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me ask, has it been correct to say, 'The Committee is of capacity that it had forbidden the apostles to opinion,' The Committee has selected,' and so forth? | teach. Hence he began, ambiguously, “The In the interests of the two great men I have named, let council forbade.” But when it came to the me beseech you to mend your ways."

interview he perceived the necessity for making I grieve to be obliged to confess that, in spite of it clear to us that the disciples addressed perthe best intentions, I am still liable to be taken sonally the individuals composing that august in flagranti delicto, for-notwithstanding the body. Hence the genitive plural their. But, at tremendous authorities who speak and write in this moment the council again rises before him in these days—I cannot altogether forget that rule in its corporate being, which necessitated the singrammar which says, "The verb agrees with its gular face. Fortunately, the sermon was delivered nominative case in number and person." It is extempore, else I should have lost this example, the custom now to make Government plural, with for it would have been almost impossible for any the intention, doubtless, of conveying the impres-one to make such a slip in writing. sion that it is the members of the Government. This contradiction seems to have become almost (and not the executive in its collective capacity) beyond the reach of protest. We are the creatures who are alluded to. Thus, “Her Majesty's of habit, and when our most eminent men make Government have decided to resume the control such mistakes, is it surprising that our children of Basutoland, in compliance with the prayer of a get muddled s I would as soon say “the army large majority of the Basutos” (Morning paper, were fully equipped," as "the Government were Dec. 18, 1883). Now I venture to think that in turned out of office,” or “ Parliament were disthis case it was the Government (i.e., the Cabinet) solved.” One cannot say, " the army were beaten," in its collective capacity that decided to resume although such a catastrophe clearly points to the the control of Basutoland. If, on the other hand, defeat of the individuals composing it. It seems there had been a difference of opinion among its to me that there is less reason to speak of the members on the subject, it would have been Cabinet in the plural (or individual sense) since proper to say, “ The Cabinet were divided in their it is bound to act in concert, and none of the opinions," the word ministers being, of course, bickerings which must occasionally arise among understood. I apprehend that when the state- its members ever sees the light. What says ment is true only of the whole body the verb “ N. & Q." ?

RICHARD EDGCUMBE, must be in the singular, I will cull examples 33, Tedworth Square, S.W. from the highest. Mr. Gladstone, in a speech on the Egyptian policy of the Government, delivered on Feb. 13, 1884, said, “And the House were invited

DROWNED FIDDLERS. to discuss a truism and a platitude...... The Govern

Much has been written of late in this journal ment were not unwarned of what would happen."

on the subject of monarchs who have met with a I take it that the words “the House were," meant

the house were, meant watery grave, or death. Authenticated cases, it simply the members of this House were,” &c., I seems, are more rare than of the dead jackass of and some such words should have been used by a Dickens. But it appears that a drowned fiddler great orator. Every one knows that the corporate is a still greater rarity, and that such persons are body known as the “House of Commons”-as

exempt from risk of becoming "damp, unpleasant also the “ Council of Trent,” the “Council of bodies ”-unless they be unhappily swamped in Ten,” the “ Congress of Vienna"-represents a the depths of their own too copious potations. collective noun, or a noun of multitude. For Thomas Alexander Ers

Thomas Alexander Erskine, sixth Earl of reasons best known to themselves, all our leading | Kellie, commonly known as “the musical speakers and writers delight in making Govern

earl," "as is well known, was a great fiddler ment plural, although they know perfectly well that I and a great drinker. A few glances of his if it were plural it would be a mere rabble, and, as rubicund countenance, Foote thought, were calcu. such, no government at all.

| lated to ripen cucumbers. In a little book of The most terrible collapse which has come verse I recently picked up from a bookstall, enwithin reach of my personal experience befell the titled " An Asylum for Fugitives ; published occapreacher of an extempore sermon, at which I was sionally," vol. i., London, 1776, occurs a copy of present, in the cathedral at Berne. I took down verses of some merit, under the name of “A his words at the moment of utterance. “When Poetical Epistle to Lord Kelly, occasioned by his the council forbade the apostles to teach in the miraculous Escape from Shipwreck, in the Passage name of Jesus, the disciples told the council to their from Calais to Dover during the Great Storm in face [sic] that it was their duty to disobey them." November, 1775.” The piece is lengthy, and

