank, but with the anchor and dolphin on the Poetre Christiani Veteres) is earlier in date than verso as on the title-page. Now, at first sight the the Dante and is the first on which the anchor three dates are a little puzzling, but if any one appears. This rare volume contains two dates. will take the trouble to read the first few lines of On the recto of the last folio of bh, just before the the preface of Aldus, the matter is satisfactorily life of St. Martin, is “Venetiis apud Aldum, cleared up. He tells us that when he first under- M.D.I. Mense Januario." On the verso of the took the impression he believed the work to be title-page is a short preface of Aldus, dated “ Mense one of much greater merit than on printing he Junii M.D.11." Now, having regard to the fact found it to be, and so laid it aside for some time, that Aldus and his editors invariably dated their but at length determined to publish it with Zeno- prefaces immediately before the appearance of the bio's translation of the tract of Eusebius and that book, this date is, if not conclusive, yet very strong of Rinuccino of the life of Apollonius. The book evidence that the Sedulius appeared before the was, in fact, completed and published between Dante of August, 1502. And Renouard himself May, 1504, the date of the preface, and July 17 seems to have really admitted this, for though in of the same year, for on that day Aldus wrote a the two passages above cited he makes no referletter to Isabella d'Este, Marchioness of Mantua, ence to the Sedulius, yet when describing that sending her the volume together with the poems volume he says, “Dans le Sedulius, sur le dernier of Gregory Nazianzen (the date of which is " Mense feuillet des préliminaires, on voit l'ancre Aldine, Junio MDIIII.") as two books which he had just dont l'emploi commence à ce volume et au Dante de published. This letter was discovered by M. 1502." Armand Baschet in the archives of Mantua, and But the mark in the Sedulius presents one printed by him in 1867 in his most interesting peculiarity which I have not noticed in any other privately printed monograpb, Aldo Manuzio, volume. It is not, as erroneously stated by Didot Lettres et Documents, 1495-1515. It is not pro- in his Alde Manuce (p. 210), that the anchor is bable that the title-page (on which is the anchor), larger than that which appears in the Dante, the which enumerates the whole of the contents, Latin Sophocles, the Statius, and the Herodotus of 1502, as well as Greek, of the volume, was printed until and in the subsequent small editions given by after the date of the preface, namely, in 15.04– Aldus. An exact measurement shows the form certainly not before February, 1503, the date of and dimensions of the anchor and dolphin of the the completion of the printing of the Latin trans- Sedulius to be precisely the same in every respect as lation of Eusebius,

those of the other volumes engraved by Renouard


and numbered 1 in his book, so that, except for the la stangula dillaquale se revolve uno Delphino. peculiarity I am about to notice, they would seem Et questi optimamenti cusi io interpretai. AEI to be struck from the same block. But against IIEYAE BPAAEOE, semper festina tarde." this is the fact that in the Sedulius the mark In a future paper I propose to make some obseris in a border of double lines which cer- vations on the chronology of the early Aldine tainly seems to be part of the same woodcut, editions, and to adduce reasons for thinking that though it is possible that the border was added Renouard and Didot have fallen into error on the afterwards. This border, which is in the two subject.

R. C. CHRISTIE. copies of Sedulius which I possess, does not re- Glenwood, Virginia Water. appear in any subsequent volume, though in all the volumes with the date 1502 which contain the

ELECAMPANE (6th S. ix. 48). — This was the anchor (except, perhaps, the Dante, of which I

root of the Inula helenium preserved and candied, cannot speak, the page in my own copy which should contain it being missing) there are dots in

and was more an agreeable medicine than a pleasant the position in which the border appears in the

comfit. In old books on pharmacy it is to be met

with on the same page as angelica and ginger. The large anchor in a border of double lines

Quincy (Dispensatory, 1724) says that the root is

Smuch esteenied in Germany, being “warm, opening, first appears in the Philostratus of 1501-1504, and in the Lucian of 1503, which certainly pre- |(History of thé Materia Medica, 1751) states that

and detersive, and preferr'd to ginger." Hill ceded by some months the Ammonius Hermeus

"the Germans have a method of candying elecamof the same year, since, though both have the

pane root like ginger, to which they prefer it, and date of June, 1503, the preface of the Ammonius

call it German spice." The Lady's Companion, is dated November of that year.

