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Concerning the word lamia, which remains un himself left alone, laid his complaint before the altered from the use of both Greeks and Latins, Lord. The Lord had compassion on him, and Tartarotti has collected some curious particulars. sent three angels, Sanoi, Sansanoi, and SammanAmong these he quotes from Diodorus Siculus galaph, to seek for Lilith. These, after a long (lib. xx.)

search, discovered her by the banks of the Red " that Lamia was a beautiful queen of a country of Sea. The three angels required that she should Africa, who, having lost all her own children, decreed instantly return to her husband, threatening that if that the children of other women should be destroyed as she would not they would drown her in the depths soon as born; that her bereavement had driven her to

of the sea, or else put to death a hundred of her

of the find solace in wine-drinking: and that when the affairs of the kingdom went to the bad through her neglect, she

children, that is evil demons, for all the children said it was not her fault, for she had no eyes to see how of Lilith were demons. Lilith refused absolutely things went on; but the fact was, she kept her eyes all to return to Adam, and chose the latter of the the time in her pocket.”

two penalties of her disobedience, for she assured He gives another version of the story from Aristo- the angels she had been made for nothing else phanes the grammarian, making her the daughter but to infest nurseries and destroy new-born of Belus and Lybia. Jupiter fell in love with her children ; she made the promise, however, that and carried her to Lybia in Italy, and Juno, in whensoever she met with Sanoi, Sansanoi, and jealousy, had all her children destroyed as soon as Sammapgalapb, she would spare the children of born. Lamia then, in desperation, wandered over that house. În consequence of this tradition, the earth, slaying the children of other women, Hebrew fathers were wont to make a circle round Juno further deprived her of the power of sleeping, the door of the room in which their children were and Jupiter, in compassion for her weariness, gave born, and write in it the names of Sanoi, Sanher the faculty of removing her eyes and replacing sanoi, and Sammangalaph. them at pleasure ; he also endowed her with the In the Bible the word lilith only occurs at power of assuming whatever form she pleased. Isaiah xxxiv. 14, and the Vulgate renders it by Duri, commenting on the story, observes that lamia. The mediæval rabbi David Kimchi nurses in Greece at his day quieted children by explains it to be an animal crying by night or a threatening to call Lamia to them. Tartarotti bird flying by night. Buxtorf renders it “ Strix, further quotes from Pausanias that her father was avis nocturna querula et borrenda," and the Engnot Belus, but Neptune, and that of her union lish Bible has "screech-owl,” with the marginal with Jupiter was born the first Sibyl, though how reading of “pight monster.” this daughter escaped Juno's persecution is not Tartarotti has collected the testimony of Plautus, stated. Among the later Greeks, he says, the same Strabo, Horace, and other writers of antiquity to superstition is current under the name of Gello, the fact that the thirst of the strix for children's adducing some curious instances too long to quote; / blood was a tradition current in Rome in their but he does not give the derivation of the new time, and it is doubtless owing to a popular belief, appellation.

recorded by Serenus Samonicus (cap. 59), ascribing "Among the Hebrews Tartarotti finds “in the

to garlic the property of acting as a counter charm Rabbi Ben Sira”k a counterpart legend, in which to the fascination of the strix, that its use has Adam takes the place of Jupiter. Lilith, as the

become painfully prevalent among the lower lamia is here called, was the first wife of Adam

orders (quoted also by Cantù, Storia Universale, before the formation of Eve. As they could never | ed. Turin, 1845, vol. xv. p. 451, note 3). live together in peace she decided to abandon him,

If strix, striga, and lamia were the bugbears of and, pronouncing the sacred name of Jehovah,

, naughty children of the Augustan age, Tartarotti suddenly disappeared. Adam, vexed at finding brings also the evidence of Ausonius and Festus (tanto crudele che straccia o lania gli proprii figli).

that they had not lost their hold on popular Even he, bowever, does not connect it in any way with credulity under the later empire. So far from the synonym strega, which he derives exclusively from this, the transition of personality from a bird to an the night-bird strix. His derivation, though un- old woman would appear to have been completed doubtedly erroneous, is not exclusively his, as Gian- l in the interval: though Propertius is. De francesco Pico de la Mirandola bad mentioned it long before his time among derivations that had been ad.

one of the first to make allusion to the idea. He vanced (" Libro della Strega, ovvero delle Illusioni dell goes on to quote a statute of Charlemagne, lamentDemonio, del Sig. Giovan Francesco Pico de la Mirandola. ing the vices and follies which had been handed .....In Venetia nella contrada di Sta. Maria Formosa on to his age from these pagan practices, and real segno de la Speranza, 1556." Gianfrancesco was gistering sentence of death a rainst those who, nephew of Giovanni Pico, surnamed la fenice del suo secolo, and died 1494).