Here, it will be seen, the preacher was lost in complimentary as regards his lordship’s musical his own maze. He wished, even in the face of powers. The last few lines are interesting, and his own convictions, to make the council plural, bear upon the superstitious belief-if such it bealthough he well knew it was in its collective alluded to above ; -

“ In ancient story thus I've found,

held, in accordance with modern Jewish usage, That no Musician e'er was drowned ;

that it was the day of holy convocation of Lev. A harp was then, or I mistake it, Much better than the best cork-jacket;

xxii. 7, which, like the day of atonement in v. 32, The Grecian harpers went abroad,

is called a Sabbath of rest. This was the first day The lockers well with liquor stor'd;

of unleavened bread, the fifteenth day of the month For harpers ever had a tbirst,

Abib, or Nisan, and the day after the eating of Since harping was invented first;

the paschal lamb. Now, as the day of Pentecost, They in the cabbin sat a drinking, Till the poor ship was almost sinking;

geven weeks after the 16th of Nisan, fell, in the Then running nimbly to the poop,

year of the crucifixion and resurrection, on a They gave the scaly brood a whoop;

Sunday, and the resurrection itself occurred on a And sudden as they formed the wish,

Sunday, seven weeks before, this event must have For every harper came a fish;

occurred on the 16th of Nisan, and the crucifixion Then o'er the briny billows scudding They car'd for drowning not a pudding,

occurred on the 14th of Nisan, the evening of which Methinks, my Lord, with cheek of rose, day was that of the paschal feast. Surely, then, I see you mount your bottle-nose;

we have in this circumstance the decision of the Or firmly holding by a whole fin

question whether our Lord suffered on the day of Ride degagé upon your dolphin:

the Pascha or the day after. The question, I 'Twas thus the tuneful Peer of Kelly Escap'd some wbale's enormous belly;

say, seems to be thus settled in favour of the And safe in London, thinks no longer

former view, in accordance with what we should He'll prove a feast for shark or conger." naturally conclude from John xviii. 28 and xix. The little book, which is chiefly made up of political

14. We must suppose that the passover of the squibs and personalities, is new to me—is there

evening before, referred to by the other Evangelists, another volume ?--80 are the lines. The latter was held on the 13th of Nisan, in anticipation of the are very similar in style to “The Musical Instru- | legal passover on the 14th. And the words of St. ments; a Fable," also addressed to the harmonious John in xix. 31, “That sabbath day was an high earl: and if one may hazard a guess, it might be day,” are thus easily explained to mean that on that that this piece, like several others of about the

occasion the day of holy convocation, the 15th of same date, is from the pen of his lordship’s witty

Nisan, fell on the weekly Sabbath. W.T. LYNN. cousin, the Lord Advocate of Scotland in after years, who never wearied of making fun of him. I TELEPHONY Two HUNDRED YEARS AGO.-The The nationality of the piece is obvious in the name of Sir Samuel Morland is well known in the rhyme.

annals of the early progress of mechanical science In support of this theory of authorship, it may in England. He was a gentleman of the Privy not be irrelevant to mention that in accordance Chamber and Master of Mechanics to Charles II., with the invariable custom of the witty Scotch and devoting his attention, inter alia, to novel Advocate alluded to-this piece is headed by a methods of draining mines and marshes, was so quotation from a Latin poet :

far a successful rival of the Marquis of Worcester “Illi robur et æs triplex

as to obtain from the king various grants for the Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci exclusive use and making of the hydraulic engines Commisit pelago ratem.

devised by him for these and similar purposes. Qui siccis occulis monstra natantia

We catch a glimpse of him and his habits in the Qui vidit mare turgidum/"

Hon. Roger North’s Life of the Right Hon. Fran. Horat. Od., iii.

| cis North, Baron of Guilford, Lord Keeper of the Alex. FERGUSSON, Lieut.-Col. Great Seal under King Charles II. and King Lennox Street, Edinburgh.