1753, ji. 347, gives instructions how to preserye The mark, a dolphin twisted round an anchor, I the roots in sugar and then candy them in boiling is said to be found on coins of Augustus and syrup. As a conserve it was by no means pice, Domitian. It appears on a denarius of Ves

and as a medicine not of much value; but it bad a pasian, & specimen of which, as Erasmus tells

respectable old reputation, and long continued to us in his Adages (f. 112, edit. of 1508), was sent |

| be made and sold, often with no elecampane root by Bembo when a young man to Aldus. But

in its composition. I had some of this description Erasmus does not say-as has been repeated by

given me at Poole about 1836 as a sovereign many writers, on the authority, it would seem, of

specific for a cold by a good old lady. I think she L Dolce—that Bembo suggested the mark and the

called it elecampane ; certainly there was more motto “ Festina lente” to Aldus, though the great virtue in the name than in the compound. printer certainly contemplated using them some

EDWARD SOLLY. years before the mark actually appeared upon a Sutton, Surrey. printed volume. In his preface to Linacre's translation of the Sphera of Proclus (printed with

Any of the old herbalists may be consulted reother treatises in 1499, in the volume known

specting this production. Culpepper, of course, as the Astronomi Veteres), Aldus writes: “Sum

supplies us with full directions as to the preparaipse mihi optimus testis, me semper habere

tion of the sweetmeat. In the Pharmacographia, comites, ut oportere aiunt, Delphinum et Ancho

I p. 340, we read: “It is frequently mentioned in ram. Nam et dedimus multa cunctando et damus

the Anglo-Saxon writings on medicine current in assidue,” Erasmus (loc. cit.) has a long disserta

England prior to the Norman conquest, and was tion on the mark and motto, explaining that both

generally well known during the Middle Ages. have the same meaning, the anchor being the

Not only was its root much employed as a mediemblem of the firmness and solidity which slow

cine, but it was also candied and eaten as a sweetand careful work alone produces, and the dolphin

meat." Gerarde tells us (Ger. Emac., p. 794), “The of that perpetual and rapid labour which is no less

roots are to be gathered in the end of September, necessary for the accomplishment of great under

and kept for sundrie vses, but it is especially pretakings. « Ces deux emblèmes," writes M. Didot,

served by those that make Succade [=sucket, vide "expriment avec justesse que, pour travailler

Halliwell ; in Northants still called sucker; cf. solidement, il faut un labeur sans relâche accom

“porket ” and “porker"] and such like." pagné d'une lente réflexion” (Alde Manuce et

HILDERIC FRIEND. l'Hellénisme à Venice, p. 211).

In the Encyclopædic Dictionary two other forms The mark itself, as it appears in the volumes of of this word are given, viz., “allicam pane" and Aldus, is clearly taken from one of the engravings |“ alecampane," and they are stated to be corrupted (on the recto of d 7) of the Hypnerotomachia of from the Lat. Inula campana, the old name of the 1499, where it is figured as an illustration to the plant. According to Sir Joseph Hooker, the plant following passage : “Dal altra parte tale elegante i was formerly cultivated by cottagers as an aroscalptura mirai. Uno circulo. Un' ancora sopra / matic and tonic, and the root-stock is still candied."

Borande and Cox's Dictionary of Science, Literature, Shall be glad to send roots of either in exchange and Art says that “a coarse candy, composed of for snowdrop bulbs,

BRYAN LEIGHTON. little else than coloured sugar," is sold under this Loton Park, Shrewsbury. name.

G. F. R. B. | Dver, in his British Popular Customs (referring Gerarde gives many names for elecampane, and to “N. & Q.," 4th S. v. 595), says this was a liquid describes it as a cure for many diseases, and says composed of Spanish juice, sugar, and water (vide Inula helenium, its Latin name, comes from p. 171).