Just as we find one doing under the character of an I'I find Del Rio (Disquisitionum Magicarum Libri orchessa in the story called " La Sposa del Mercante di Sex, quibus continetur. Accurata Curiosarım Artium el Campagna," and others in my Folk lor of Rome.

Vanarum Superstitionum Confulatio, Lug luni, 1602), * l.e, in the Talmud.

lib. ii, p. i. q ij., gives a similar version of this legend.

believing in magic arts, ate human flesh or gave money paid beforehand ; sometimes fine or init to be eaten by others.

come." Mr. Macray, in his Notes from the MuniHe further traces the banding down of these ments of St. Mary Magdalen College, Oxford, superstitions to the Middle Ages, and shows how p. 139, gives instances of this word in the forms the belief in one malevolent destroyer of children gersona and gersua. Mr. Seebohm, in his English expanded till it fabled of whole crowds of witches Village Community, p. 56, quoting the chartılary pervading every country, no longer confining their of Worcester as to the customs of the villains of depredations to cradles, m but working evil to the Newenham, says that they had to pay gersuma for whole human race; flying by night through the their daughters. In later times the word became air, astride of all manner of beasts, on distaffs and gressom. In this form it lingers in our speech to flaming brooms (also, according to Gianfrancesco the present hour. The Westmorland Gazette, Pico, on a stick called a gramita, commonly serving July 9, 1881, is quoted in “N. & Q," 6th S. iv. for hanging out flax and hemp), for midnight con- 251, as advertising an estate at Mallerstang subgresses always attended by banquets and dancing, ject to the payment of gressam. One of the and accompanied by all kinds of depravity, the origin customs of the manor of Skipton was that the of which he endeavours to trace to the diversions tenant paid every tenth year a year's rent by way attendant on many pagan mysteries. Diana is con- of gressome (Dawson's History of Skipton, p. 58). tinually spoken of by name as the presiding genius Pilkington, Bishop of Durham, in his “Exposiof these weird festivals, and her mysteries were tion upon Nehemiah" (Works, Parker Society celebrated with dancing. Callimachus, in a hymn edit., p. 462), in dwelling on the evil deeds of the to her, says Jupiter gave sixty dancers, daughters landlords of his day, speaks of them as raising of Ocean, to attend her, and the Italian word caro- their rents "and taking unreasonable fines and lare,o to dance in a circle, the witches' dance, may gressans.

EDWARD PEACOCK. come from the dance invented in her honour by Bottesford Manor, Brigg. Castor and Pollux at Carya. That this was a cir. cular dance Tartarotti decides on the strength of a

OCCAM=O AKUM.—As an illustration of the old passage from the Achilleis of Statius in the first spelling of oakum, it may not be amiss to cite the century of our era, and in the Deipnosophistæ of following passage from “John Eldred's NarraAthenæus a century later.

tive” (Hakluyt's Voyages, ii. 1599), Arber, Eng. Selden (De Diis Syris), too, establishes the

lish Garner, iii. 164: “These ships are usually identity of Lilith and Diana.

from forty to sixty tons, having their planks sown The use of the word volatica as applied to a together with cord made of the

together with cord made of the bark of date trees, witch, first established by Festus in the fourth and instead of occam, they use the shiverings of century, constitutes another link in the chain of |

the bark of the said trees; and of the same also traditionary ideas on this subject.

they make their tackling." Of this word Prof. R. H. BUSK.

Skeat, in his Dict., says:“ Spelt ockam in Skinner, (To be continued.)

| ed. 1671,” but gives no earlier example.


