« EelmineJätka »
Samian WarCodling, 278-pin-Thomas Levers of St.
LONDON, SATURDAY, APRIL 8, 1884.
communication by means of ships station'd at proper
intervals between those frigates and our fleet, for the CONTENTS.- No 223.
convenient interchange of Signals: a system adopted by NOTES :-MS. Account of Battle of Trafalgar, 261-Curio- the consummate judgement of our incomparable Chief sities of Superstition in Italy, 262-Bicentenary of Handel's
from the day he arrived and took the command before Birth. 264 - Brighton in 1747-Etymology of ErysipelasTraces of Danes in Somerset-Sunsets: After-glow, &c., 265
the port, by which he avoided the wear and tear of -Key to "Tales of Wayside Inn"-Parallel Passages
ships, sails, rigging, men and nerves which a close Yorkshire Sayings-City Poet--Pews of Iron-Ancient Cus. blockade with so numerous a fleet necessarily occasioned, tom revived in Durham-Grey Colour Unlucky-Lion-year, and at the same time he kept the Enemy, who were 266-"Not unoften," 267.
known to be ready for sea at a moment's notice, in proQUERIES:-Port le Blanc - Allycholly Quotation from
found ignorance of our number and force. Tennyson-Heraldic Enfield, 267 - Heraldic-Neyte Bridge"Three Ladies Waldegrave"-The Bird" Liver"-Family of Early in the forenoon of Saturday, the 19th October, Dove-Wardour Castle-Pattison's Milton's "Sonnets," 263 1805, the Captain of the Bellerophon was invited with -Stray-Black Guards-Fea Family-S. Fergus-Cretin- some other Captains by signal to ding with the com. Exorcism of Curtius Cordus - Col. Grey - Pestilence in
mander in chief, and on our answering in the affirmative, England in 1521, 269-Dotheboys Hall" Ashbourne" Por
Bellerophon's Signal was made to close the Admiral, trait of Shakspeare-Battle of Leipzig-Question of Heraldry
raldry which we immediately made sail to accomplish, our -Newton of Cheadle Heath, 270. REPLIES:-" Itinerary ” of Richard of Cirencester. 270
station being in the lee Column, the fourth ship astern Rococo=Barocco, 271- Authenticity of Ossian, 272 - Thomas of the Royal Sovereign bearing the flag of Vice-Admiral James, 273_"Oh, bold and truo"-Inscriptions in School Collingwood, who led our division : while carrying sail Prizes – Gold poured into the Mouth of a Traitor - for this purpose, I perceived flags flying at the Mast Kopnboum Tree, 274 – Playing for the Soul – “The head of the look-out ship towards Cadiz, the Mars, and ringing island" - Duke of Buckingham bebeaded 1483 - Archaic Words-Unusual Words and Phrases - Lords
distinctly made out to my own satisfaction the numeral Danganmore, 275-Additions to Wheatley's ** Reduplicated Signal 370--signifying “The Enemy's Ships are coming Words"-Somerset Place-Names-Nostradamus-"Æneid,"out of port, or getting under weigh"; this I immediately (276—Regiomontanus-Heraldic - "New English Dictionary" reported to Captain Cooke, and asked his permission to
-Lord Montacute-Château Yquem- West African Proverb repeat it. The Mars at this time was so far from us that -“Solitary monk"-Bishop Barlow's Consecration-Tupper
her topgallant masts alone were visible above the horizon, Family, 277-Napoleon à Darwinite-George JIC's Watch
consequently the distance was so great for the discovering in a Ring-King James's "Book of Sports"-Parents of St.
