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VOLUME XVII. (MOT-ORM)

OF THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

Edited by Profs. THOMAS SPENCER BAYNES, LL.D.

AND
W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D.

wi

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. MOZART. W. 8. ROCKSTRO,

NIBELUNGENLIED. JAMES BIME. MULE. GEORGE FLEMING,

NICKEL. Prof. WM. DITTMAR. MUMMY. Miss A. B. EDWARDS.

NIEBUHR. RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D. MURAL DECORATION. W. MORRIS and J. H.

NIGHTINGALE. Prof. A. NEWTOX. MIDDLETON.

NILE. H. A. WEBSTER. MURDER. Prof. EDMUND ROBERTSON.

NINEVEH. Prof. W. ROBERTSON SMITII. MURILLO. W. M. ROSSETTI.

NITROGEN. Prof. DITTMAR. MURRAIN. GEORGE FLEMING.

NITROGLYCERIN. Sir FREDERICK A. APEL, K.C.B. MUSCINEÆ. Prof. K. E. GOEBEL, Ph.D.

NOBILITY. E. A. FREEMAX, D.C.L. LL.D. MUSHROOM. W. G. SMITH.

NORMANDY, E. A. FREEMAN, MUSIC. Profs. Sir GEORGE A. MACFARRAN, Mus. Doc.,

NORTH SEA. JOHN MURRAY. and R. H. M. BOSANQUET,

NORTHUMBERLAND. HUGH MILLER and ENEAS MYRIAPODA. Prof. H. N. MOSELEY.

MACKAY, LL.D. MYSTERIES. W. M. RAMSAY.

NORWAYMYSTICISM. Prof. ANDREW SETI,

GEOGRAPHY. Prof. H. Monx. MYTHOLOGY. ANDREW LANG.

HISTORY. ALEXANDER GIBSON. NAHUM. Prof. W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D.

LITERATURE. E. W. GOSSE. NAMES. ANDREW LANG.

NOVA SCOTIA. GEORGE STEWART. NANKING. Prof. R. K. DOUGLAS.

NOVA ZEMBLA. P. A. KRAPOTKINE. NAPIER, Sir C. J. H. M. STEPHENS.

NUBIA. Prof. KEANE. NAPIER, JOHN J. W. L. GLAISHER.

NUMBERS. Prof. CAYLEY, D.C.L. LL.D. NAPOLEON I. Prof. J. R. SEELEY.

NUMERALS. Prof. W. R. BMITH. NAPOLEON III. O. ALAN FYFFE.

NUMIDIA. E. H. BUNBURY. NARCOTICS. Prof. J. G. M'KENDRICK,

NUMISMATICS. REGINALD S. POOLE. NATIONAL DEBT. J. SCOTT KELTIR.

NUTRITION Prof. ARTHUR GAMGEE. NAVIGATION. Capt. MORIARTY, C.B.

OAK. C. PIERPOINT JOHxson. NAVIGATION LAWS. JAMES WILLIAMS.

OATH. E. B. TYLOR, D.C.L. LL.D. NAVY. NATHANIEL BARNABY, C.B., and Lient. J. D. J. OBADIAH. Prof. W. R. SMITH, KELLY.

OBOE, VICTOR MAHILLOX. NEANDER. Principal TULLOCH, D.D. LL.D.

OBSERVATORY. J. L. E. DREYER, Ph.D. NEBULAR THEORY. R. S. BALL, LL.D.

OCCAM. Prof. T. M. LINDSAY, D.D. NEER. J.A. CROWE.

O'CONNELL. W. O'CONNOR MORRIS. NEGRO. Prof. A. H. KEANE.

ODORIC. Col. HENRY YULE, C.B. LL.D. NELSON. W. O'CONNOR MORRIS.

EHLENSCHLAGER. E. W. GOSSE. NEMERTINES. Prof. HUBRECHT.

OHIO. Profs. EDMUND ORTON, LL.D., and J. T. NEOPLATONISM. Prof. A, HARNACK.

SHORT, Ph.D. NERI. Rev. R. F. LITTLEDALE, LL.D. D.C.L.

OKEN. Sir RICHARD OWEN, K.C.B. LL.D. D.C.L. NERO. H. F. PELHAM.

OLIVE. C. P. Johnson. NEURALGIA. Dr. J. O. AFFLECK,

OLYMPIA. Prof. R. C. JEBB, LL.D. NEWFOUNDLAND. Rev. M. HARVEY.

