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Emperors Zeno and Justinian ; and Ascoli (Studi

Orientali e Linguistici) shows that they carried CONTENTS.- No 231.

the knowledge of Aristotle and other Greek writers NOTES :-Superstition in Italy, 421-Bibliography of Chaucer, into Persia in the fifth century. In the ninth we

422-Nouns of Multitude, 423-Drowned Fiddlers, 424 - Day find Arabia in possession of translations of Hippoof Pentecost-Telephony, 425-Death of Queen Henrietta

ta crates, Galen, Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, and Maria-New Words-Sulphur-Sympathy-Egoism : Egotism, 426.

other Greek writers. The studies which were QUERIES :-Duchesse d'Aremberg - First Napoleon's Designs

discarded or neglected by the Christians, out of -Scavelman-Rev. E. Baldwyn-California Station - Rabbits -English Devils. &c.-Clough of Lichfield-R. Sulivan, 427 - German Ballads - St. Nicholas: Nicodemus - William Bra bridge-0e - Cw. Ld. -"Sal et saliva "_" Dancing days"-Robert Burnel-Bedell Family-Canonries of York,

them, were received with joy into their new home, 428-Vigo Bay Bubble-M. A Barber-" Wooden Walls"Totemism - Vaux's Catechism"-"Intyst counsel"

where they were fostered and developed, though Levels of the Metropolis-Grantley Berkeley and Maginn enveloped in a cloud of Eastern mysticism. Philip Stanhope-Authors Wanted, 429.

Hence it was that when these writings were REPLIES:-Boy Bishop of Norwich-Pestilence in England, brought back to Europe, at a time when she was

430-The i in Old German - A.M.: P.M.-The Mahdi- sufficiently established in the Christian faith to Cattle "asked in Church"-The Two Thieves at Calvary, 431 | fear no longer the influences previously dreaded. -"Fisherman of Scharphout" - Reformades, 432 - Sicle

they came obscured with an admixture of exBoones-Boon-days-Grace in Hall, 433-Bossuet - Dissenting Registers—Th. Nash-Greek Mottoes-Episcopal Wig

traneous notions, which it took centuries to clear Glasgow Directory-Prince Tite, 434-Peter Vowel, 435– away. Witchcraft, sorcery, necromancy, were not Rococo-Sabbath-Henshaw - Codling -- Coming of Age-1 medieval superstitions ; they were brought to Women with Male Names, 436-Grey Unlucky-Hyrned the learned in the Arabian writings, and to the Notes on "Folk-Etymology"-Curious Book-plate, 437–

vulgar by the invasion of the gipsies, and both Remarkable Inscription-True Date of Birth of ChristGopher Wood-Double Christian Names, 438-Eclipses of

came in the wake of returning Crusaders, preceded, the Sun-It-Authors Wanted, 439.

however, by many instances of learned Arabians NOTES ON BOOKS:-Gairdner's Brewer's "Henry VIII.”

and Jews from Spain and Sicily settling in France Notices to Correspondents, &c.

and Italy.b

On the other hand, the embodiment of the idea

of the marvellous has taken some few shapes in Notes.

Italy which must not be passed over here, as they

are spécialités of the country. The most important CURIOSITIES OF SUPERSTITION IN ITALY. of these is the Befana. Though she brings good (Continued from p. 364.)

gifts at a holy season, occupying the same place It is refreshing to turn from the contemplation in the nurseries of Italy, as the giver of Christmas of the vast waste of mental labour and bodily suffering which is connected with witchcraft to