I the Colour of flags that Captain Cooke said he was un. Julian-St. Thomas's Day Custom-Thomas Lever-Birthplace of Prior-Codling, 278-Pill Garlick_“French leave" | willing to repeat a Signal of so much importance unless --Samian Ware-Old Engraving-Grace Darling-Horn | he could clearly distinguish the flags bimself, which on Petting Stone, 279.
looking through bis glass he declared bimself unable to NOTES ON BOOKS:-Grant's "Story of the University of I do. The conviction of the correctness of my statement. Edinburgh"-The "Genealogist"-Dickson's “The Bible in
founded on long and frequent experience of the strength Waverley."
of my own sight, induced me again to urge Captain Cooke
to repeat it, when he said if any other person of the many Notes.
whose glasses were now fixed on the Mars would confirm
my opinion, he would repeat the Signal. None of the MS. ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR officers or Signal men however were bold enough to assert
BY A PARTICIPANT IN THE FIGHT. positively as I did that the flags were 370 ; and I had The following interesting narrative appears
the mortification to be disappointed in my anxious wish
that Bellerophon should be the first to repeat such dein a duodecimo volume in MS. It is written with
lightful intelligence to the Admiral. Soon afterwards special neatness, and is entitled “ Account of the
the Marg hauld down the flags, and I said “Now she will Proceedings of His Majesty's Ship Bellerophon in make the distant Signal 370'"-which distant Signals tbe Battle of Trafalgar, in a Letter from William were made with a flag, a ball and a Pendant differently Pryce Cumby, Esq., who succeeded to the Com disposed at different Mast heads by a combination totally
unconnected with the color of the flag or pendant used. mand of the Bellerophon early in the Action.” So
She did make the distant Signal No. 370 as I had prefür as I can ascertain it has not before been printed.
dicted, this could not be mistaken, and as we were preHeighington, 20th March, 1828. paring to repeat it the Marg Signal was answered from MY DEAR ANTHONY, - Agreeably to your request I the Victory, and immediately afterwards the dinner proceed to give you in detail the particulars of the Signal was annuld, and the Signal made for a general Battle of Trafalgar, more especially where the Bellero Chase E.S.E. pbon or myself were individually concerned; the general Our joy at the prospect thus afforded of an opportunity proceedings of the fleet you can of course gather from of bringing the Enemy's feet to action, and consequently the official and other accounts published at and since terminating the blockade on which we had been so long that time, but as your enquiries refer more particularly and so disagreeably employed, was considerably checked to my own personal services I shall offer no apology for by the apprehension that it was merely a feint on their what might otherwise appear gross egotism.
part, and having no intention of giving us battle that As in all such undertakings it is prudent to adopt the they would re-enter the harbor of Cadiz 80 soon as they frenchman's suggestion of "commençons par le com- discovered us in pursuit. We continued the chace till mencement," I must carry you back to the forenoon of nightfall without getting sight of our opponents, and about Saturday, the 19th October, 1805, when the Bellerophon sunset the signal was made for Bellerophon, Polyphemus, was one of a British Fleet of 27 sail of the Line, cruising and three or four others of the most advanced and fastest under the command of the immortal Nelson off Cape sailing ships to look out a head of the fleet during the St. Mary's. watching the movements of the combined Night and to carry a light. Soon after we had answered French and Spanish fleets under the French Admiral this signal Captain Cooke said to me be should not feel Villeneuve, then lying in the harbour of Cadiz, where comfortable unless either he or I were constantly upon they were narrowly observed by our frigates station'd deck till we either brought the enemy to action or the close to the harbor, with whom we kept up a constant chace was ended, on which I volunteered taking two watches on deck that night, adding my hope that the On this I observed that it was very possible that the events of the following day would render our watching same shot which disposed of him might have an equally the next night unnecessary; I accordingly remained on tranquilizing effect upon me, and under that idea I subdeck till midnight, when the Captain relieved me, as I mitted to him the expediency of the Master (as being did bim again at four o'clock, and so the night pass'd the only officer who in such case would remain on the and morning came but with it no sight of the Enemy's Quarter Deck) being also apprized of the Admiral's infleet. We had all this time been steering for the mouth structions, that he might be enabled to communicate of the strait of Gibraltar, as their having put to Sea with them to the next officer, whoever he might be, that should the wind at N.W, naturally led Lord Nelson to suppose succeed to the Command of the Ship. To this Captain their object was to go up the Mediterranean. Soon after Cooke immediately assented, and poor Overton the Master daylight, in consequence of signals from ships in the N.W. was desired to read the Memorandum, which he did ; and quarter, our fleet hauled the wind to the Northward here I may be permitted to remark en passant that of and stood on under easy sail, the weather being thick the three officers who carried the knowledge of this and hazy and continuing so through the day (Sunday the private Memorandum into the action, I was the only one 20th), we were unable from our fleet to get sight of that that brought it out. of the Enemy.