James II. (second edition, 1808, 8vo. vol. ii.

p. 251), where we read that “once, upon an inTHE DAY OF PENTECOST.-The Jewish day of vitation, his lordship dined with Sir Samuel at his Pentecost, or Feast of Weeks, is kept this year on house ; and though his entertainment was exFriday, May 30. But I do not think that the quisite, the greatest pleasure was to observe his significance of the fact that it fell on a Sunday on devices, for everything showed art and mechanthe occasion recorded in the second chapter of the ism." Thus there was observed “a fountain in Acts is generally apprehended. As the Christian the room"; "a cistern in the garret, supplying all Church has from the earliest ages kept its anniver- parts of the house "; his coach, “most peculiar"; sary on that day, there can be little or no doubt and “a portable engine, moved by watchwork-it that this was so. I am aware that some have had a fireplace and grate-cost 301.; he took it with maintained that the Sabbath of Leviticus xxiii. bim in his coach, and at inns he was his own cook." 15, 16 (from the morrow of which "fifty days," or Among these mechanical marvels I do not find seven weeks, were to be reckoned to the day of mention of the contrivance of which I here make firstfruits, afterwards called of Pentecost), was the brief record, and which was probably of later weekly Sabbath. But the great majority have device. The account is as follows :


“Inventa nuper hic fuit ab Equite Anglo, Samuele ETYMOLOGY OF SULPHUR.-Vullers (Lex. Pers.Morland, Tuba quædam, Stentoro-Phonica ab ipso nun- | Lat., 1855) under gawgird (sulphur) gives Sanskrit cupata, cujus adminiculo Vox Humana, ad unius,

s'ulvāri ; and the Latin word is no doubt of Sanduorum, trium, &c., milliarium distantiam (pro majori minorive Instrumenti longitudine et Opificii præstantia) | skrit origin. Prof. Skeat gives the Benfeyan spellita diffundi potest, ut ab omnibus, intra Activitatis illius ing pulvári. Had he consulted Monier Williams's sphæram constitutis, distincte exaudiatur. Res tota jam Lexicon, he would have found a most interesting Anglice impressa est, brevi, ni fallor, in Sermonem derivation. The latter gives the literal meaning Latinum vertenda."-Ex Litteris d. 22 Decembr. A. 1671, Laf w

1, of s'ulvāri as “enemy to copper," from s'ulva or

a ad D. Philipp. Jacob. Sachsium a Levvenhaimb. datis. "Scholion.—Tuba hæc in Germanian usque personuit,

| s'ulba, copper (and say vairi). The reason is that quando et Aula Imperatoria illam audivit, et Herbipoli sulphur corrodes copper, or, at all events, blackens primum in gratiam Eminentissimi Electoris Moguntini | it. I believe, however, it has the same effect on eam formare docuit Generosum Societatis Regiæ in other metals.

R. S. CHARNOCE. Angliâ membrum Dn. Wilhelmus Schröderus, et postea

Hanoviæ Illustrissimo meo Comiti construxit sub finem
Anni 1672. Eaque quæ hîc visitur, pedum est duodecim

Sympathy.-In Folk-Medicine: a Chapter in ex laminis ferreis stannatis, forma tubæ bellicæ sed

the History of Culture, I have mentioned (p. 67) plane rectæ. Quod et Clariss. Hevelius Dantisci ejus | dem vires expertus sit, et promiserit correctionem,

that after a child has been passed through a cleft accepi a Collectoribus Ephemeridum."-Sal, Rersel tree his life is sometimes supposed to be in future

bound up with the fortunes of the tree. A gameThe foregoing is the substance of an epistolary keeper at Spitchwich, near Ashburton, “ referring communication, “ De Tuba Stentoro-Phonica Mor. to a tree which had evidently suffered from the landina," from Henricus Oldenburgius to Philippus experiment, spoke of the deformity and sickly Jacobus Sachs, Ph. et Med., for publication in the growth of a youth who had been passed through third volume of the Academia Naturæ Curiosorum it.” I may note a further illustration of the of the latter (Vratislaviæ Silesiorum, 1673, 4to. survival of a belief in sympathy from Lady Bloomp. 199).

WILLIAM BATES, B.A. field's Reminiscences. Birmingham.

