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Smith's Fruits and Farinacea the Proper Diet of cludes his note with a quotation, in Greek and Man, 1845. This is a clever book, naming many English, from Plutarch's treatise on Animal Food. writers on the subject and their works. Smith has | A further notice of Shelley's views on this subject also written a good book on Vegetable Cookery, 1866. will be found in Hogg's Life of Shelley, vol. ii, If this subject be pursued far, it will be well to pp. 418–132.

W. E. BUCKLEY. procure Vilmorin-Andrieux et Cie.'s Description des Plantes Potagères. In Mr. Beach's American Prac

Mr. Hughes can find Shelley's essay on vegetice Condensed (New York, 1857) there is, at p. 11, a tarianism in any edition of the poetical works good résumé of facts as to the difference between which gives the notes to Queen Mab, or in almost animal and vegetable diet. In Sir John Sinclair's any one of the numerous separate editions of that Code of Health there is much in favour of a vegetable poem. The essay or note illustrates a passage on the diet. Lankester, in his Popular Lectures on Food, same subject in the text of the poem, and was says very little to the purpose, but still the chapter

elaborated into a separate pamphlet, with addicommencing at p. 119 can be consulted. Prof.

|tions, ard was published the same year as that in Jobnston's Chemistry of Common Life, 2 vols.,

which the poem was privately printed (1813). I 1855, does not contain much on the subject, but

believe the treatise was reprinted as an appendix admits that vegetable diet is in every part of the to an American medical work (Dr. Turnbull's world the chief staff of life. Sylvester Graham's

| Manual on Health) in 1835, and in 1880 I reScience of Human Life, 1854. is one of the best printed it in its integrity in my edition of Shelley's repertories of all that needs to be known on the sub- | Prose Works, vol. ii. H. Buxton FORMAN. ject. He is strenuously in favour of vegetarian

46, Marlborough Hill, St. John's Wood, N.W. diet. Shelley thought that all vice might be ex- | Shelley's contribution to the literature of vegepelled from the world if men would only eschew tarianism originally appeared as a note to Queen flesh; but I am unable to point to the passage.

Mab, and was afterwards (in the same year, 1813) James Bontius, physician to the Dutch settle

issued as a pamphlet, A Vindication of Natural ment at Batavia, wrote a treatise, De Conservanda

Diet. I think it may be found in any edition of Valetudine ac Dieta, 1645, in which he advocates

Shelley's prose works. Some time since I bought a vegetarian diet, chiefly, however, in view of ala lot of old pamphlets, and amongst them were residence in the East. A. Cocchi, an eminent some sheets of the library edition of Shelley's physician of Florence, wrote a work which in

works, the Vindication of Natural Diet being 1745 was translated into English as The Pytha

as The Pytha- complete. It has been passed from hand to hand, gorean Diet; or, Vegetables only conducive to and bears marks of usage; but if Mr. Hughes bas Preservation of Health and the Cure of Diseases. Iany difficnlty in procuring a copy. I shall be happy John Frank Newton wrote a Return to Nature ; to lend him mine if he will send me his address. or, a Defence of the Vegetable Regimen, 1811.

H. SCHERREN. This is all I can refer to just now. Putting 68, Lamb's Conduit Street, W.C. prejudice aside, two things are certain. Men can live in full strength upon a vegetable diet, never

In Shelley's Queen Mab are the following touching flesh. They will be less feverish, have


"No longer now less disease, and will when afflicted recover quicker

He plays the lamb that looks him in the face, than those whose staple food is flesh. But once you

And horribly devours his mangled flesh, bave accustomed the system to flesh there will be Which, still avenging nature's broken law, craving for flesh, and relapses recurring at intervals, Kindled all putrid humours in his frame, which it is best to indulge. Secondly, you could

All evil passions and all vain belief, feed four times the population if all were vege

Hatred, despair, and loathing in his mind, tariaps.

The germs of misery, death, disease, and crime. C. A. WARD.

No longer now the winged inhabitants, Haverstock Hill.

That in the woods their sweet lives sing away, Shelley's advocacy of vegetarianism is contained

Flee from the form of man," &c.