In going round the decks, to see every thing in its Towards evening the frigate most advanced towards place and all in perfect order before I reported to the Cadiz made signal for the Enemy's fleet in that direction Captain "the ship in readiness for action," the fifth junior and communicated to the Admiral their force, but from Lieutenant (now Captain George Laurence Saunders), the position of the Bellerophon those Signals could not who commanded the seven foremost Guns on each side be seen by us; we had however the gratification of seeing of the lower deck, pointed out to me some of the Guns the Admiral telegraph to Captain Blackwood of the at his Quarters where the zeal of the seamen had led Euryalus, “I rely on your keeping sight of the Enemy them to chalk in large characters on their Guns the through the night": this cheered us with the hope of an words “ VICTORY OR DEATH," a very gratifying mark of Action in the morning, and according to our previous the spirit with which they were going to their work: arrangement Captain Cooke remained on deck till twelve at eleven o'clock, finding we should not be in action o'clock, when I relieved him, and he relieved me again for an hour or more, we piped to dinner, which we at four without anything particular having occurred had ordered to be in readiness for the ship's company at through the night except the frequent burning of blue that hour, thinking that Englishmen would fight all the lights and falee fires by our frigates to leeward, which better for having a comfortable meal, and at the same assured us that the Enemy was seen by them. I had time Captain Cooke joined us in partaking of some cold again turn'd in and "address'd myself to sleep," when meat, &c., on the Rudder head, all our bulk heads, tables, about a quarter before six I was rous'd from my slumbers &c., being necessarily taken down and carried below : I hy my messmate Overton the Master, who called out may here observe that the Enemy's fleet had changed “ Cumby, my boy, turn out, here they are all ready for their former position, having wore together, and were you, three and thirty sail of the line close under our lee now forming their line on the larboard tack; the wind and evidently disposed to wait our attack." You may having shifted a few points to the Southward of West readily conclude I did not long remain in a recumbent their rear ships were thrown far to windward of their position, but springing out of bed hurried on my cloaths, centre and van, and the wind being light they were and kneeling down by the side of my Cot put up a short many of them unable to gain their proper stations before but fervent prayer to the Great God of Battles “for a | | the battle began: a Quarter past eleven Lord Nelson glorious Victory to the arms of my Country, committing made the Telegraphic Signal " ENGLAND EXPECTS THAT myself individually to his allwise disposal, and begging EVERY MAN WILL DO HIS DUTY," which you may believe his gracious protection and favour for my dear Wife and produced the most animating and inspiriting effect on Children, whatever his unerring wisdom might see fit to the whole fleet; and at noon he made the last Signal order for myself”: this was the substance and as near as observed from Bellerophon before the action began, which memory will serve me the actual words of my petitions, was to prepare to anchor after close of day. and I have often since reflected with a feeling of pride
B. DOBELL. how nearly similar they were to what our immortal leader
Queen's Crescent, Haverstock Hill. himself committed to paper as his own prayer on that occasion,
(To be continued.) I was soon on deck, whence the Enemy's fleet was distinctly seen to leeward standing to the Southward under easy sail, and forming a line on the starboard tack.