Cardiff. GERSUMA.-Prof. James E. Thorold Rogers's History of Agriculture and Prices in England Post OFFICE PERSEVERANCE.-As much fault is a work so valuable to all those who are in- is occasionally found with our Post Office authoriterested in the history of English rural life, that it | ties, it is only fair to make a note of the fact that becomes a duty to make it as correct as possible. a book catalogue from the South of France reached I think there is an error-a misprint only, it may its consignee in spite of the following extraordinary well be-in vol. ii. p. 609. We there read : “1276. address : “Monsieur [name], 12, Rue Villorium Stillington, Gersinna, pro terra John Utting, 88." Is Stind, Angleterre."

J. W. not this gersuma, which Spelman defines "sumptus, præmium”? The word occurs in Domesday, ParLIAMENT IN GUILDIALL.--Could not our and is explained by Kelham in his Domesday friends of the Corporation put up a tablet to coni Book Illustrated as “reward, riches, treasure, or memorate the Parliament of 1326, referred to by

PROF. THOROLD ROGERS (6th S. viii. 405) ? There m Del Rio (lib. iii. p. i. q. ii.) quotes briefly from is this incitement that their predecessors did not Pedro Chieza (Descript. Indiæ, p. ii. c. 196) that in “ Panama Peruvia” were many witches who sucked the

neglect the opportunity of having words in the blood of infants, but he does not say whether the idea oath for the franchises of the city, “ Et les franwas found there or introduced by his own countrymen. chises de la cite de Loundres maintendrez." In

See a tradition of one in the story in Folklore of deed, in these days, when traditions are not known Rome called “La Principessa colla Testa di Capra.” Also l as they were half a century ago, and when there is note 7 to " Pietro Bailliardo," in the same work. • It is curious to remark that the singing which ac

such a large floating population, a few memorials companied dancing in a circle has given us carol, just of the historical events that have taken place in as ballare, ordinary dancing, has given us ballad. that building would greatly raise the interest of

the spectator. There was a time when books on also, the herbe Aloe, or Sea-aigreen ; also, a blackthe history of London were to be found in the backt, yellow-bellied, and green-find sea-fish, prohouse of every citizen, but now no one knows any. portioned somewhat like the river Pearch "; but thing of this treasury of great events.

he does not mention that it was considered to

HYDE CLARKE, possess any aphrodisiac qualities. The whole pasHUTTON CRANSWICK Font, YORKSHIRE.—The

sage runs thus: “The onely ingrosser of eringoes, following ought, I think, to be gibbeted in

I prepard cantharides, cullesses made of dissolved "N. & Q." One might fairly have hoped that

pearle and brus'd amber, the pith of parkets, and such wanton vandalism and desecration were

| canded lamstones are his perpetuall meats.” things of the past. I quote from Kelly's Post |

Rowle the wheele-barrow at Rotterdam, same Office Directory (1879) for Yorkshire East Riding,

play, act, and scene (vol. ii. p. 39, 1.25).p. 610, under "Hutton cum Cranswick," as follows:

Were those small carts-half cart, half wheel“The massive embattled tower [of the church], con

barrow-drawn by dogs, and pushed from behind taining three bells, is the only original part remaining;

by boys or men, which one sees in Belgium, Holthe rest of the building was restored in 1875-76 by the land, and other countries, common in the Low principal landowners and parishioners...... The quaintly Countries in Marston's days? I have not come carved old font, supposed to be of Saxon origin, is now across this expression, which would appear to be in the garden of the vicarage adjoining, having been

proverbial, in any other old play. replaced by a handsome new one,” &c.

To wear the yellow.-This phrase appears to Can this really be true? If so, what next?

have another meaning besides that of being jealous. T. M. Fallow.

In Act IV. scene i. of the same play (vol. ii. p. 65, Chapel Allerton, Leeds.