“My mother used to tell me," she writes," that there

was a curious old schoolmistress at my father's place, THE DEATH OF QUEEN HENRIETTA Maria. Eslington, in Northumberland, who planted an oak tree The following statement is taken from the Succes the day I was born, which in some mysterious manner sion Chronologique des Ducs de Bretagne (Nantes,

was associated with my life. It flourished well for three

years and a half, at which time its leading shoot was 1723), forming part of the work on the Chambre

eaten off by some animal, and at that time I nearly des Comptes de Bretagne, 2 vols. folio, 1721-3,

omptes de Bretagne, 2 vols. folio, 1721-3, succumbed to a severe attack of infantine fever. My p. 169:

mother, who certainly had a tinge of superstition, often “La Reine Henriette Marie, veuve de Charles I., se

said it would have made her unhappy had 'Georgie's retira en France ; elle y mourut en 1669 d'un remede

oak' faded; but it grew and flourished for many years, que son Medecin luy donna mal-à-propos; sur quoi on

and, for aught I know to the contrary, may still be fit ces Vers, qu'on ne rapporte que comme une invention

growing in the park at Eslington."- Reminiscences of du Poëte, sans être garant de la verite du fait :

Court and Diplomatic Life, by Georgiana, Baroness • Le croirez-vous, Race future,

Bloomfield (1883), second edit., vol. i. p. 3.
Que la fille du Grand Henry

I shall be glad of additional modern illustrations.
Eut en mourant même aventure

Que feu son Pere, et son Mary?

1, Alfred Terrace, Glasgow.
Tous trois sont morts par assasin,
Ravaillac, Cromwell, Medecin;

EGOISM : EGOTISM.-In an eloquent review of
Henry d'un coup de Bayonette,

“Goethe's Leben, von H. Düntzer, 1880," by Prof. Charles finit sur un Billot, Et maintenant meurt Henriette

Blackie, which appeared in the Times on Easter Par l'ignorance de Valot.'”

Monday, these two forms are thus desynonymized: W. E. BUCKLEY, “If the vulgar English opinion harped continually on

the notion that Goethe was essentially a selfish man, New WORDS: Baric, DISREPAIR, Pram.-In and had no interest in any persons except in so far as the weather report in the Times of Nov. 30, 1883, they might serve him for buttons to his coat, the Engthe expression "baric movement" occurg. lish critic (G. H. Lewes), by the omission of a single assume it is short for barometric. The word dis

letter, showed them that an egotist is one thing and an repair is mentioned in the questions put at the small men, and utterly incompatible with great genius,

egoist another; and that while egotism is the vice of final examination for solicitors in November, 1883. egoism is only another name for that emphatic selfIt signifies want of repair. I do not remember assertion and that large faculty of self-rooted growth seeing either of these words in print before. I am which are the constant marks of any sort of vital supetold that it is now common amongst the lower

riority, whether in the material or in the moral world." classes to call perambulators prams. It is a de

A. L. MAYHEW. cided improvement. FREDERICK E. SAWYER.

Oxford. [See 6th S. ix, 67, 86, 114, 237.]

grammar school at Bradford, Yorks, in 1784, and Queries.

left in 1802 (it is said) to take a living in ShropWe must request correspondents desiring information

shire, where he is believed to have published a on family matters of only private interest, to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the

collection of fables, illustrated by Wm. Blake. I answers may be addressed to them direct.

am anxious to procure further information respect

ing this Ed. Baldwyn, especially after the time he TAE DUCHESS D’AREMBERG. – In the winter left Bradford, and shall be grateful to any of your of 1756 there was an old lady (with her daughter) correspondents who will kindly assist me. in Brussels society who is thus described by a

Tuos. WM. SKEVINGTON. correspondent of that date : “The widow of the Saltaire, Yorks. late Duke of Aremberg, who got 40,0001. from [His name appears in Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica.] Britain last war for putting the Austrian troops in

CALIFORNIA Station. On the branch line of motion...... The old Dutchess of Aremberg is a- the Lon

| the London and Brighton Railway Company to dying "; and mention is made of an archduchess, Ensom Downs

Epsom Downs there is a station formerly called probably of Austria, who had died very recently.

California, but the name of which was some years This was probably the Duchess of Aremberg,

| ago changed to Belmont. Can any one inform me whose quarrels with her son, the then young duke,

what was the origin of the former appellation ? gave so much trouble to the Duke of Marlboroug. That of the latter is doubtless one of the few from 1706 to 1710 (see Marl. Despatches, vols. iii.

cases in which it is permissible to guess. and iv. passim). I shall be grateful to any one

W. T. LYNN. who will kindly refer me to an explanation of the

Blackheath. incident above alluded to, or will give me the date of this duke's death (his son figured at Hoch RAVAGES OF RABBITS. - Where is it narrated Kirchen, 1758), or will mention what archduchess that rabbits had so undermined the Balearic Isit was who died in 1756. I shall be glad to hear lands that a Roman legion was sent out to repair direct.