ONTARIO. Prof. DANIEL WILSON, LL.D. NEW GUINEA. COUTTS TROTTER.

OPHICLEIDE, VICTOR MAHILLON NEW JERSEY. General M.CLELLAX.

OPHTHALMOLOGY. Dr. ALEX. BRUCE. NEW MEXICO, Hon. J. B. PRINCE.

OPIUM. E. M. HOLMES. NEW ORLEANS. G. W. CABLE.

OPPIAN. RICHARD GARXETT, LL.D. NEW SOUTH WALES. A. GARRAN,

OPTICS. Lord RAYLEIGH, D.C.L. LL.D. NEWSPAPERS. EDWARD EDWARDS and WHITELAW

ORACLE. W. M. RAMSAY. REID.

ORCHIDS. Dr. M. T. MASTERS. NEWTON. H. M. TAYLOR.

ORDEAL. E. B. TYLOR. NEW YORK

ORGAN. Prof. R. H. M. BOSANQUET.
STATE. Prof. J. 8. NEWBERRY and J. AUSTIN

ORIGEN. Prof. HARXACK.
STEVENS.

ORLEANS, CHARLES of. GEORGE SAINTSBURY. CITY EDWIN L. GODKIN.

ORMONDE. OSMUND AIRY. NEW ZEALAND. W. GISBORNE,

ORMUS. Col. YULE, C.B.

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LONDON, SATURDAY, JUNE 28, 1884.

who used to stand upon her tower with a wreath

in her hand waiting for her two sons, who were CONTENTS.- No 235.

busy at the mountain's foot killing the sweethearts NOTES :-Magyar Folk-Tales, 501--Oldest Family in England, ) of the girls they seized. Two heroes dressed 603 - Romany Tongue, 504 - Mistranslation in Litany

in mourning slew the two sons, whereupon Wycliffe and John of Gaunt-Rod of Sir Walter Scott, 505 Ben Jonson-Afternoon Tea-Bishop Heber-Old Customs Dame Hirip and her wreath faded away. The -Hunting the Wren-Watchmakers : Stainton-Aberdeen fairies now live in caves and underground places, Bibliography-Necessary Reform, 506.

under the castles they used to dwell in, and there QUERIES:-Charles II. and a Greek Poet-Morse-“ Hoder moder” – Jones of Garthkenan - Leonardo da Vinci

their halls and dwellings still flash and sparkle Haunted House, 507-Source of Quotation-Coins-Peasant Costumes - Author of Hymn-Early Steam Navigation Bacon's Stepmother-Marlowe's “Dido"-Caricatures of

golden chains,* and piles of precious gems, that Mulready Envelope Princess Pocahontas, 608-"Arms | light the windows till they are as bright as day. A Found"-Iden Family -Capt. Fergusson-Peregrine Pelham -Lafitte the Painter--Sir John Shorter-Sheffington-R. M.

magic cockt guards the castle gates, and only Roche-Parodies- Bede's Chair-Fursey Saint-Henry d

sleeps once in seven years. Could any one guess Essex, 509_“ Don Juan"-Authors Wanted, 510.

the exact moment when that takes place, he could REPLIES:-Pestilence in England. 510 --Henshaw - Most go into the treasure house and carry off untold

Noble Order of Bucks-Illiteracy-Earl Fitzwilliam's Portrsit-Sir N. Wraxall - Serjeants' Ringg-Reformades

wealth. Kozma gives the names of twenty-three D'Orville MSS., 511-Waltonian Queries--Canova-R, Suli castles still in existence which used to belong to van-Heralds College : Degradation, 512_“Memoirs of the

fairies, some of which had in earlier times been Empress Josephine"-Sir R. Aston, 513-Bishop Barlow's Consecration Carlindo-"Salet Saliva. Intended Viola | inhabited by giants, and which the fairies had tion of Henry VIII.'s Tomb, 514-Crimping-S. Daniel-Th. Nash-Thieves on Calvary -Vigo Bay Bubble-New Words, 515-A.M.: P.M.-Heraldic Crests-Wooden Walls - Par

| The descendants of bad fairies are witches, cruel, ticle "de"-"Je ne suis pas la rose -Bryan's "Dictionary ugly old women with iron teeth or nose, haters of Painters " Shakspeare's Bible, 516-Prince Tite-Trang

of mankind, and possessed of great power. Somemogrify-Women with Male Names-“ Fisherman of Scharphout" - Boon-days - Palaver. 517 - Scavelman-Capell's

times they appear as black cats, and other times * Notes to Shakspeare "-Cerberus, 518.

