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to christen it the “ Ashburnham Missal.” It was Society, Cambridge, 1844, the reference is p. 251, difficult to refuse the request of its noble owner, The story is derived from Sir Thomas More. See who had placed the MS. so liberally at my disposal, the note by the editor on that page. and to whom I was indebted for so much courtesy

J. INGLE DREDGE. and hospitality. But I was fortified by a letter « Salisbury” is obviously an error. The referfrom Dr. Reeves, Dean of Armagh, objecting to lence to Latimer is the 'Last Sermon Preached that, or, indeed, to any other change of nomencla- before King Edward VI.: see also Sir Thomas ture.


More's Dyalogue, iv. 145. It seems a natural inference from this interesting

EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. document that the language of South Britain dur

Library, Claremont, Hastings. ing the Roman period was Irish ; an inference “GOD BE WITH US!”=THE DEVIL (6th S. confirming the deductions of those who have viii. 385). -I think I have several times adopted a similar conclusion from the examination met analogous instances of the involution of of place-names, and various manners, customs, and phraseology inquired for, rendering the sense words surviving from that period. No doubt by the contrary expression. At the present many who, for various reasons, were refugees from moment I only recall three. 1. In the passage in England, would find an asylum in Ireland, and Job where his wife says to him, “ Curse God and some would resent the submission to Roman rule die " the Douai version has the rendering “ Bless and influence of those who remained, and there- God and die.” 2. From the constant use of the fore called them speckled=mongrel, and stigma- oath “ Sacré nom de Dieu !" one may sometimes tized their speech as stammering, a defect which hear Frenchmen of the lower orders adopt it as an may be attributed to the changes induced by the actual appellation for the thing'sworn at. I remember lapse of time and intercourse with Romans and once bearing this carried still further in the days others of foreign speech. Through such immigra- of diligences over Mont Cenis. Complaining of tion it is not unlikely Christianity was introduced the lean appearance of the horses provided at one into Ireland, whence it may have been revivified of the posts, the driver, in the midst of a volley of when dormant in England. JOSEPH BOULT. other invectives, said, “Il paraît que vous ne Liverpool,

donnez que de la mousse à ces satanés noms de

Dieu !3. In the ordinary law report (not in GOODWIN SANDS AND (?) STEEPLE (6th S. viii. I the column of facetice) of an Irish newspaper I 430). — The editor of Burt's Letters has substituted once saw a portion of a woman's evidence given " Salisbury” for “ Tenterden." This is the original thus: “ There was no other blessed sinner present passage:

but myself and the great God." R. H. Busk. “ Well then (quoth Maister Moore) how say you in this matter? What think ye to be the cause of these

The FowlER FAMILY (6th S. viii. 427, 459).-In shelves and flats that stoppe up Sandwich haven? For the Norman People Fowler" is derived as follows: sooth Sir (quoth he) I am an old man, I thinke that “Rainerus Auceps, or Fowler, of Normandy, 1198 Tenterton steeple is the cause of Goodwin sands. For

(M.R.S.). Gamel Auceps paid a fine in York, I am an old man, Sir (quoth be) and I may remember the building of Tenterton steeple, and I may remember

1158 (Rot. Pip.). Stephen and Thomas Aucuparius. when there was no steeple at all there. And before that of England, c. 1272. Also Juliana, Adam, Walter Tenterton steeple was in building, there was no manner Fouldre (R. H.)." Fludyer, Fullagar, Foulger, of speaking of any flats or sands that stopped the haven, and Fulger, the author of the above book considers. and therefore I think that Tenterton steeple is the cause to ho

to have been corruptions of De Fougeres, or of the destroying and decay of Sandwich baven. And even so to my purpose is preaching of gods word ye cause

Fulgiers, in Bretagne. The barons of Fulgiers had of rebellion, as Tenterton steeple was cause that Sand- many branches in England, which he enumerates. wich baven is decayed."-Sermon preached at West

Strix. minster before King Edward VI., 1550; Latimer's Fruitful Sermons, 4to. 1578 or 1596, pp. 106, 107.


| 346).—The invariable pronunciation of spread

among the working classes in the country is spreed, See Latimer's Sermons, fol. 109, ed. 1575. The whenever used : thus, “Let me spreed your butter.” passage referred to is quoted by Southey in his

WM. Vincent. Colloquies, notes, p. 323 (London, John Murray, 1829), from Sir Thomas More's Dyalogue, fol. 145,

HARRIS [OF BOREATTON] (6th S. viii. 408).-In. ed. 1530.