CURIOSITIES OF SUPERSTITION IN ITALY. At six o'clock the Sigoal was made to form the order of
(Continued from p, 202.) sailing, and soon after to bear up and steer E.N.E., we One of the most curious of the many stories made sail in our station, and at twenty minutes past six
connected with the more modern phase of the we answered the signal to prepare for battle, and soon afterwards to steer East; we then beat to Quarters, and NOCO ut Deu
Noce di Benevento is that of a man of some note cleared ship for action : after I had breakfasted as usual and property living in the little commune of at eight o'clock with the Captain in his Cabin, he begged Canemorto, near Rieti, to whom it was reported of me to wait a little as he had something to shew me; that his wife attended these mysterious nightwhen he produced and requested me to peruse Lord Nelson's private Memorandum, addressed to the Captains
gatherings, notwithstanding the distance at which relative to the conduct of the Ships in action; which
they resided from Benevento. The wife succeeded for having read he enquired whether I perfectly understood a long time in evading all the inquiries he directed the Admiral's instructions; I replied they were so dis to the point, but one day-when, instead of metinct and explicit that it was quite impossible they could pacing her, he treated the matter as though it in. be misunderstood; he then express'd his satisfaction and I terested him and he desired to be initiated into said he wish'd me to be made acquainted with it, that in the event of his being " borld out” I might kuow the mysteries--she not only took him into conhow to conduct the ship agreeably to the Admiral's wishes. fidence, but excited his imagination so much with
the tale of the joys of the swift ride through the mined to punish her only for the evil intention, air, the sumptuous banquets and enchanting and at the same time cure her of her follies. dances at the journey's end, that, in part because Accordingly, he asked her in the first place she had raised his desires, and in part because he whether she were minded to continue in her evil felt unable to credit her story without personal courses, and in particular whether she would ever experience, he consented to accompany her on again take a night flight to Benevento. Oo her the occasion of her next attendance at the boldly answering bim in the affirmative, he replied weird entertainment. When the day came that he would set her free from durance if she round, he found she had not overstated the case. would undertake to go thither the very next night The dance of the witches was astounding ; no- and give him a full and particular account the thing could be more appetizing than the scent of next day of all her experiences. It was then the viands spread out in abundance upon the agreed that she should have liberty to go home in soil. One only thing which marred the feast was order that she might have free scope for using the the absence of salt;* at his wife's instance, how-ointments and incantations alleged to be necessary ever, even this was procured. When it arrived for the performance of the feat, but that cerhe at the sight happened to exclaim, “Ha, the tain appointed persons, who should be friends of salt is come at last, thank God!" At sound of her own, should remain with her in her room the holy name, the whole scene, witches, broom-through the night. When night came the party torches, and viands, disappeared in the twink supped together, the woman and the persons ap. ling of an eye, and nothing remained for the pointed to watch her, when, however, it must be unlucky busband but to pass the remainder of the observed that a great deal of wine was drunk. night in blackest darkness on the cold ground. Supper over, the woman applied the ointments In the morning, falling in with some country supposed to convey the power of reaching the people, who wore a costume and spoke a dialect witches' congress, and went to bed, leaving the to which he was unaccustomed, he learned that doors and windows open according to diabolical he was, indeed, at Benevento, though he had gone prescription. to bed at Canemorto. All these facts ho declared The watchers now did their part, which was to on his oath before the judges of Rieti, nor could bind her firmly to the bed with strong cords, so as they by any means shake his depositions.
to prove to her when she woke that she had not There is another instance cited by a number of moved from the spot. Then they called to her writers on demonology, which may find place with loud cries, but failed to wake her. Next they here because it serves further to illustrate the plied her with stripes and burnings; and when even line taken by Italian judges in dealing with that did not bring her to her senses they seem to witches at the very time when the kind of treat- have carried on the joke pretty severely, burning off ment which may be almost denoted persecution her hair down to the roots, without being able to had begun to prevail in Germany. The accused wake her from her deep sleep. It was only when in this instance had, with the infatuation common, the morning light came that she gave any sign of though scarcely conceivable, in similar cases, sensation. When she had fully come to herself deposed not only to having attended the witches' they carried her back to the judge, who asked her Sabbath under the Benevento walnut tree, but whether she had been to Benevento that night, also to having participated in various moro culp- and she strictly affirmed that she had. Interroable acts of sorcery, such as having bewitched infants, &c. The judge, instead of ordering her
Giovanni Battista della Porta gives an explanation to be condemned to the stake, being con- l of the composition of the unguents used by witches, and vinced of the absurdity of the confession, deter- the natural effects such medicaments might produce.