as green frogs or horses ; they change their forms NOTES ON BOOKS:-Ashton's "Adventvres of Capt. Iohn by taking somersaults, and can become fiery ovens, Smith" - Egerton's "Sussex Folk and Sussex Ways"

running streams, or what they please ; they are Shortt's “Law relating to Works of Literature and Art." Notices to Correspondents, &c.

the mothers of giants and dragons. They are vicious and spiteful, always doing some evil to their neighbours, I very often stealing the cows'

milk. It is, however, quite possible to make the Notes.

witch bring the milk back. The modus operandi is

as follows: Take a rag saturated with milk, or a MAGYAR FOLK-TALES.

horse-shoe, or a chain which has been made red-hot (Continued from p. 413.)

in a clear fire, place it on the threshold, and beat The Magyar fairy seems to pass her time in it with the head of a hatchet ; or make a ploughbathing, singing, eating, drinking, and dancing, sbare red-hot and plunge it several times into with occasionally a little embroidery. When she cold water. Either of these charms will infallibly falls in love, she loves so intensely that if dis- cause the witch to appear. $ Scores of charms of a appointed she fades away in her grief. Most of these fairies are described as good, but there are also * Cf. “Legend of the Holy Grail," Baring Gould's traditions extant concerning bad fairies, in which Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, i. 604, &c. the influence of Christianity is to be seen, e.g., + Lancashire legend of the “ Black Cock.' Dame Vénétur's castle belonged to a bad fairy, who

I Witch in Magyar=boszorkány, according to Prof.

Vámbéry, from the Turkish-Tartar root boshúr=to defied God and was swallowed up, Dame Vénétur

tease, to vex, to annoy. herself becoming a stone frog.* There is also a $ It may be of interest to note one or two similar rock called Dame Jepös's Carriage, which the superstitions in our own land. In Yorkshire a relation people say is the carriage and horses of that bad told me that his mother had seen the following charm. fairy, who, when her coachman said, “ If the Lord

When she was young the horses had the distemper,

and were believed to be bowitcbed, so the heart of one help us, we will be home soon," haughtily replied,

on, duuga uy repred, of the horses that had died was taken out and stuck full “ Whether He help us or not, we will get home of pins, then placed on the fire at midnight and slowly all the same." Another fairy, who lived in Sóvár roasted, whilst around stood watchers armed with forks, Castle, while spinning on the Sabbath day, used pokers, tongs, &c., all watching the open door, at wbich the Lord's name in vain, and was immediately

the witch must enter, drawn by the potency of the spell. changed into a block

A Lincolnshire friend gave me the following as happening of stone. Traces of

in his neighbourhood. An old witch who lived at GMohammedanism are found in the tales where

had a lover, but they quarrelled, and he married another in fairies kidnap girls, such as Dame Hirip, woman, so for revenge the witch bewitched her whilom

lover's cattle, the crowning point being when a fine cow * Ladislaus Kövary's Historical Antiquities, quoted by was found with its horns stuck in the side of a ditch, Kozma.

drowned, although there was scarcely any water in it.

like class are in existence, but I will content my- and ran into the hut where the dragous' wives sat, self with one more, after which I will not describe who took him in turn in their laps and declared witches any further, for they can be seen by the that if Ambrose had slain their husbands the first readers themselves. After the autumn sowing would become a great pear tree, the fruit of which is over leave the harrow out in the fields all the could be smelt thirty-five miles off, but would winter, then go out on St. George's Day in the be deadly poison, and no one could kill it till morning and set the harrow upright; having done Ambrose plunged his sword in amongst the roots, this, go behind the harrow and watch the cattle and then tree and woman would die; the second pass by on the other side. You will then see the said she would become a spring with eight rivers head witch sitting between the horns of the bull, flowing out of it, each running eight miles, and and the minor witches between the horns of the then each subdividing into eight rivers again, and other beasts (Hungarian cattle have long erect all who drank of it would die till Ambrose washed horns like those in the Roman Campagna). But his sword in the water, which was the woman's woe betide you if you do not know the formulæ to blood, and then woman and spring would disprotect you from their power.