J. B.

Burke's Gen. Armory (1878) your querist would

have found mention of this baronetcy, created in The editor of Burt's Letters must have written 1622 in the person of Sir Thomas Harris, of from a dim recollection, and so blundered “Ten-Boreatton, co. Salop, Master in Chancery, extinct terden" into “ Salisbury.” The passage in Latimer! in 1685. The arms are given as, “Or, three occurs in his last sermon preached before Edw. VI. hedgehogs az."; crest, “A hedgehog or.” Harris In the edition of the Sermons edited for the Parker of Lakeview, Blackrock, co. Cork, as confirmed to

William Prittie Harris, of the family of Harris of bad letters patent 11 Hen. III. to build the said Assolat, co Cork, is the only Irish coat resembling castle, or rather, as Mr. Eyton notes, the word Boreatton.

NOMAD. used being firmare, more probably simply to

increase the strength of a pre-existent “Castrum REYNOLDS (6th S. vii. 328; viii. 36).—The de Radeclif.” It became one of the designations arms of Chief Baron Reynolds were Az., a chevron of the Audleys, and the manor is still called ermine between three cross-crosslets fitchy arg., | Weston-under-Red Castle.

NOMAD. a crescent for difference ; crest, a dove (or eagle close) arg., ducally gorged, and line reflexed over

This is Castell Coch, Powys Castle, near Welshthe back or. I shall be glad to give Mr. COBBOLD | pool.

T. W. WEBB. further information of the judge's family, or the

* Hardwick Vicarage, Hay. correspondent who inquired a few weeks ago con Red Castle, in Wales, is Powis Castle, Montcerning the chief baron's great-grandfather, Sir gomeryshire, the principal seat of the Earl of James Reynolds of Castle Camps.

Powis. It is about a mile distant from the town REGINALDUS. of Welshpool.

W. W. Sir John ODINGSELLS LEEKE, Bart. (6th S.

THE GLASTONBURY THORN (6th S. vi. 513 : viji 448).-_While endeavouring to follow up some vii. 217, 258).-Several trees which are descended phantom knights, in the account of another family, by cuttings from the Holy Thorn still exist in and I found it expedient to trace the generations of about Glastonbury. One of them. of somewhat Leeke, of Newark-upon-Trent. A baronetcy, con

scanty and straggling growth, occupies the site of ferred on Francis Leeke of that place, Dec. 15,

the original thorn, on the summit of Weary-all 1663, became extinct, by the death of his only

Hill. Another, a much finer tree, compact and son Francis, A.D. 1682. In May of that year health

year healthy, stands on private premises, near the en. Clifton Leeke, of Newark, proved the will of his

trance of a house that faces the abbot's kitchen. nephew, the said second baronet ; his own will, These descendants of the Glastonbury thorn inherit dated March 13, 1682/3, being proved May 41 the fanious peculiarity of that tree. C. W. S. following. In the last-named will mention is made of Jobp, son of John Leeke, of Epperstone; and THE FIFTI CENTENARY OF THE DEATH OF Thoroton's Notts (p. 294) shows that his name in WYCLIFFE (6th S. viii. 492).—At this reference full was John Odingsells Leeke. He was a lawyer, you did me the honour of inserting a note of mine and some of his documents in the British Museum about the completion at the end of this year of are indexed as being those of Sir John Odingsells five hundred years, or exactly half a millennium, Leeke; but the last of the series, dated May 13, since the death of Wycliffe, the "morning star of 1730, is endorsed " Mr. Leeke's opinion of Copy- the English Reformation."' It is remarkable that, hold." All which tends to show that his son, or as in the case of Luther, the precise date of his grandson, “dubbed" him baronet after his de- birth is somewhat uncertain, although it was procease. If descendants exist your correspondent at bably 1324. But this note is concerned with the Norwich would appear favourably situated for question of the exact date of the final seizure with acquiring a knowledge of them; but it gives me paralysis, of which he died on the last day of the pleasure to offer the foregoing information.