- Quoted by Cantů, xv. 454, and Tartarotti, lib. ii. cap. 12, * Nicolas Remy, “ conseiller intime du Duc de Lor. $ viii., who has there collected the testimony of other raine," Dæmonolatria, lib. i. cap. 16, observes that though writers on the same point. Several instances of oint. these banquets were said always to be well spread, salt ments used for effecting magic cures, &c., occur in the was always wanting, because divinely ordered to be used | tales I collected in Rome. in the Jewish sacrifice (Lev. ii. 13, &c.); and bread also, 4 Moroni (xli. 303-4) says : "So much value was because elected to be the matter of the Holy Eucharist. assigned to the magic power of hair, particularly the But Tartarotti is of opinion that there is nothing in this hair of women, and above all of maidens, that the judges argument, as it appears from Pliny (lib. xxxi. cap. 7) were wont to order those believed to be enchantresses Ovid, and others, that salt was equally used in pagan to be shaved." Dandolo (Le Streghe del Tirolo, Processi sacrifices, from Tertullian (De Præscriptionibus, cap. 40) Famosi del secolo, XV11.,Milan, 1855) mentions incidentand Justin Martyr (Apologia 11. pro Christianis) that ally some women having their bair cut off at the moment bread was in use in Nithraic sacrifices.
of their arrest being understood by the people to mean » Bartolomeo Spina, De Strigibus, cap. 2; Bodin, De- | they were charged with witchcraft. The practice is monomania, lib. ii. cap. 5; Godelman, De Magis Vene- also mentioned in Del Rio, lib. v. sec. ix. p. 324, col. 2. ficis et Lamiis, lib. ii. cap. 4, Num. 23 ; Paolo Minucci, a The use made of the maiden's tresses in “ Filagianata," Florentine writer, note to Lippi's Malmantile Racquis- in Folk-lore of Rome, must also be reckoned to have tato, canto iv, stanza 78.
been a magic use.
gated as to what had taken place there, she said imagination conoerning such acts as joining the that in consequence of the revelations she had witches' congress in sleep than concerning the previously made to the judge she had been beaten commission of a theft or å murder when awake. with red-hot rods; that the goat on which she Malebranchef also shows that witchcraft increased had ridden home had burnt off her hair with a just in proportion as measures were taken against flaming broom; and that the marks of what she it. had thus had to endure might be seen on her. For the present purpose, however, the reason person. The judge ordered the injuries she had why they were more numerous in Germany matters received to be immediately dressed, while to her | less than the fact itself that witches and trials for he said: “You can learn from your own friends witchcraft were comparatively few in Italy, and that all that has happened to you took place in on this all writers are agreed. The most notable your own house and by my order, not the devil's ; Italian trials occurred in the Venetian districts and that I ordered it for the purpose of convincing and other northern states ; Como, the seat of the you of your folly, which if you will renounce I will most celebrated, if not actually under German Bet you free.” Nor, according to Alfonso Tosti, was government at the time, had been so till within a this an isolated instance of this mode of treating sufficiently recent period to be still acting under witches in Italy.