1. 21), it seems to indicate that yellow was à disA Corious BLUNDER.-In Hazlitt's English | tinctive colour of court uniform. In Look about Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases, first edit., 1869. | You, sc. xxviii. (Dodsley's Old English Plays, at p. 395, occurs the proverb, “There's a hill |

* ?There's'a hili Hazlitt's edition, vol. vii. p. 475), occurs the again & stack all Craven through. Equivalent following passage : to Every bean hath its black (Higson's MSS. | “Ha, sirrah; you 'll be master, you 'll wear the yellow, Col., 172).” The proverb is given identically! You'll be an over-seer? marry, shall ye !”. in the second edition, 1882. If any one has where, certainly, it does not mean to be jealous, noticed this proverb, he must have been puzzled but evidently refers to the colour worn by people to know what connexion there could be between a in authority. Ben Jonson, in The Silent Woman hill and a stack. I have known the proverb as a (Gifford's edition, vol. iii. p. 368), mentions yellow Yorkshire one all my life, but for“stack" read slack doublets as the dress of fashionable people. We =a hollow or depression. Carr's Craven Dialect know that in China yellow is the colour worn gives, “Ollas a hill anenst a slack," and quotes | only by mandarins of high rank. There may be passages in illustration of the use of slack.

some connexion between this phrase and the F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. yellow stockings of Malvolio.

Fumatho.- In the same play, Act IV. sc. i.

(vol. ii. p. 66, l. 9), occurs this passage," Or a Queries.

Spaniard after he has eaten afumatho." I We must request correspondente desiring information cannot find any word in any Spanish dictionary on family matters of only private interest, to affix their at all like this. There is an Italian word fumati, names and addresses to their queries, in order that the signifying "any kind of smoked fish," given in answers may be addressed to them direct.


Flaggon bracelets. In the same play, IV. 3 QUAINT PHRASES EMPLOYED BY JOHN MARSTON. I (p. 67), “ Alas! I was a simple country ladie,

Pith of parkets.- What is the neaning of this wore gold buttons, trunck sleeves, and flaggon phrase, which occurs in Marston's Fawne, II. i. bracelets." What does this mean? I find the

Works, Halliwell's edition, vol. ii. p. 31, l. 3)? same expression in Brome's City Wit, Act. V. It is mentioned among a number of aphrodisiac (Works, Pearson's edit., vol. i. p. 370): Tryman. articles of food. Mr. Halliwell has a note on Why dost heare modestly mumping Mother-inerringoes, a word with which every reader of the Law, with thy French-hood, gold-chain, and Elizabethan drama must be acquainted ; but not flaggon-bracelets, advance thy Snout.". one word about this phrase. I cannot find in any | Nocturnal play.-In the Induction to What You of the glossaries, or among my notes, any such Will (vol. i. p. 222) I find :word as parket, but it is probably a contracted Atti. What's the plaies name? form of parrakeet. Is the pith, or marrow, of Phy. What you will. parrakeets or parkets mentioned in any other pas- Dor. Is't commedy, tragedy, pastorall, morall, noca sage as a provocative ? Cotgrave, under “ Perro- | turnal, or historie ? quet," gives the following explanation, “ A Parrat; What is a nocturnal play


Lapy-beard. In the same play, III, i. (vol. i. ROYAL COSMOGRAPHERS OR GEOGRAPHERS.p. 255), occurs lapy-beard :

Where may a list of these individuals be found, Fra. What I know a number,

and what were their duties? I have lately met By the sole warrant of a lapy.beard,

with the names of three : John Ogilby, 1600–76, A raine beate plume, and a good chop-filling oth, &c.

author of the road maps, 1675; Emanuel Bowen, What does lapy-beard mean?

who issued a set of county maps, calling himself Taber-facd.—In the same play, II. i. (p. 240) : thereon " geographer to his Majesty," George II.; “For a stiffe.joynted,

and Thomas Jefferys, geographer to George III. in Tattr'd, nas!y, taber-fac'd-Pub," &c.


J. E. Bailey. Does this epithet occur elsewhere ? Later on in

Stretford. the same play (p. 272) we have the line,

“ Bisoms InNE.”-In the year 1627 certain “His face looks like the head of a taber,"

burgesses of Walsall journeyed to London to which sufficiently explains the meaning of the obtain a royal charter confirming the rights and word.

F. A. MARSHALL. I privileges of the people of their town. In a stateBest Man.-What is the exact meaning of this

linment of the expenses of their journey they say

they “ gave the chamblyns, ostlers, and mayds at phrase as applied to the groomsman who attends

Bisoms Inne ivs. viid.Is anything known of the bridegroom at a wedding? I cannot find it in any dictionary. Is it a corruption of some com

| the whereabouts of this "inne"!