JOAN R. WODHAMS. Helen, wife of Menelaus, whose hands were full of it when Paris stole her away into Phrygia. ORIENTAL SEAL (6th S. viii. 480). This is far Sowerby's English Botany says “ It was esteemed from a full explanation, and I doubt whether as a cordial by the monkish berbalists, who cele- it be altogether correct. The date is decidedly brated its virtues in the line

not 1171, but 1181, which corresponds with A.D. • Enula campana reddit præcordia sana.'” 1767, 19-20 May. Again, if an Englishman's The name elecampane is a corruption of the first na

ion of the first name be intended, it is Pearson or Pierson, and two of these words.

ca not Parson or Parsons. Under the date appears

"sanat" or year, and beneath is engraved, “Piri When Don Quixote and the goatherds were pur-nayak." This last word may be the diminutive going to Chrisostome's burial," at the crossing of of nay, a small pen or reed, and the whole might à path-way they saw six Sheepheards comming imply either a professor of calligraphy or a skilled towards them, apparelled with black skins, and musician on the reed. Pir may signify a title of crowned with Garlands of Cypress and bitter | honour, as seigneur or señor, &c.; and pur or par i Enula campana" (Shelton's translation, ed. 1675, nik a proper name, or it may represent a title of book i. part ii. chap. v.).

A. J. M. sanctity of the founder of a sect called Par i pik. “The Germans have a method of candying

I may as well add that on the right and left sides elecampane root like ginger, to which they prefer

of the oval are four points, which may be considered it and call it German spice." The above is a quo

as ornamental or the filling up the vacuum. In tation from Hill's Mat. Med., taken by Johnson

November, on being asked for an explanation of in the edition of his Dictionary of 1765.

the inscription, I refrained from offering these con

jectures, and suggested a reference to your Indian M.A.Oxon.

contributor, Col. W. F. PRIDEAUX, of Calcutta, In my younger days in London the sweetmeat in the hope he might enlighten your readers. of this name was a flat candy, something like hard

WILLIAM PLATT. bake, marked into squares, and made either white Callis Court, St. Peter's, Thanet. or pink. It was simply sugar with rather a sickly tasting condiment, most likely from the plant, I HERALDIC (6th S. viii. 494). - Probably the as horehound candy is still sold in poor neighbour arms of Dr. Samuel Horsley, successively Bishop hoods.

J. C. J. of St. David's (1788-93), of Rochester (1793-1802), The origin and meaning of this word are given in

and of St. Asaph (1802-6). Mr. Bedford, indeed, Flückyer and Hanbury's Pharmacographia, Lon

in his Blazon of Episcopacy, p. 11, gives for this don, Macmillan & Co., 1879, Radix

prelate, on the authority of his book-plate, Gu., enula,

three horses' heads couped arg., bridled sa. Radix helenii = elecampane, & corruption of Enula campana, the latter word referring to the

Mr. Papworth assigns him, Ga., three horses' growth of the plant in Campania (Italy). Its use

heads couped ar., bridled or ; but he also gives

the coat as blazoned by MR. WELLS, with heads both as a medicine and a condiment was well known in the Middle Ages. Vegetius Renatus,

erased and bridles sa., to the family of Horsley, co. about the beginning of the fifth century, calls it


ACHE. Inula campana, and St. Isidore, in the seventh, Samuel Horsley, Bishop of St. David's 1788 to names it Inula, adding, “quam alam rustici 1793, when he was translated to Rochester, of vocant."

J. B. which see he was bishop until 1802, when he was Inula helenium: this root contains a white again translated to St. Asaph, bore Gules, three starchy powder, named “Inuline," a volatile oil,

| horses' heads couped argent, bridled sable. a soft resin, and a bitter extract; it is used in

W. C. HEANE. disease of the chest and lungs, and furnishes the

Cinderford, Glouc. “ Vin d'Aulnée” of the French. This rare and I have a seventeenth century roll of arms of handsome British wild flower grows freely (to families belonging to Northumberland, which gether with the angelica) about here. It is gives three horses' heads erased as the arms of from the root of the former that the sweetmeat Horsley, of Milburne Grange. Also, in a “Catawas made so much in request in old days. logue or Collection of the Gentrye of the Countye It is the stalks of the latter that are preserved. of Northumberland, Lansdowne MS., 865, f. 97,

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