the influence of its institutions. R. H. Bosk. It is often difficult to decide which of two co
(To be continued.) incident events, having manifestly a bearing on each other, has the decisive claim to figure as the cause and which is to reckon as mere effect. Thus
THE BICENTENARY OF THE BIRTH OF it is not easy to say whether there was more
HANDEL. witchcraft in Germany than in Italy because the It is remarkable how tenaciously many persons persecution of it was fiercer, or whether the per- cling to, and accept as true, erroneous statements secution became fiercer where the offence had of facts, long after they have been conclusively made itself more dangerous. “That crimes are proved to be false. Such has been peculiarly the multiplied in proportion to the notoriety given case in the dates of the birth and death of the them by punishment is a but too well known illustrious composer, George Frederic Handel. As fact," observes Cantù in connexion with this very regards the latter, I have already disposed of Dr. subject:
Burney's myth, first put forth in 1785, that "By constantly hearing that such and such things Handel died on Good Friday, April 13, by showwere done certain persons became persuaded that they ing, first in the introduction to the word-book of themselves, too, had done them, and went and deposed | the great Handel festival, 1862, and, secondly, in to the fact...... The power of example on nervous per. “N. & Q.," 3rd S. iii, 421, that all the contemBons is well known...... It became a habit to ascribe to sorcery the least result of contagion, as well as all |
| porary testimony proves the real date to have evils that could not be readily accounted for otherwise. I been Saturday, April 14. To the latter I can now ...... Some of the ointments described by Porta and Car: add another piece of evidence, since brought to dano were physically calculated to produce sleep and light by my excellent friend, and your valued excite the imaginative powers. A magician would apply contributor, the late such an ointment, declaring that the result would be to “ funeral book," an adjunct to the burial register
Col. Chester, viz., the take the patient to the tregenda, and the patient would go to sleep and dream he had experienced all that was promised. One or two such facts were enough to set
? De Inquirenda Veritate, lib. ii. p. 3, cap. 6, quoted going the whole legal machinery of a trial. Men. I by Tartarotti, and still more women, given over to the terrors of & The same would seem to have been the case with solitary confinement and of the ferocity of prosecutors regard to the spread of Reformed doctrines in Italy, in hardened to the sight of suffering and glorying in being Naples most notably of all. It was reported to Charles the instruments of destroying a terrible evil, would V. that more than two-thirds of Naples had accepted make what appeared to be spontaneous confessions, and the doctrines of the Reformation, and he endeavoured thus public opinion was confirmed more strongly than to reintroduce the Inquisition, which had never been in ever in the truth of the accusation.”
force there for any length of time. It was introduced by Muratori (Della Forzz della Fantasia Umana, I end; Ferdinand the Catholic tried to revive it, but
the house of Anjou, but ere long its labours came to an p. 131) says: “In countries where little attention without success. Charles's attempt fared no better, was called to witchcraft few pretended to be and yet the Reformed ideas disappeared. In the witches." Tartarotti (pp. 119-21) writes much island of Sicily the Inquisition was closed in 1782 to the same effect as Cantù, but shows that the
(Fatti Attenenti all' Inquisizione, pp. 111-6). The first argument applies pre-eminently to witchcraft,
promulgation of the penalty of death against transgres.
sions of the mind was by Frederic II., 1224 (Fatti, &c., which from its very nature was spread by the mea p. 34), but this was for heresy; it was not extended to gures which are deterrents from ordinary crime. | witchcraft till some centuries later, Persons could more easily be deceived by their
1 b In addition to incidental testimony already cited see also Tartarotti, p. 153. Prof. Gams also says, “In
Italy, especially Rome, trials for witchcraft were not only • Tregenda, see previous note.
much more rare, but immeasurably more lenient,"
of Westminster Abbey, in wbich the date is given great composer, the directors of the Crystal Palace, as April 14.
will commemorate the bicentenary of his nativity We have now to examine the evidence as to the in the course of the year 1885. W. H. Husk. date of Handel's birth.
The Times newspaper of Saturday, Feb. 23, || BRIGHTON IN 1747.- In the face of the recent 1884, and the Weekly Times newspaper of Sun- 1 scandal at Brighton of hundreds of peopl day, Feb. 24, 1884, contained paragraphs inviting drunk along the shore with liquor washed from a attention to Feb. 24, 1884, as the bicentenary of
wrecked vessel, the following historical passage the birth of the great Saxon. But both writers
seems some proof that we cannot quite escape our were out by a year and a day. Upon Handel's
ancestors. At any rate, the queen of Eoglish grave-stone and upon his monument, both in Poets'
watering-places ought to see that such scenes never Corner (the south transept), Westminster Abbey,
occur again. The index to the Scots Magazine of the date of his birth is given as Feb. 23, 1684.