year 1384. It is commonly stated to have been

J. S. Innocents' Day, i. e. December 28, three days The name of this baronet does not appear in the before his death. But we are told by his bioEpglish. Scotch, or Irish lists of baronets in the grapher, the Rev. John Lewis (formerly Vicar of Roval Kalendars of 1815 or 1816: nor (as it Minster, Thanet), that the Teignmouth Chronicle appears from the London Gazette) was any such and Walsingham say that it took place the day after, baronetcy created in those years. It is also worthy i. e., Dec. 29, which was that of the feast of Abp. of notice that neither the Annual Register nor the Becket; and he quotes one of Wycliffe's adverGentleman's Magazine, in their respective notices saries as saying that “on the day of St. Thomas of Sir John's deatb, give him tho appellation of the Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, viz. baronet.

G É R B. Dec. 29, the day after H. Innocents, John Wiclif.

the organ of the Devil, the enemy of the Church, Red CASTLE (6th S. viii. 428). — Surely the the confusion of the common people, the idol of place of which your querist is in search is the heretics, the looking-glass of hypocrites, the eni Rouge Chastiel,” or “Castle of Radeclif," of the courager of schism, the sower of hatred, and the Audleys of Helegh and Red Castle, and in that maker of lies, when he designed, as it is reputed, case it is in Shropshire, not in Wales. Some account to belch out accusations and blasphemies against of this Red Castle will be found in Mr. Eyton's St. Thomas in the sermon he had prepared for Shropshire, vol. ix. p. 344, 8.0.“ Weston," where it that day, was suddenly struck by the judgment of may be seen how it came to the Audleys from God," &c. Apparently, therefore, the day of the Matilda Extranea, and how Henry de Audley seizure must remain uncertain, and may have been

Dec. 28 or 29; that of his death is by all stated before, under, and after the law. Down to 1549 to have been Dec. 31.

W. T. Lynn. it was usual to have three masses on Christmas Blackheath.

Day in this country. In the Prayer-Book issued

that year only two were appointed, and in 1552 A FELLOWSHIP (6th S. viii. 513).—The diffi-|

only one mass is ordered. For the doctrinal culty of this phrase is not in the fellowship, but in

significance of tbe three masses I refer LECTOR the a. Here a is not the indefinite article, but

to Durandus, Rationale Divinorum Officiorum, the M.E. prep. a, short for an, which is the more

feed. 1486, lib. vi. fol. cli, and Burchard's Ordo correct form of on, and signifies (as often in Middle English) in. It occurs in a-foot, a-sleep, and the

he Missæ, ed. 1512, fol. ii.

F. A. B. like. Hence a fellowship means “ir fellowship," Christmas Eve is the only night when mass is i. e., in good fellowship, in the name of good sung. Mass is always said before 12 noon, except fellowship, and is a mere phrase, like the phrase on Maundy Thursday, when it may be said as late "I pray thee," which occurs for it in our as 3 P.m., and Christmas Eve. The practice of Authorized Version. It occurs again in the evening communions is an innovation within living phrases “a God's name” often in Shakespeare, memory, and is against all precedent. To receive and in "a this fashion" (Hamlet, V. i. 218). fasting is the rule of the Catholic Church, still ob.

WALTER W. SKEAT. served by many old-fashioned people in various Cambridge.

parts of England, and is again reviving. WARINE WOSE (6th S. viii. 515).—Wose is ooze,

E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP. or soft mud, particularly used of the mud of a | The lines are a simple description of midnight harbour, as in The Tale of Beryn, 1. 1742. Warine mass, which is usually celebrated in Catholic I guess to be Warren, near Pembroke, a place countries at midnight between Christmas Eve and situated above Milford Haven ; and I guess Christmas Day.

E. WALFORD, M.A. Warine rose to mean Milford Haven, which is

| Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. certainly "an opyn havyn that well men knowe."

CAROLINE, COUNTESS OF DUNRAVEN (6th S. I cannot find any place called Warren except this

viii. 517).-Her great-grandfather married Jane, one, which is given in the Clergy List.

*daughter and heiress of John Wyndham, greatWALTER W. SKEAT.

grandson of Humphry Wyndham, but she is deCambridge.

scended from bis second wife, Anne Edwin. NAPOLEONIC PROPHECY (6th S. vii. 404; viii.