appear; the third said she would become a mighty The tales are full of witches, such as “The bramble, running over all the world and every Three Dragons, the Three Princes, and the Old road and highway, and whosoever tripped over it Woman with the Iron Nose" (Erdélyi, iv.), where would die till Ambrose cut it in two, and then a poor king wept without ceasing because he was woman and tree would die. Ambrose heard al obliged to send ninety-nine men every Friday this and then rushed out, chased by the dragons' to feed the dragons who lived by the Blue Sea. mother, the old woman with the iron nose; but be This king bad three sons, and two set out to slay escaped, and delivered his brothers from the enthe dragons (there were only three remaining, one chantments of the three dragons' wives whose with seven, one with eight, and one with nine conversation he had overheard as a rabbit. The heads, which had eaten up the others). Ambrose, old woman, full of rage, persecuted Ambrose, and the youngest son, who was left at home, had a be, to get out of the way, fled to a smithy, and bsfairy godmother, and she had given him a black came the blacksmith's helper. The witch followed egg with five angles, which was placed under the him, and one day she came in her carriage, dramı lad's left armpit, and there remained for seven by two cats,* and began to make sheep's eyes at winters and seven summers, and on Ash Wednes- | Ambrose, who became 80 vexed that he kicked day in the eighth year a horse with five legs and her chariot, and his foot stuck there. t Away went three heads jumped out of the egg. This horse was the cats, and away went Ambrose over hill and a Tátos,* and could speak. On this magic horse dale, till " at last he saw old Pilate looking at Ambrose set off, and met and conquered the dragons, him," and so knew he was in hell. Then the old who dwelt near the copper, silver, and gold bridges. witch wished Ambrose to marry her, and as be Afterwards the lad changed himself into a rabbit would not she cast him into a fearful dangeod,

nine miles below the surface, where he lay unti The man's temper was up, and he went and got some

a pretty maid of the witch's persuaded him to wicken tree" and boiled it in a pan. In a few minutes in marry the witch and so worm out of her the walked a cat. Knowing that it was his tormentor, he rushed secret of her life. After some trouble the oli after it with a stick; in desperation the cat flew up the

woman told him that she kept a wild boar in the copper chimney. Not to be balked, a roaring fire was at once lighted under the copper ; nor did the cat escape

silken meadow, and that if it were killed he would before it bad received serious injuries. My informant

find a hare inside, and inside the hare a pigeon, told me that she knew the old woman who laid the witch and inside the pigeon a tiny box, and inside the out after her death, and she asserted that the marks | box two small beetles-one black, that held be due to the fire in the cbimney were clearly to be seen. These are but two out of many I bave collected; but

| power, and one shining, that held her life. If they they will suffice for comparative purposes. Cf. “The

were destroyed I she would die. Ambrose and bis Knight and the Necromancer," Gesta Romanorum,

* Cf. Freyja in the Norse inyths, * The Tátos is a mythic horse, generally represented + Cf. “ Lamb with Golden Fleece," Kriza, ix.; also the as a most miserable creature to begin with, sometimes “Sad Princess," L. Arany; " The Powerful Whistle, lying under a dungbill, yet possessed of marvellous Gaal ; "Hans who made the Princess Laugh," Asbjörnset powers. A stroke of its tail makes a city rock as though and Moe. I may here mention that my friend shaken by an earthquake, and its speed is as the lightning. L. L. Kropf and myself have translated the whole It feeds on burning cinders and becomes a golden-baired Kriza's and Erdélyi's collections of Magyar folk-tales, borse, whose magic breath changes old and rotten bridles which translation is to be published by the Folk-l.in and saddles into shining gold, and weak and haggard Society this year, and from which all quotations in men into heroes wbose strength eclipses that of Hercules present article are taken. and whose beauty dims the very sun. The name is still I Cf." Jætten, som havde skjult sit Liv i et HöOSET a favourite amongst the peasants for their horses. from Lapland; “ The Giant and the Vesle Boy," from The old pagan priests were also called Tátos, but the Hammerfest; Old Deccan Days, 13; Thorpe's Yulata word never has this meaning in the folk - tales. Vide Tales, 435; Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, 103; Sayti Gubernatis's Zoological Mythology, vol. i. pp. 288–296. from the Far East, 133.

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