ALEX. FERGUSSON, Lieut.-Col. the ravages they had committed ? Lennox Street, Edinburgh.


WEST.--In referring recently for a date in the

ENGLISH DEVILS VERSUS FRENCH ASSES. life of Victor, Duke of Belluno, I came upon the Nathaniel Ward, Simple Cobbler, p. 48 (1647), following passage in Rose's Biographical Dict., iv. says: 51: “ He (General Victor) went next to take the “There is a quadrobulary saying, which passes current command of the French and Dutch armies, I in the Westerno world, that the Emperour is King of destined, as was said, for an expedition to

Kings, the Spaniard, King of Men, the French, King of Louisiana.” Was this merely a blind, or was a

Asses, the King of England, King of Devills: By his

leave that first brayed the speech, they are pretty wise similar expedition to the St. Domingo then on Devills and pretty honest; the worst they doe, is to foot ? Louisiana was afterwards sold by Napoleon keep their Kings from Divelizing, and themselves from to the United States, and the proceeds were pro

Assing : Were I a king_(a simple supposal) I would bably devoted to the expenses incidental on the

not part with one good English Diveli, for two of the

Emperours Kings, nor three of the Spaniards Men, nor foundation of the empire or for war purposes.

foure French Asses; if I did, I should think myselfe an

R. B. Agse for my labour." Upton, Slough.

| Is there any earlier example of this quadrobulary SCAVELMAN. - The following advertisement saying? Ought not “assing” to be assizing ? occurs in the Sussex Weekly Advertiser or Lewes

E. D. Journal for June 21, 1773:-“ Wanted imme- Clough, OF LICHFIELD. - David Garrick's diately, several Sawyers, Carpenters, and Scavelmother was Arabella, daughter of the Rev. — men, to work at Scots-Float Sluice. Good wages Clough, Vicar-choral of Lichfield Cathedral. Can will be given. Enquire of Mr. John Stapley, at any of your correspondents identify this gentleRye." What are scavelmen; and is not the word man ?

H. W. scavenger from the same source ?

New Univ. Club.

R. SULIVAN.-Can any reader of "N. & Q." [Scaffel in Suffolk is a small spade used in draining.

give me any biographical particulars relating to Does this suggest an origin ?]

Mr. R. Sulivan, who was editor of the Album, a

periodical published in 1823 ? He was author of Rev. EDWARD BALDWYN.-Edward Baldwyn, Flittings of Fancy, a volume of tales and sketches M.A., Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, was (1847 ); also Elopements in High Life, a comedy, born in the parish of St. Lawrence, Ludlow, I produced at the Haymarket in 1853; The Old Love Shropshire. He was appointed head master of the and the New, a play in five acts, produced at Drury oe ?

Lane in January, 1851, &c. What is the date of is full of information given in an attractive manner. Mr. Sulivan's death ?

R. INGLIS. I wish to learn whether the above expression,

which has now passed into an ordinary phrase of GERMAN HISTORICAL BALLADS. -Will some English speech, is found in older works, or has it reader of “N. & Q.” give me the full title of a originated with the author of this cnrious tract? collection of German historical ballads published |

W. FRAZER, F.R.O.S.I. some fifteen or sixteen years ago, and edited, I think, by a scholar named Liliencron? THORP. | ROBERT BURNEL.—Where can I find a trust

worthy account of Robert Burnel, the minister of ST. NICHOLAS IDENTICAL WITH NICODEMUS. Edward I. and Lord Chancellor of England, other Lately a preacher, in my hearing, with considerable than that contained in Lord Campbell's Lives of emphasis, but without giving any authority for the the Lord Chancellors ? I specially desire to know statement, asserted that St. Nicholas, the patron the legislation due to him during the period of his saint of good children, was identical with Nico- l administration rather than mere details of his demus, our Lord's secret disciple. What authority origin, connexions, &c.