* This coincides with the double development, vulgar

and learned, pointed out by Cantù as above. “We have the pages of a modern Italian writer, Gabriele

positive documentary evidence that in the year 1423 a Rosa (Il Vero nelle Scienze Occulte, seconda band of some four thousand persons of both gexes arrived edizione ampliata, Brescia, 1870), who traces very in Bergamo, saying they had come from Egypt” (Calvi, ingeniously that it even had its use, and was Effemeridi, vol. ii, quoted by Rosa). Moroni (lxxi. 63), a necessity of the experience of our race. The

while not himself altogether agreeing with bim, shows

that Muratori is inclined to throw all the blame of study of the occult sciences had its place in the

witchcraft on the immigration of gipsies in the fifteenth cultivation of the world. Out of astrology came century, and censures those who permitted their entrance, the closer study of astronomy ; out of alchemy, He traces their origin (ciii. 474) to a Tatar tribe called chemistry: out of the cabala. algebra : out of Tschingani, dispersed by the conquests of Tamerlane, magic, magnetism and electricity. It is all very

and refers for particulars of their connexion with Italy

Warto Predai, Origine e Vicende de' Zingari (Milan, 1846), well to despise the stepping-stones when the

and points out that the story they put forward of having opposite bank is reached; but would the torrent been condemned to a wandering life, because their anhave been crossed without their aid ? The pursuit cestors had refused to receive the Holy Family during of the occult sciences was a kind of crucible in | the flight into Egypt, was notbing but a crafty invention, which was purged away the dross of scientific

which gained credit owing to the credulity of the times,

and procured them hospitality, and when later the im studies of all the civilized nations of antiquity,

posture came to be discovered, it was found impossible leaving behind all that was precious ; and the to eradicate them. Consult further Muratori, “ Dei analysis of their history throws a useful light on Semi delle Superetizioni ne' Secoli Scuri in Italia " in the various phases of the progress of civilization. Dissertazione sopra le Antichità Italiane. Gipsies were The tradition of the earlier Greek and Latin

great retailers and adapters of household tales, studies was, as Humboldt traces, carried into Arabia

Instances in Sprengel, History of Medicine, quoted by

Rosa. by the Nestorians when dispersed under the • In Venice she is called Radodese (Tartarotti, p. 23).

toys and goods, which St. Nicholas holds in Ger- conveys greater fear to the infantine mind than many, and the “Enfant Jésus” in France, she is the Befana herself, and without any qualification yet an ugly old hag in popular estimation, while of beneficence, is the threat that 'Bocio, Barbocio, under etymological treatment she always comes or Barbone shall come to take you.'” He does under the denomination witch and bugbear (lamia, not offer any explanation of the former two, which, spauracchio). Varchi describes her with red eyes, like our own ogre and bogie, are doubtless transthick lips, and a furious expression, and the rag positions of orco, though the use of the word orco puppets representing her to Roman children to itself is also retained in that sense; and “far the present day are made as ugly as possible, and bau” to a child answers to our “playing bo-peep,” usually with blackened faces. St. Nicholas is which, of course, is connected with bogie. With supposed in Germany to send his gifts down by regard to this use of Barbone, however, he refers to the chimney ; in Rome, where few rooms have Muratori's account of the intense fear and hatred chimneys, the Befana is found, by the little ones with which the cruelties of the Connétable de who look for her, hanging by the side of the Bourbon's soldiers inspired the Romans, and shows window on Epiphany morning, as if she had made it is hence mothers and nurses came to name him her entrance that way, though the chimney is as the greatest source of fear known to them. also put in requisition where there is one ; a Cancellieri (appendix, note xxx., and note vii.) also stocking, too, is the not infrequent receptacle of gives the same origin for the expression, and I can her gifts. Although Guadagnoli, in his Poeme testify its use has not died out. R. 8. Bosk. Giocose, mentions traditions that Befana is the

(To be continued.) name of Herod's grandmother, of the maid of the High Priest who accused St. Peter of belonging to Jesus of Nazareth, or of an aunt of Barab

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CHAUCER. bas, and suggests the conceit that the name may