Poetical Works, edited by Mrs. Shelley, in his Queen Mab, viii., near the end, and the note

Moxon, 1810, p. 17. on the lines, – No longer now

And in the notes on this poem Shelley refers He slays the lamb that looks birn in the face,"

at great length to this passage, and cites several pp. 161-182, ed. Clark, 1821, is the last note in the

authors, conspicuously Newton's Return to Nature; volume. Shelley seems to have been influenced and |

or, Defence of Vegetable Regimen, Cadell, 1811, in led to adopt this system by “Mr. Newton's ke support of his own declaration that the depraturn to Nature; or, Defence of Vegetable Regimen,

on vity of the physical and moral nature of man Cadell, 1811." (In' the edition of Queen Mab by originated in his unnatural habits of life. J. Brookes, 1829, at p. 198, this autbor's name is!

JAMES HIBBERT. printed erroneously 'Newland.) Shelley refers

Preston. also to Dr. Lamb's Reports on Cancer, and con- ! I have no doubt that if Me. Hughes applied to

the editor of The Dietetic Reformer, 20, Paternoster the English language has a much better chance of Row, he could be supplied with a list of such being listened to than those who have studied the books as he asks for. The passage on vege- subject. I have not been able to find, during tarianism in Shelley's IV orks is to be found in twenty years' search, that there is any other sub. Queen Mab, nearly at the end of canto viii., and ject in which ignorance is commonly regarded as begins :

a primary qualification for being chosen to write "No longer now

“ popular” articles on it. At the same time I am He slays the lamb that looks him in the face, rather sorry to see that Sir J. A. Picton's comAnd horribly devours his mangled flesh, Which, still avenging nature's broken law,

munication contains several inaccuracies ; in many Kindled all putrid humours in his frame."

cases he has not followed that historical method I have an edition of Queen Mab, published by

which he justly advocates. The formation of Frederick Campe & Co., of Nürnberg and New

weak verbs has been in all details, correctly ex

plained in the introduction to Morris's Specimens York (n.d.), which contains Shelley's original notes, among which is a very long one on the above

of Early English, pt. i. p. Ixi, which the student

Pod should consult. It will thus appear that the passage, in which the renunciation of animal food 500 is very strongly insisted on. This note is reprinted mig

original suffix in the verb send was -de, not -ed. by Mr. Forman in his edition of Shelley's Works,

This gave send-de, written sende, once a common 4 vols. (Reeves & Turner); but should this not

form. This became sente, as being more easy to be accessible to Mr. HUGHES, I shall be happy to

pronounce rapidly, and finally sent. Sende is the

only form which is found in Anglo-Saxon, and the lend him my copy of Campe's edition.

| word sended never existed, except (perhaps) by misWm. H. Peet.

use. The suffix -de was short for ded (dyde), as has There is a treatise of Porphyry, De Abstinentia | been rightly said. Another inaccuracy is the fancy ab Es Animalium, and there are two of that the suffix .te is High German. It has, in Plutarch, De Esu Carnium. See also Plato, De English, nothing to do with High German, but deLegibus, 1. vi. p. 626, Lugd., 1590; Hierocles, In pends upon phonetic laws. The suffix - de becomes Aurea Pythagoreorum Carm., p. 303, Lon., 1673; -te after voiceless consonants, such as p, t, k (h, gh). Lilius Gyraldus, De Interpretatione Symb., “ Ab Hence the M.E. slep-te, met-te, brough-te, mod. E. Animalibus Abstinendum," ibid. ad calc., pp. 160. I slept, met, brought (never slepd, med, broughd). 163.

ED. MARSHALL Some verbs inserted a connecting vowel ; hence Shelley's views upon the subject of vegetarian

lov-e-de, hat-e-de, whence lov-ed, hat-ed. It is ism may be seen in an interesting and scholarly

quite a mistake to suppose that Landor originated book, recently published. by Mr Howard Wir such a form as slip-t. As a fact, it is correct, liams, B.A., The Ethics of Diet. Copies may be

and occurs, spelt slip-te (dissyllabic), in Gower's obtained, and catalogues of vegetarian literature,

Confessio Amantis, ed. Pauli, vol. ii. p. 72, where from Mr. R. Bailey Walker, 56, Peter Street,

it rhymes with skip-te. No one who thinks that Manchester. At this address is also published

the putting of t for ed is “ of late years a fashion The Dietetic Reformer, the monthly organ of the

in certain quarters" can have examined a certain Vegetarian Society.