Sir John Wyndham Joan Portman. 51, 112, 296, 316, 337).--I have met with yet another Napoleonic anagram, making the word nihil:

George, seventh Frances Davy Humphry, fourth= “Napoleon imperator Gallorum,

son. | (? Florence).

Ioachim rex Neapolitanus,
Hieronimus rex Westphaliæ,
Ioseph rex Hispanæ,

Francis Sarah Dayrell. Ilumphry=Joan Carne.
Ludovicus rex Hollandiæ."

John-Jane Strode. CHRISTMAS EVE OBSERVANCE (6th S. viii. 516). -The lines quoted by LECTOR evidently refer to

Johr the time when the festival of the Nativity was celebrated by three masses, the first commencing

2. Anne EdwinzThomas=1. Jane Wyndbam, d. s.p. at midnight, the second at daybreak, and the third at the third hour, or 9 A.M. It has always been

Charles (took name of Edwin)=Eleanor Rooke. the custom of the Church to celebrate the mass at the commencement of the day, between daybreak

Thomas Anna Maria Charlotte Ashby. and 9 A.M. The only exceptions to this rule are (1) the midnight mass on Christmas Day; (2) in

Caroline, Countess of Dunraven.

H. S. W. cases of necessity, as, a, where a person is sick or about to die, and there is no consecrated Host avail. LADY BELLENDEN (6th S. viii. 309).-It was no able ; b, where a bishop is travelling he may not “ Pretender,” but “his most sacred Majesty King depart without having heard mass ; c, by dispen Charles II.," who once sat in the state chair in the sation. The use in the Romish Church of three Tower of Tillietudlem (see Old Mortality, passim). masses on Christmas Day is very ancient. Theles. Sir Walter knew so many old ladies who held phorus, who was Pope A.D. 127, decreed that three sentiments similar to those of Lady Bellenden, masses should be sung in Festo Nativitatis, to that perhaps no single one of them was in his mind denote that the birth of Christ brought salvation more than the rest.

J. T. F. to the fathers of three periods, viz., the fathers | Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durbam.

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Allow me to correct an error in MR. WHist's fast. He was brought up as a priest, but preferred communication concerning Lady Bellenden. Minna art. He came to London at the age of eighteen, and Brenda were not the daughters, but the nieces, and was a pupil of M. Chenu, and a student of of Mr. Morritt of Rokeby, Sir W. Scott's friend. the Royal Academy. He was appointed sculptor They were the daughters of his brother, brought to the Queen, and died March 20, 1839. up by him.

E. C.

ALGERNON GRAVES. AARON BURR: TURNERELLI (6th S. viii. 495). CARDINAL POLE (6th S. vii. 429).–To show -P. Turnerelli, not Turnevelli, exhibited a bust the relationship between John de la Pole and of Col. Burr at the Royal Academy in 1809, 1 Cardinal Pole allow me to append the following No. 788. Peter Turnerelli was born in 1774 at Bel- genealogy :Elizabeth=John de la Pole, Earl Edward IV. George, Duke of>Isabel Neville, dau. of the of Suffolk.

Earl of Warwick.


John, Earl of Lincoln,

killed at Stoke.

Edmund, Earl of Suffolk,

beheaded 1513.

Richard, 'killed at

Pavia, 1525.

Margaret, Countess=Sir Richard

of Salisbury. Pole.

Henry, Lord Montague, Geoffrey. Arthur. Reginald. bebeaded 1539.

(Cardinal.) The De la Poles came from Hull, and Sir Richard Daniel Race was Chief Cashier of the Bank of Pole's father was a Welshman. The first Earl of England from 1739 to 1775; Charles Jewson then Suffolk was Chancellor of Richard II.

held the office for two years, and was succeeded by

F. J. W. the well-known Abraham Newland; Henry Hare Cardinal Reginald Pole was the fourth son of succeeded the latter in 1807 ; Rippon, Matthew Sir Richard Pole, K.G., and Margaret, only

“ Marshall, William Miller, and George Forbes daughter of George. Duke of Clarence. By her intervening between Hare and our present cashier, second marriage she became Countess of Salisbury.