(See 6th S. viii, 381; ix. 138, 141, 361.) be derived by an anagram from far bene, there Separate works other than The Canterbury can be no doubt that it comes from Epifania,d and Tales :is, indeed, as often written Befania as Befana. Troilus and Cressida.--1. Caxton's edition (no All have heard of the fair of S. Eustachio in date or place), folio, single columns, 118 unRome (so called from the parish in which it is numbered leaves : “ Troylus and Creside explicit held), which is designed to provide the materials par Caxton.” Copies are in the British Museum for the Befana's distribution. Among these are Library, at Althorp, and at St. John's College, gilt pine cones, which are reckoned to unite in Oxford. Dibdin, i. 313. themselves the representation of the gold and 2. Wynkyn de Worde's, 4to., 1517. “The incense of the Magi's offering. Amid the sweep- Noble and Amorous Ancyent Hystory of Troylus ing away of old customs which has resulted from and Cresyde, compyled by Geffray Chaucer." the invasion of September, 1870, the children Woodcut of the lovers, and the usual printer's have succeeded in maintaining this practice at least device. Copies in the Duke of Devonshire's in full vigour. Moroni mentions an offering or library and in the Cambridge Public Library. tribute which, up to the year 1802, used to be Dibdin, ii. 212. made to the Pope on Epiphany morning by the 3. Richard Pynson's folio, no date, but probably “ Collegio de' Novantanove Scrittori Apostolici," a portion of Pynson's complete impression of consisting of a hundred ducats contained in a Chaucer, "emprinted at London in flete strete by silver chalice, and which was called the Befana. Rycharde Pynson, printer unto the kynges noble

In nursery parlance the Befana has two aspects : grace," in 1526 ; double columns, woodcuts ; fine she not only brings gifts to good children, but is figured title, “ The Boke of Troylus and Creseyde," the terror of the naughty. “I'll tell la Befana &c. Dibdin, ii. 515. of you," is an expression used to still noisy cries 4. Latin version of part of the “Troilus and and all kinds of insubordination; and if such in- Cressida” by Sir F. Kinaston: “Amorum Troili subordination happens to occur about Epiphany et Creseidæ libri duo priores Anglico-Latini. Oxon., time, the culprit may find that the Befana brings 4to., 1636." Part of an English 8vo. edition of dust and ashes instead of toys.

the same work was issued in 1796 by F. G. "Another bugbear," writes Moroni, “which

e The following is analogous: "I heard & Roman a The Epiphany festival was instituted by St. Julius I. father the other day stilling the cries of a peerish child (339-52), but was never adopted by the Greek Church, with the threat, 'Take care ! Vittor 'manuele will soon which celebrated the Epiphany along with the Nativity come and take girls as well as boys, and then I'll give (Moroni, iv. 279); and Rinaldi, the annalist, anno 58, you to him'" ("Roman Correspondence," Westminster number 91, quoted by Moroni, xxi. 296, says tbat the Gazette, April 1, 1871). It was at the moment of the Apostles considered it a distinct festival, though cele.firat promulgation of the law of conscription. brated at the same time as the Nativity. Moroni also Further particulars may be found in 1 Quingrazio says that in the Acts of St. Julian the feast bears the sopra lo Spauracchio dell' Orco che si fa ai Fanciulli, by simple title of " apparitio."

Giov. Pontano,

Waldron : "The Loves of Troilus and Creseid, The Minor Poems.-1. Some of these are in a with a commentary by Sir F. Kinaston.” Both volume described in Dibdin, i. 306, under head of works are in the British Museum Library. See “A Collection of Chaucer and Lydgate's Minor also the Chetham Society's Collectanea Anglo- Poems, 4to.," printed probably by Caxton. A Poetica, pt. iv. p. 334.

copy in the Public Library, Cambridge, contains 5. “The Romaunt of the Rose,* Troilus and the following by Chaucer : “Parlament of Foules” Creseide, with other Minor Poems of Chaucer, and (“Scipio's Dream"), “Ballad on Gentlenesse,” a Life by Sir H. Nicolas. 3 vols. 8vo. Picker- "Good Counceyl (or Truth)," “ Vilage sans Peyning, Lond., 1846."

tyure (or Fortune),” “Envoy to Scogan," “ Anne6. The Chaucer Society's parallel-text edition lyda and Arcite," and the "Empty Purse." of " Troilus” in two parts, 1881-82.

2. In a tract of fourteen leaves, quarto, printed 7. Rossetti's "Troilus and Cryseyde' compared by Julian Notary about 1500, the following minor with Boccaccio's 'Filostrato.' Chaucer Society. poems appear: “ The Complayntes of Mars and 4to. 1873."