book known as the first folio of Shakespeare. I EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.

open Booth's reprint at random, and my eye lights Hastings.

on p. 91, col. 2, of part ii., and I at once find

chanc't for chanced; there are several thousand The tract by Shelley which Mr. HUGHES wants such examples in that work. It is, in fact, a great is called “A | Vindication of Natural Diet. I misfortune that such pure and correct formations ...... London, | 1813.” It is exceedingly scarce; Mr. as skipt and slipt have been absurdly spelt skipped Buxton Forman says that he only knows of two and slipped, whilst no one writes slepped. Such copies. There is one in the British Museum. is the muddle-headedness of modern English The tract is formed by his expanding some of the spelling, which seems to be almost worshipped for notes to Queen Mab. Shelley was a zealous its inconsistencies. WALTER W. SKEAT. vegetarian, and his works are full of references to Cambridge. the subject.

WALTER B. SLATER. I 249, Camden Road, N.

SIR J. A. Picton maintains (6th S. viii. 101, 232) that in such German phrases as“ sich zum Gelächter

machen,” “zu Schaden kommen," " zu Tode ärgern," Notes ON PARASE AND INFLECTION" (6th "zu Werke geben," the zu does double duty, and S. vii. 501 ; viii. 101, 129, 232, 497).-We ought belongs at least as much to the infinitive as it does to be much obliged to Sir J. A. Picton for pro- to the substantive; whilst MR. O. A. FEDERER (6th testing against the worthless rubbish which is S. viii. 129) maintains, in opposition to him, that in being printed in Good Words upon this subject, these cases the mu belongs to the substantive only, and which seems to prove that any one who is " and has nothing whatever to do with the infini. utterly ignorant of the facts of the formation of tive." But every German scholar must unhesitatinglyside with Mr. Federer, The ordinary German PARALLEL PASSAGES (6th S. vii. 325; viii. 51). infinitive includes the Eng. to, and Sir J. A. ---My knowledge of Lockhart's paper on Greek Picton's mistake seems to have arisen from his tragedy, in which was the passage resembling, and being unaware of this fact. Thus ärgern alone perhaps suggestive of, Tennyson's line in Locksley means "to make angry, to provoke, to vex," and Hall, was derived from an article in Blackwood's so “zu Tode ärgern ” means "to vex to death,” | Magazine for July, 1882, on “ The Lights of the zu belonging to Tode only, and not to ärgern. Maga, ii.," i.e. J. G. Lockhart. Giving the writer That this is so is indisputably shown by such a credit for accuracy in his quotations, I copied his sentence as “Er that sein Möglichstes, ihn zu extracts verbatim from p. 120 of the above number. Tode zu ärgern” (He did his utmost to vex him C. M. I., however, has proved that the author of to death), where the infinitive requires a zi, and “The Lights of Maga” was not so careful as your the zu belonging to the infinitive has to be put in present correspondent, who was misled by placing between the subst. Tode and the infinitive. too implicit confidence in the authority before him,

F. CHANCE. | whose words, moreover, he had no means at hand Sydenham Hill.

of verifying. Non cuivis homini contingit to have I should like to know what authority Sir J.A.a complete set of Blackwood on his own shelves. Picton has for stating that "at a comparatively

W. E. BUCKLEY. early period this preterite [A.S. eode] was dropped, “ENGROSSED IN TIIE PUBLIC" (6th S. viii. 495, and in its place went, the present tense of the 523).---This expression will find its explanation in secondary verb wendan, from windan, to wind, was the circumstances of the trade with Africa at the adopted," &c. I have always understood that time when the adventures of Robinson Crusoe went=wended was a past indefinite form, and I were supposed to have taken place---say about the believe I have the corroborative evidence of Prof. | middle of the seventeenth century. Skeat and Dr. R. Morris.