Frank May, appointed in 1873. Sir Richard Pole was son of Sir Geffery Pole. The picture, painted by Thos. Hickey, 1773, is descended from an ancient stock of that surnamé a very good one, and so is that of Abraham Newin Wales. In 21 Henry VIII. the cardinal's eldest land, and if MR. STROTHER desires to see them, brother was summoned to Parliament as Lord he can ask at the door of the parlour, and one of Montague.

R. S. Davis.

the servants will show them. Buckland, Faringdon,

HENRY H. Gibbs. TAE UNIVERSITY OR " TRENCHER” CAP (6th S.' AWNE: Own: ONE (6th S. viii. 247, 457).-I viii. 469).-Planché, in his Cyclopædia of Costume,, have examined a copy of the book of Common does not give the date at which this was regularly Prayer, printed by Richard Jugge and John Cawood, adopted, but temp. Henry VIII. all professional with the date 1560, and find it is “one oblation." persons seem to have used flat caps, and caps of

OctaviuS MORGAN. particular forms seem to have become peculiar only It may perhaps interest your correspondent to such persons from the commencement of the F. A. B. to know that in Edward VI. Prayer seventeenth century. Durfey, in his Ballad on Book of 1549 the term “one oblation" is given. Caps, which has for its burden,

C. L. PRINCE. " Any cap, whatever it be, Is still the sign of some degree,”

CONTINUATION OF THE “SENTIMENTAL JOURcalls the " cap divine(the square cap now used NEY” (6th S. viii. 428, 475), not by Eugenius, but by the upiversity) " Square ; like the scholars and by Mr. Shandy, who, in his preface to the sequel their books."


describes himself as “a base-born son of Yorick,

who has attempted to trace the path his sire had DANIEL RACE (6th S. viii. 446). The inscrip-marked out, and to speak of incidents that would, tion at the bottom of the picture, which hangs in in all probability, have happened in his way, had the lobby of the Bank parlour, will answer Mr. he lived to have trod the ground himself.” My STROTHER'S query:

copy of the sequel, edition 1793, fcap. 8vo., and ". Daniel Race, Chief Cashier of the Bank of England, 2 vols. bound in one, was printed for T. Baker, in the 76th year of his age and 55 of his service. This Southampton, and S. Crowder, Paternoster Row, portrait was here placed March, 1773, by order of the

London. The sequel abounds in “ mots à double Governor and Directora, in testimony of his singular excellence of mind and manners, eminent abilities,

entente," and there, I doubt, all likeness ends befidelity, and attention, uniformly exerted for the in

tween son and sire. Is it known who the former terests of the Bank and the Public."



AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED (6th S. vi. A Narrative of Events connected with the Publication of 430; vii. 119). —

the Tracts for the Times. With an Introduction and

Supplement extending to the Present Time. By Wil. “Omne rarum carum, vilescit quotidianum."

liam Palmer. (Rivington & Co.) I have lately met with what is apparently the original

MR. PALMER is well known as a writer on theological source of this line, for which inquiry was made u.s.:

controversy. Long before “N. & Q." came into exist" Rarum esse oportet, quod diu carum velis." ence, long before most of its writers and readers were Publius Syrus, Sententiæ, 1. 235, p. 22, born, Mr. Palmer was at work studying the early litur. Anclam., 1838.

gies. In those days few people knew anything about the ED, MARSHALL. service-books of the early and middle ages. Many not

ill-educated people in those days thought that nes

everything in the Prayer-Book of the Church of England Miscellaneous.

was written for the first time in the sixteenth century.

Mr. Palmer's Origines Liturgicæ was one of those books NOTES ON BOOKS, &c.

which satisfied an undeniable want. It does not detract London Cries : with Six Charming Children. The Text from its merits to say that more recent writers, whose by Andrew W. Tuer. (Field & Tuer.)