S. J. BLACK. is there for this ?

J. M.

[See Edward Foss's Judges of England, 9 vols., 1851– WILLIAM BRADBRIDGE. - Where can I find some Hardy 3 vols., Oxford, 1854.1

1864, and Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesiæ Anglicana, by particulars respecting the lineage of this prelate, || who was Bishop of Exeter 1572 ? PELAGIUS. I BEDELL FAMILY (see 1st S. v. 101, 274; 2nd S. vii.

[Have you consulted Stubbs, Registrum Sacrum Angli. viii. ix. x, passim; 3rd S. i. 410; vii. 398, 449; 4th S. canum, Oxford, 1858, or Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesia Angli. i. 294 ; v. 311, 485, 591, 601; vi. 183; vii. 104, cano, Oxford, 1853 ?)

| 199 ; ix. 27, 376; 5th S. ii. 8, 334, 418; iii. 216). OE. - I have met with many surnames ending -Can any readers of “N. & Q." supply me with in o and oe, i. e., Metsoe, Pascoe, Stilgoe, Silsoe. a list of births, marriages, and deaths of members Coe, Crego, &c. Will some kind reader of of the Bedell family? In the year 1086 Godwin “N. & Q." give me some meaning of the terminal | Bedel held lands in Bucks, and in 1222 the family

0. J. was settled at Sandon and Ardleigh, and at later

dates at the following places: Catwortb, HamerCw. LD.-Can any one give me any hint as to ton, Spaldwick, Kimbolton, Moldesworth, Hunts; the signification of " Cw. Ld.," written during the Wollaston, Oundle, Oxendon Magna, Southwick, latter part of the last century on the fly-leaf of a Easton, Northamptonshire ; Worcester; Wotton, book immediately after the Christian name and Kempton, Beds ; Duxford, Foulmere, Trumpingsurname of the owner ? So far as can be ascertained ton, Cambs ; Rattlesden, Horningsbeath, Wolverse these letters have no reference to any place of ton, Suffolk; Bedolph's Hall, Writtle, Black Notley, abode.

BARUM. Notley, Rumford, Essex ; Wood Rising, Norfolk; “SAL ET SALIVA." _The font in St. Margaret's Hedon, Hull, Yorks ; Swepston, Bredon, NewChurch, Ipswich, an octagonal one of the fifteenth

ton Burguland, Snareston, Sheepshed, Leicester ;

Shacklewell, Middlesex; St. Pancras, Grey Friars, century, has had on each of the eight sides of the

Temple Bar, Moorfields, Bedford Row, Broad bowl the figure of an angel bearing a scroll. The

he Street, Paddington, Bishopsgate, St. Dunstad, scroll appears to have had a continuous inscrip

Christ Church, the sign of the George in St. tion, but all has been hacked away except the side facing west. On that panel the inscription re

Paul's Churchyard, and also the sign of Our Lady mains perfect, and is “Sal et saliva," in black

of Pity, Fleet Bridge, London: The name is spelt letter. Is this part of any known formula of |

in various ways, viz., Bedell, Bedellus, Bedells, exorcism, or of any verse or sentence applicable

Beadles, Bedles, Beddells, Beddles, Bedle, Bedyll.

ERNEST J. BEDELLS. to baptism? Perhaps a reference to the works of Maskell or Rock, to which I have not access,

137, Derby Road, Nottingham, would supply the rest of the inscription.

P.S. I have found a few more places where O. R. MANNING.

the family lived: Winchester; York; Stondon; Diss Rectory, Norfolk.

Sawbridgeworth, Graveley, Great Munden, Hert

| ford ; Watton, Hexton, and Wymondley, Hert“MY DANCING DAYS ARE DONE."--I find this fordshire ; Basingstoke, Hants ; Codham, Herne, expression in a very interesting pamphlet pub- St. Mary Cray. lished in the year 1598, as would appear from its text, for unfortunately the title-page is wanting. THE CANONRIES OF YORK. — In the Annual It is entitled The Vievu of France, and forms a Register for 1797, at the end of the obituary small quarto, not paginated. This tract abounds notice of William Mason, the poet, some time in quaint and interesting quotations, especially precentor and canon residentiary of York, it is old French, and its account of the social condition said that the residentiary canopries are in the gift of France at the end of the sixteenth century of the dean, who is obliged by statute to give any

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