Venus” and the “Envoy to Bukton." A good Assemble (or Parlament) of Foules.—1. Caxton's copy is in the Roxburgh collection. folio, belonging to a volume containing several | The following of the minor poems of Chaucer early English poems, not all by Chaucer, for have been edited in parallel texts for the which see supra.

Chaucer Society : “ The Mother of God," “ Ane2. Wynkyn de Worde’s folio of fourteen leaves, lida and Arcite,” “Truth,” “The Complayntes of “compyled by the preclared and famous clerké Mars and Venus,” “Envoy to Scogan," « Envoy Geffray Chaucer; imprynted in London in flete to Bukton," "The Former Age," “ Words to strete at the signe of the Sonne agaynst the Con- Scrivener," “ Legend of Good Women," Chaucer's dyte. 1530." Dibdin, ii. 278.

“Proverbs," “Stedfastnesse,” “Fortune," " To his 3. The Chaucer Society's parallel text of " The Empty Purse," "A B C," "The Dethe of Parlament of Foules," from three MSS. edited for Blanche the Duchesse," and the “Compleynt to the Society in 1880.

Pitie." 4. “The Parliament of Foules, with an Intro- It may be here desirable to note that, although duction, Notes, and Glossary by T. R. Louns- questions of Chaucer authenticity cannot be said bury." Boston, Mass. 8vo. 1877. A copy is in to be finally settled, the following are the poems the British Museum Library.

which the most competent critics have agreed to The Book of Fame.-1. Caxton's, without date or consider Chaucerian : “ The Canterbury Tales," place (? 1486), folio. Imperfect copies are in the “Parlament of Foules,” Balads of " Gentleness," British Museum Library, and a better copy at "Truth,” and “Fortune,” “Envoy to Scogan," Althorp. Dibdin, i. 311.

“Anelida and Arcite," and "Compleynte to his 2. Pynson's folio, 1526. Part of his complete Purse," first printed by Caxton in 1477-8; “ House edition, in a volume containing also “The Assem- of Fame” and “Troilus and Cressida," printed by ble of Foules," " La Belle Dame sans Mercy," and Caxton in 1484 (?); “Envoy to Bukton" and “ Morall Prouerbs "; double columns ; correspond “Compleynt of Mars and Venus," printed by ing with “ The Tales" and "Troilus" by the same Notary about 1500; “The Legende of Good printer,

Women,” “Boethius," “Dethe of Duchesse 3. The Chaucer Society's parallel edition of Blanche," “Compleynt to Pitie," "Astrolabe," “The Boke” or “ House of Fame,” issued in 1878“ Lack of Stedfastnesse,” and “Words to Scriand 1880.

vener," first published" by Thynne in 1532; The Astrolabe.-1. An edition by A. E. Brae,“ Chaucer's A B C,” by Speght in 1602; “The published in octavo by J. R. Smith (London, Mother of God," by Leyden in 1801 ; and “The 1870).

Former Age," by Morris in 1861. Compare Mac2. Chaucer Society's edition, by Skeat (edited millan's Magazine, vol. xxvii. p. 383, and on the also for the Early English Text Society), pub-general subject of early editions of Chaucer, lished in 1872.

Furnivall's Notes on Francis Thynne's AnimadverBoethius (or Boece), the Boke of Consolacion of sions (Chaucer Society, 1875), p. 70. Philosophie, translated by Chaucer.—1. Caxton's

J. MASKELL. edition, Latin and English, the Latin not complete; no date, but (?) 1490; ninety-three leaves, folio. Copies in the British Museum Library and

NOUNS OF MULTITUDE. in the Bodleian.

Some years ago I received, from a very scoffing 2. Early English Text Society's edition, by pe

1 person, the following anononymous contribution, Morris, 1868.

which will speak for itself:An edition is promised by the Chaucer Society.

| “Lord Byron was one of the greatest masters of the English language, and Mr. Disraeli scarcely legs so.

You disgrace both in your circulars by committing a * Not Chaucer's.

| blunder which is simply inexcusable. Since when, let

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