The quotation is not given quite correctly. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. Crusoe had been describing to his friends in Brazil SINGULAR ERROR OF HUMBOLDT CONCERNING

the advantages of the trade with the Coast of A SUPPOSED NEW STAR IN THE FOURTH Cen. Guinea; how easy it was to purchase there for TURY (6th S. viii. 404).-Since I wrote the note

trifles not only gold dust, elephants' teeth, &c., but you have kindly inserted at this reference, I have

negroes for the service of the Brazils in great noticed that the mistake in question was made

numbers. This trade, however, would have to be before Humboldt by Cassini, so that it was pro

carried on furtively, since" at that time, so far as bably taken from him, although Cuspinianus is

it was, it had been carried on by the assientos, or the authority given by both authors. Cassini's

permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and work, Éléments d'Astronomie, was published in engrossed in the

engrossed in the public stock ; so that few negroes 1740. In it, at p. 59, occurs this passage : were brought, and those excessive dear." In other “Une troisième [i.e., new star) que Cuspinianus, au

words, the trade was a close monopoly, carried on rapport de Licetus (p. 259), découvrit l'an 389 vers l'Aigle. I by a joint-stock company. et qui cessa de paroître, après avoir été vúë aussi brill In 1662 Charles Il. granted a charter to a body Jante que Venus, dans l'espace de trois semaines.” | of merchants under the title of " The Company of I cannot find the passage of Cuspinianus in any Royal Adventurers of England to Africa," granting extant work of his; and it would seem that it was them the exclusive right to the trade in negroes. also inaccessible to Cassini, as he refers to Licetus, This company having become much involved, and whose book, De Novis Astris et Cometis, was pub- unable to proceed, resigned their charter in favour lished at Venice in 1623. The passage (in p. 259) of another company, called " The Royal African relating to this subject is,

Asiento Company,” which in 1689 entered into a “Cuspinianus autem paullo post nimirum anno al contract to supply the Spanish West Indies with nativitate Domini tercentesimo octoagesimo nono, ut slaves. The previous charter was abrogated in retulit etiam Tycho, stellam quamdam a Septemtrione 1689. by sections 1 and 2 of the Bill of Rights, but circa Gallicinium scribit ascendisse, et instar Luciferi the company continued for some time masters of splenduisse, atque intra spatium trium hebdomadarum dieparuisse.'

the situation, and it was not until the early years

of the eighteenth century that private enterprise in This description of a "star” quoted by Licetus

ription of a "star" quoted by Licetus the slave trade became successful. The term from Cuspinianus, agrees with that given by Mar

"engrossed in the public stock" thus becomes cellinus in his Chronicon; and (as I have already quite intelligible.

J. A. Picton. pointed out) refers, in all probability, to the dorp | Sandyknowe, Wavertree. Topádoos kai ańons of Philostorgius, which was undoubtedly, in reality, a comet, as is evident

| Although I cannot explain these words, quoted from its motion amongst the stars.

by ZURY (our old friend was Xury), I may offer W. T. Lynx.

the following readings. In Elliot Stock's facsimile Blackheath,

reprint of the first edition of Robinson Crusoe, 1719 (1883), the words are “engrossed in the pub- bi(Rob. of Brunne, tr. of Langtoft, ed. Hearne, lick"; in Major's edition, 1831, “engrossed in p. 267); “ His doughter had a bed al by hir-selve, the public stock"; in a French translation by Right in the same chambre by and by" (Chaucer, Petrus Borel, Paris, 1836, “ qui en avaient le C. T., 4140). Here it means in a parallel direcmonopole public"; in a German version, by Prof. tion; not as near as possible. Further, says Carl Courtin, Stuttgart, 1836, “er ein Monopol Mätzner, it is used with reference to the succeswar.”

sion of separate circumstances; hence, in due order, Perhaps Defoe wrote “engrossed from the pub- successively, gradually, separately, singly. “These lick.” Such a phrase sounds harsh and strange; were his wordes by and by" (Rom. of the Rose, but if the kings of Spain and Portugal engrossed 4581); “Whan William...... had taken homage of the trade in negroes, and kept it from the public, barons bi and bi(Rob. of Brunne, as above, they might be said to engross it from the public. p. 73); “ This is the genelogie......Of kynges bi I offer this merely as a suggestion. J. Dixon. and bi(id. p. 111); " By and by, si[n]gillatim”

|(Prompt. Parv.). To these examples may be The Manx LANGUAGE (6th S. vi. 208, 435; vii. Ladded those already cited. In later times the 316, 395).-When A MANXMAN stated that a

phrase came to mean “in course of time," and woman who died about ten years ago at the village l hence either (1) immediately, as in the A.V. of of Kirk Andreas was the last person who could not the Bible, or (2) after a while, as usual at present. speak English, he should have added, in the On this later use gee Wright's Bible Word-book, northern part of the island. Thus limited, his new edition. We thus see that the earliest authoassertion might have been correct. As it stands it |

rity for the phrase is Robert of Brunne, who is one is not so. I have recently made inquiries as to

of the most important authors in the whole of the accuracy of the statements contained in my