antiquarian and historical knowledge has been wider, Is the shape of an illustrated gift-book Mr. Tuer has have produced works which have in a great measure supplied a volume equally interesting to the bibliographer displaced the Origines as a book of reference. Of Mr. and the antiquary. To the latter his London Cries Palmer's other contributions to literature we can say appeals, on the strength of preserving some of the little. He has always proved himself a sturdy and well quaintest features of London life in Tudor and Stuart equipped controversialist in favour of the old High times as well as in modern days. The former cannot fail Church opinions of Andrewer, Laud, and Cousin. His to prize a volume reproducing with absolute fidelity present book, though in name a history, is, in fact, a illustrations which fetch long prices in the sale defence of his own views. Apart from all theological rooms. Few books of the season are handsomer or more bias it will be found well worth reading. Whatever attractive than this, the designs being in their way un position we may take up, we must all of us feel that the surpassable and the letterpress sparkling and vivacious. Oxford movement, like the rise of Methodism under the For his illustrations Mr. Tuer has laid under contribu- teaching of the Wesleys, is an historical fact of which, if tion Rowlandson, several of whose charateristic Sketches we would understand the growth of English thought, of the Lower Orders, 1820, are copied in facsimile, in- we cannot afford to be ignorant. We have read many cluding the colour. A series of Catnach cuts are taken books treating on the beginnings and development of from the wooden blocks of the famous Catnach press what, in the slang of forty years ago, was called Trini. Three or four designs are from George Cruikshank, and tarianism. We cannot call to mind one that gives a others are taken from children's books now of excessive clearer account of what happened. In his judgments rarity. “Six Charming Children," which are given as of motives we think Mr. Palmer often onesided, but we full-page illustrations, and are printed both in red and are sure he always tells us the truth just as it appeared brown, were first published in 1819, a copy of the early to bim. A gentleman who holds that the repeal of the edition being now worth ten to twelve guineas in the Test and Corporation Acts, the Roman Catholic Emanauction rooms. Of the authorship of the designs nothing cipation Bill, and the admission of Nonconformists to is known. They are in the style of Cypriani. With the Oxford and Cambridge, were political mistakes, dangerous marked conviction that purchasers will tear out the to the cause of religion, cannot, it will be conceded, be illustrations for the purpose of putting them in scrap

ected to write wit books, Mr. Tuer employs one side only of the page. Those capable of thus treating the volume must be The Natural Genesis. By Gerald Massey. 2 vols. singularly deficient in reverence and in taste for archæo- (Williams & Norgate.) logy. The letterpress has very distinct value, and I “ THE NATURAL GENESIS" is the second half of A Book should in itself secure the popularity of the volume. of the Beginnings. The two together complete Mr. As Mr. Tuer says, most of the cries have entirely disap. Massey's contribution to the study of evolution, of which peared. Every variety of goods seems to have been at one the author is a staunch champion. The chief contention time sold in the streets. More of these cries and noises of the book is that Africa, not Asia, is the cradle of the than is generally supposed still exist. Through our human race; that all myths, types, and religion may be quiet streets the vendor of crockery still wanders, knock- traced to an African origin, and explained with Egypt ing two basing together, for the joint purpose of showing as an interpreter. Throughout the whole work the author the soundness of his wares and making a noise compared displays extraordinary labour and learning of a very with which the bell of the muffin-man seems almost varied character. Every age and country contributes to musical, “Buy a clothes prop!" is shouted out daily, illustrate or support Mr. Massey's theories. But it is with a strange enapping accentuation of the word impossible to offer an estimate of the value of such a "prop.” The musical cry “Young lambs to sell !" book, which is the result of aboriginal research, and is still to be heard in the London streets, and in which deals with primeval matter. The subject is so one or two districts some announcements concerning special, the treatment so peculiar, the mass of facts sa * baked taturs” are equally melodious and incompre- portentous, that few persons in England are as yet comhensible. As Mr. Tuer states, some of the cries are petent to appreciate at their real merits the many inintended to be unintelligible. Apart from such cries as genious theories and suggestions which are scattered # Milk ho!” and “Old clothes !” wbich have been ab- over tbese pages. At the same time, while it is somebreviated into wholly meaningless ejaculations, some cries times difficult to follow the author's drift, there is always are made to sound like something different and comical. much to instruct and interest the reader. Unenlightened “Holloway cheese cakes," a cry now disused, was thus pro- persons will be none the less amused if here and there nounced, "All my teeth ache." To the lover of the past the illustrations seem rather omnivorously than critically Mr, Tuer's book may be confidently recommended. It is collected, the comparisons made on the Macedon-anda deligbtful gift-book, and, especially in the shape of Monmouth principle, the facts treated in Procrustean the large-paper edition, a most desirable possession. fashion. It may be as well to mention that Mr. Massey


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