W. C. OWEN. pound word, or does it mean simply best friend ? |


F. A. MARSHALL King James's" BOOK OF SPORTS.”—On May 2,

SHAG-EAR'D.-In all editions since Steevens, 1643, the cross in Cheapside was demolished ; on :

- Collier's and the Cambridge excepted, this,

Jin Macbeth, IV. ii. 82, has been spelled May 10, eight days after, King James's Booke of Spartes upon the Lord's Day was burnt by the

shag-haird, although it is shagge-eard in F. 1,

F. 2 and Quarto 1673, shag-eard F. 3, and shag. hangman in the place where the cross stood, and at the Exchange. Is it possible a copy of this book

eard F. 4. Can any one give an instance-a may be in existence ; and where could one see it ?

provincialism or from books-of the word ? The

question is asked the rather that I have a belief, RUBY D'OR.

almost amounting to a conviction, that in my SHRINE OF ST. JOHN OF WAPPING.-Can any youth I heard it, and that more than once. of your readers refer me to some authentic account Rightly or wrongly, also, I seem to myself to have of this shrine, which is said to have stood on the understood it as ears, it may be large and coarse, site of the old parish church, demolished in 1760 ? but that also stood out abnormally from the Sailors disembarking at the famous old stairs head. Of course the uses I speak of may possibly immediately opposite are supposed to have been have been taken from this very Macbeth passage; in the habit of frequenting this shrine. Is there but it appears to me that the phrase is expressive, any, and how much, truth in this ? The patron and that when Dyce remarks " that King Midas saint of the parish is St. John the Evangelist. the only human being on record to whom

ARTHUR R. CARTER, M.A., the epithet could be applied," he is guilty of an

Rector of Wapping. | unjustifiable assertion and exaggeration. Be it "BURIED CITIES.”_Most persons are acquainted noted also that he in saying this admits the use of with the game so called. A little skill is exercised

the word, and assigns it a meaning similar to that to conceal the name of some town in a few lines of

I had in my youth put upon it. All those, moreverse or prose. Is not fat King Heory, the

over, who so glibly tell us that hair was frequently devourer of churches and monasteries, buried

spelled hear or heare, seem to have forgotten that in the following nursery jingle, which I remember

in this passage we have ear'd. Be it that shagto have heard more than fifty years ago ?

hair'd is more expressive and was more common, “Eight, nine, ten,

that is not the question. The first question to be A big bellied hen,

answered is, Did or does the shag-eard of the first He ate the church, he ate the steeple,

five copies exist ?

BR. NICHOLSON. He ate the priest, and all the people." Surely no he was ever hen, except Henry VIII. MATTHEWS FAMILY OF GLOUCESTERSHIRE.The satire seems to glance at his mating so many The Matthews family has been the subject women and killing them. If the composer in- of considerable discussion in these columns. tended to foster a contempt for his character and Does anyone know anything of a family proceedings, and to teach it early in the nursery, it of the name of Matthews, living at Tewkesis possible the lines are traceable nearer to Henry's bury, co. Gloucester ? Edward Matthews, of era. Can any one add to, or throw light upon the Lodge, Tewkesbury, died in 1612, leaving a them ?

W. B. son James, who is supposed to have emigrated to New Eogland as early as 1634, and to have died man” referred to, and where is the churchyard at Yarmouth in N. E. in 1686, leaving issue. The which is described ? After much research I have

Yarmouth family spelt the name indifferently failed to identify either :-
Matthews, Mathews, and Mathew. Edward “We have in mind at present a melancholy, pic.
Matthews's will is sealed with the following arms: turesque, quaint old churchyard. It stands by the very
Sa., a lion rampant ar.; crest, an eagle displayed brink of a river. As one leans over the low wall on the
per fesse, sa. and ar. These arms, if properly

river-side, he sees the little waves ripple up almost within

| touch of him. The old tombstones tell of forgotten borne by the Tewkesbury family, would seem to

generations. On the doors of the church itself are point to a connexion with the Glamorganshire posted notices of gifts to be given away in connexion family of Mathew, of which branches were with some eccentric old foundation or endowment such scattered at this time or later through Hereford, | as it would have gladdened the heart of Nathaniel HawWarwickshire, and all that part of England. Can