English literature, seeing that Mr. Oliphant has former note on this subject, and, through the kind-shown that it is his form of English rather than ness of a gentleman who resides permanently in Chaucer's which is actually the literary language. the Isle of Man, I am able not only to confirm,

It seems a pity, under the circumstances, that he but to add to them. I have ascertained that the should be a source unknown” to any one; but woman Kagan (or Keggen, as I now have the Hearne's edition is out of print and scarce, and we name) is still living, and that both she and her still wait for a new one. WALTER W. SKEAT. husband are quite unable to speak or understand English. The old man is eighty years of age; his PORTRAIT OF A LADY (6th S. viii. 517).-There wife, seventy-eight. It is also stated, on trustworthy can be little doubt as to who the lady was, viz., authority, that in Novague, four miles from Port Margaret, daughter of Francis Russell, second Erin, is a man named Kurly, who cannot speak Earl of Bedford (he died 1585), and wife of English; but my information in this case is not George Clifford, third Earl of Cumberland. The direct.

latter died in 1605, aged forty-seven, s.p.m., but From the foregoing it will be seen that, with left an only daughter, Ann Clifford, married first regard to language, the inhabitants of the southern to Richard Sackville, Earl of Dorset, secondly to part of the island are more primitive than those Philip, Earl of Pembroke. She only had issue by of the northern districts. This state of things, her first husband. It appears that Margaret's however, is just the reverse of what we were asked father obtained the wardship of George Clifford, to believe. The country around Jurby is not un- third Earl of Cumberland in 13 Elizabeth (see letter known to me, and I was well aware that in that written by him on the subject dated from Russell neighbourhood Manx was still spoken. But for Place, January 3, 1570), and that thus early, strangers the district has few attractions save when his daughter, according to the date on the Runic stones, and monuments of this class may be picture, could only have been ten years of age, found in other and more accessible parts of the there had been "communication betweene my island.

C. W. S. Lord of Cumberland and me, for the marriage of

his sonne to one of my daughters." This marriage, BY-AND-BY (6th S. vii. 469, 527).—The state

though consummated, unfortunately did not turn ment that by was repeated in order to signify" as

out completely happy, and the earl and his near as possible” has no true foundation. Examples

consort were separated during the latter years of show that it means rather “in due order.” Such I the earl's life.

D. G. C. E. pbrases are best understood by consulting the right books, viz., Mätzner's and Stratmann's old Eng- The arms are those of Clifford impaling Russell, lish dictionaries. Mätzner is quite clear about it. and these, together with the coronet and the date, He says that bi and bi sometimes indicates "in readily identify the portrait as that of Margaret, order, with reference to space.” He cites, “Two Countess of Cumberland. She was wife of George yonge knightes, ligging by and by," i. e., side by Clifford, third Earl of Cumberland, and third side (Chaucer, C. T., 1013); “He slouh twenti, daughter of Francis Russell, second Earl of BedTher hedes quyte and clené he laid tbam bi and ford. Her oply surviving daughter Anne is well known; she was married first to Richard Sack- March, 1816, but the word dandy is not used. ville, second Earl of Dorset, and secondly to Pierce Egan, in his edition of Grose, 1823, says Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and Mont- the dandy in 1820 was a fashionable nopdescriptgomery, Lord Chamberlain of the Household. men who wore stays to give them a fine shape,

A. E. LAWSON LOWE, F.S.A. and were more than ridiculous in their apparel :-Shirenewton Hall, near Chepstowe, Mon.

"Now a Dandy's a thing, describe him who can? The lady represented in the picture described

that is very much made in the shape of a man;

but if but for once could the fashion prevail by BOILEAU must be the Lady Margaret Russell,

He'd be more like an Ape if he had but a tail." wife of George Clifford, third Earl of Cumberland. She was born on the 6th or 7th of July, 1560, and