November, 1747, has: “Sussex in England, bar. But it must be borne in mind that at the time of Handel's birth the old style of treating March 25
| barity of the people there"; and on turning to the as the commencement of the year pretty generally
page the following occurs :
“A letter from Brighthelmston, Sussex, of Nov. 17, prevailed, and therefore the February of 1684 | bears. That that evening two lights appeared off the would be identical with what under the new style, place, which the people well understanding to be signs of when January 1 is reckoned as the commencement ships in distress, as there was a storm SSW, about sixty of the year, would be February, 1685. In the
of them, with several lanthorns, went along the coast, baptismal register of the Liebfrauenkirche, other
watching the lights, as sharks do their prey, till one of wise the church of Notre Dame de St. Laurent,
the ships came ashore between Brighthelmston and Rot.
tingdon. In three hours the cargo, consisting of chest. at Halle, the place of Handel's birtb, bis baptism | nuts, and most of the sails and rigging, were plundered ; is recorded as having taken place on Feb. 24, 1685, and at ten o'clook next morning hall the vessel was car. and, as it is known to have been the custom at ried away. She was a Dutoh vessel, the Three Sisters." that period to administer baptism on the day after
T. S. birth, it would appear that the true date of his
ETYMOLOGY OF ERYSIPELAS. -- Some derive nativity was February 23, 1685. This date is
| ερυσιπελας from ερυθρος, red, πελλα, skin. It supported by at least one contemporary musical
comes rather from epvw, to draw, nedas, near, publication, viz., Walther's Musikalisches Lexicon,
|“ because," as Mayne remarks, “it quickly enLeipzig, 1732. Moreover, Handel himself has croaches on the neighbouring parts." confirmed the year date upon two several occa
R. S. CAARNOCK. sione, At the ends of the autograph scores of his
Athens. oratorios, Solomon and Susanna, he has recorded the several dates of the completion of their com
TRACES OF THE DANES IN SOMERSET.--I have position, viz., on that of Solomon, June 13, 1748, just come upon an interesting group of dames in and on that of Susanna, August 9, 1748, and on the south-east corner of Somerset. They may be seen both has stated himself to be then sixty-three in the Ordnance map, close to Templecombe. We years of age.
have not many traces of the Danes in this county, This appears to be conclusive, and therefore I but I look upon these as an undoubted trace of a conceive we may safely accept Feb. 23. 1885, as Danish settlement. They are Hoo Farm, Dirk the bicentenary of Handel's birth. Some, indeed. | Harbour, Throop, and Combe Throop. might contend that the omission of eleven days! 1. Hoo Farm. - The Danish hoe, a hill. Ci. on the rectification of the calendar in England in / Cliffe-at-Hoo. 1752 ought to be taken into account, and March 6 2. Dirk Harbour.-Miss Young gives this as a or 7 regarded as the true date ; but I think we Dutch Christian name, meaning “people's ruler." must follow precedent, and accept the modern | The Danish form is Didrik (Christian Names, ii. date as the old ope, as we do with the quarter
337). days, &c.
3. Throop, formerly Wilkenthorpe. — Taylor, The substitution of February 24 for February 23 Words and Places, p. 105, gives thorpe as a useful appears to have originated with Rev. John Main
test-word for discriminating between the settlewaring, who published (anonymously) a memoir of ments of the Danes and Norwegians, being conHandel in 1760, and his date was adopted by all | fined almost exclusively to the former. succeeding writers until 1857.
F. W. WEAVER. The promoters of the celebration of the centenary
Evercreech, Bath. of Handel's birth, living at a period when a careful SUNSETS: AFTER-GLOW: BLUE AND GREEN SUN investigation of dates and facts was all but un- And Moon.-In reference to the discussion as to known, gave performances at Westminster Abbey the connexion between the late meteorological and the Pantheon, Oxford Street, in 1784, but the phenomena and the volcanic eruption at Krakataua, modern celebraters of the colossal genius of the some one who has time or opportunity would render