thorne to study. For mere picturesqueness that church

yard on the water's edge seems to us far beyond the any one throw any light on the origin and fate of burial ground at Scutari, which every English traveller the Matthews family of Tewkesbury? M. feels bound to visit. Within that church lie buried the

remains of one of the most brilliant and gifted EnglishBEAR-SKIN JOBBER.-" Buying and selling be- men who ever distracted or saved a state. The place is tween the Devil and us is, I must confess, an odd

lonely, unknown. Now and then some painter with a

peculiarly inquiring genius for the picturesque comes to stock jobbing ; and indeed the Devil may be said

make sketches, or some eccentric literary man goes there to sell the bear skin, whatever he buys." This to study the spot and steep himself in its associations. passage, from Defoe's History of the Devil, is to But to the general public of the great city, whose spires me very enigmatical-as is also the earlier one in and towers and domes and columns and shipping you the same volume, "Every dissembler, every false

may see from the river-side of that graveyard, the place

is absolutely unknown. We do not intend to disclose friend, every secret cheat, every bear-skin jobber, the name of the place : nay, we shall not even give the has a cloven foot.” What is the origin of the name of the city within whose sight it rests on the bear-skin allusion ?

JAMES HOOPER. river's edge unknown.” 7, Streatham Place, S.W.

F. J. Gray.

Louth, Lincolnshire, “DOWN IN THE MOUTH.”—This phrase is used

EARLIEST GLASGOW DIRECTORY: GLASGOW AND by Bishop Hall. He says : “ The Roman orator

DUNBARTONSHIRE HISTORIES.-Can any of your was down in the mouth; finding himself thus cheated by the money-changer: but, for aught I

readers kindly tell me what is the date of the see, had his amends in his hands” (Cases of

earliest Glasgow directory, and where it may be Conscience, decade i. case 6). I shall be glad to seen ; also the names of the best histories of know of any earlier instances of what is now

Glasgow and its neighbourhood, and also of the regarded as a slang expression for being discon

county of Dunbartonshire ?

G. F. N. solate. F. U. BIRKBECK Terry. THE MSS. OF THE Rev. ANDREW Brown,

DD., RELATING TO Nova Scotia.-Has this colGenerAL GROSVENOR : GENERAL WOLFE.--Atllection ever been published ; and, if so, by whom Eatod, near Chester, the seat of the Duke of West- edited ? These MSS. are in the British Museum. minster, there is an exceedingly fine portrait by Series Add. 19069-76, comprising 8 vols., 1710Hoppner of General, afterwards Field Marshal, 1794.

P. BERNARD Benoît. Grosvenor. He is represented amid the surround Kensington, W. ings of a battle-field, wearing crossbelts and carrying a musket, and I wish to ask, Was it usual for

PEMBERTON'S PARLOUR. — Can any of your a general officer to carry that weapon ?

readers tell me why the embrasure in Chester There is at Eaton another picture which gives

Walls is called Pemberton's Parlour ? some countenance to this idea, West's “Death of

- E. H. P. General Wolfe," where the dying hero is lying “REMINISCENCES OF HALF A CENTURY." — Who across the centre of the painting, the doctors was the author of this work ? It was published stanching a wound in his breast, while below him by Hatchard in 1838, and on the title-page it is Jie a musket and belt, with the initials of Wolfe said to be "by an Accurate Observer.” The on the lock. Wolfe died young, and General author gives in it some very interesting sketches of Grosvenor looks young in the picture, which may, society, literary, sporting, and aristocratic, both at perhaps, account for the matter. General Gros- home and abroad.

E. WALFORD, M.A. venor was born in 1764, a few years after the Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. death of Wolfe.

G. D. T. Huddersfield.

BRIDGHAM FAMILY.-In the Gentleman's Maga

zine, vol. lviii. p. 81, is the following : "At St. SITE OF TOMB WANTED.—The following ap- Giles's Church, 1788, Sir John Hatton, of Long peared in an article in the Daily News a few weeks Station, co. Cambridge, Baronet, to Miss Bridgham, ago. Who is "the gifted and brilliant English- daughter of Mr. Bridgham, an American refugee.

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