The dandy of 1816–24 was, in fact, the old was married at St. Mary Overie's Church in 1577.

macaroni depicted in the London Magazine for She was the mother of the famous " Anne Dorset,

April, 1772. The dandy of 1816 led to several Pembroke and Montgomery," who thus wrote of her

other applications of the word, such as danılizette mother:

and dandy-horse, or velocipede. Of this latter Bee “ This Margaret Russell, Countess of Cumberland, was

says (1823): “Hundreds of such might be seen in a endowed with many perfections of mind and body. She

| day; the rage ceased in about three years, and the was naturally of a high spirit, though she tempered it word is becoming obsolete.” The word dandy has well with grace, having a very well-favoured face, with certainly not become obsolete, but after 1825 its sweet and quick grey eyes, and of a comely personage.” meaning gradually changed ; it ceased to mean a

G. W. TOMLINSON. man ridiculous and contemptible by his effeminate This is the portrait of Lady Margaret. third eccentricities, and came to be applied to those daughter of Francis, second Earl of Bedford, who who were trim, neat, and careful in dressing married in 1577 George Clifford, third Earl of according to the fashion of the day. Cumberland. H. S. W.


Surely dandy must be the French dandin, as DANDY (6th S. viii. 515).—Dandiprat was an "un grand dandin"; to which noun is also the old name of derision applied to a dwarf. Minsheu, verb dandiner, explained thus in Fleming and 1617, gives it, "a dwarf, ex. Belg. danten, i. inep- Tibbins's Grand Dictionnaire: “Balancer son corpo tire, et præte, i. sermo, nugæ, fabulæ"; after nonchalamment, soit exprès, scit faute de contewhich he gives a second use of the word as applied pance"; this affected nonchalance is quite the to money: "Dandiprat or dodkin, so called because dandy affectation.. Of course the English meanit is as little among other money as a dandiprating given is "a noddy, a nindy"; but "il marche or dwarfe among other men." (See "Dodkin" en se dandinant” is not to walk like a ninny, but and “Dwarf."). The modern word dandy had to walk with the affected airs of a man about probably no connexion with dandiprat, and town, a buck, a dandy, in short. originated in slang. According to Grose (Classical

E. COBHAM BREWER. Dictionary, 1788) a very favourite slang expres- Is not the obvious derivation from dandiner, sion about 1760 was, “That's the barber," mean

; to walk in the mincing manner of the traditional ing that is the right thing. When the "barber” became vulgar a new slang word was employed,

dandy? Brachet and Egger put down dandiner and the saying became “That's the dandy," which

among words of “origine inconnue," adding that

it has been personified in the character of Georges in turn was superseded by other terms, such as “That's the ticket” and “That's your sort.”

| Dandin.

R. H. Busk. The use of dandy as equivalent to "all right” is In Shropshire bantam fowls are invariably called hardly yet extinct, for I not long since heard a dandies.

BOILEAU. carpenter whose saw did not cut, wanting, as he expressed it, "to be sharps'd," and who took up! "Oupa yñs (6th S. viii. 208, 456).-So far as my another in better condition, say, “Ah! that's the limited knowledge of Greek literature extends, I dandy."

venture to assert that this expression is not applied The introduction of the modern slang word to Athens. Athens and Sparta were regarded as dandy as applied, bali in admiration and half in “ the eyes of Greece,” and it is to this that Milton derision, to a fop dates from 1816. John Bee probably alludes in Paradise Regained, iv. 240. In (Slang Dictionary, 1823) says that Lord Peter- / Aristotle's Rhetoric (iii. 10) we have the remarksbam was the founder of the sect, and gives the able expression, kai Aertívys epi Aakedamuovio peculiarities as “ French gait, lispings, wrinkled | OÛK €âv tepuidelv Tv ‘Ellada étepópoaduov foreheads, killing king's English, wearing immense yevouévyv, in reference to Leptines dissuading the plaited pantaloons, coat cut away, small waistcoat, Spartans from razing Athens to the ground, as cravat and chitterlings immense, hat small, hair was proposed at the close of the Peloponnesian frizzled and protruding.There is a good picture war : “They were not to put out one of the eyes of the “ Fashionable Fop” in the Busy Body for of Greece." But I am unable to adduce any

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