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with, and worthy the use of that our Reformed yet Catholic Church, which, while she rejects all superstitious and unedifying forms, keeps closely to all essentials of Church order and government as laid down in the Word of God, and practised by the Apostolic Church.

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The three concluding Articles are of much less importance than the preceding ones, as they treat more of civil matters than ecclesiastical, or rather we should perhaps say, spiritual.

They however, have weight and interest as regards the outward organisation of the Church, especially when it is remembered she is a State Church, and therefore liable under certain limits, to its interference and control. It is needful she should define those limits, and declare the mutual relations existing between herself and the State; which definition and declaration as set forth in the following Articles, inasmuch as these latter are legalised and authorised by the State, it is bound to regard and honour.

The present Article, then, is of most importance as it asserts while it limits the Royal Supremacy over the Established Church, which in the sixteenth century was co-extensive with the State, all who were born into the one being baptised into the other.

The Sovereign-who must still be a member of the

Established Church,-is its representative, and acts in all cases concerning it by ecclesiastical law. As the Sovereign is ruler over this realm and her other dominions, so it obviously follows, she must be supreme over that organisation which is supposed to include all, and does the majority of her subjects.

Church and State are as yet united; who rules over the State must therefore in a sense, rule over the Church. The Church herself fully recognises and submits to this.* She sets it forth in these Articles for subscription from her clergy, and also by the Oath of Supremacy required to be taken by them on their Ordination. This oath has been considerably altered from its original form of 1552, which contained a repudiation of the Pope's claim over our Church, and accepted the King as "Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England." This was changed in 1662, to a rejection of any “foreign prince, person, prelate, state, or potentate," accepting the Sovereign as the Supreme Governor of this realın in all spiritual or ecclesiastical things or causes as well as temporal.” This was again altered in 1689, to a declaration that “I do from my heart abhor, detest, and abjure, as impious and heretical, that damnable doctrine, and position, that princes excommunicated, or deprived by the Pope, or any authority of the See of Rome, may be deposed or murdered by their subjects, or

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* In 1538, two years after the final break with Rome, eight Bishops with Cranmer at their head, signed a declaration recognising the jurisdiction of Christian Princes in matters Ecclesiastical.

any other whatsoever. And I do declare that no foreign prince, person, prelate, state, or potentate, hath, or ought to have any jurisdiction, power, superiority, pre-eminence, or authority, ecclesiastical or spiritual within this realm.” Finally, this was changed in 1853, to a mere oath of allegiance to the Queen, defence of the Crown, maintenance of the Act of Settlement, and renunciation of any foreign authority.

Thus much as to the loyal adherence rendered by the Church to the State, contained in the first paragraph. Now as to the limits of State interference with ecclesiastical matters, defined in the second.

It is only in the power of the State to meddle with those matters which concern the outward organisation of the Church, in her aspect of a national establishment; it cannot and may not interfere with her internal order, as a spiritual kingdom under the control and guidance of spiritual rulers and governors. The Sovereign is “Defender of the Faith" within his realms, but his office in this respect is to defend from outward attack or interference, not to intermeddle with that Faith which being not of this world, must ever while in it, be under the immediate rule of those chosen from her own communion, and authorised by spiritual commission and power for the work. The civil authority cannot exercise the spiritual.

For over three hundred years in the early ages of Christianity, the Church was openly opposed and

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persecuted by the State, and existed as an entirely separate society; when on the more universal spread and profession of the Christian religion, the civil powers embraced it, and incorporated the Church with the State, they took upon themselves its protection and defence, but not any functions which are to be exercised by those in Holy Orders alone. The spiritual alone can communicate the spiritual; as the civil power cannot ordain or consecrate; neither may it minister the Word or Sacraments, nor other rites of the Church.

And the State has ever recognised this. As the Church has acknowledged her supremacy in things temporal, so she has respected the rights of the Church in things spiritual.

As early as the fourth century the Emperor Valentinian wrote: “It is unlawful for me, who am placed among the laity, to meddle with matters of faith. Let them, the priests and bishops to whom this case belongs, meet apart by themselves.” The opening words of one of the earliest recorded Councils of England,—that of Brasted, are as follows; “Let the Church be free, and maintain her own judgments." The first article of Magna Charta is, “The Church shall enjoy its liberty.” And that great statute of the constitution, the Statute of Appeals, (24th Henry VIII.) has it; “The body spiritual, whereof, having power when any cause of the law Divine happened to come in question, or of spiritual learning, then it was declared, interpreted, and

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showed, by that part of the said body politic, called the spirituality ... which hath been reputed

and is also at this hour sufficient, and meet of itself to declare and determine all such offices and duties as to their rooms spiritual both appertain."

Queen Elizabeth sent the following message to the assembled House of Commons in 1572, “Her Highness' pleasure is that from henceforth no bills concerning religion shall be preferred or received into this House, unless the same should be first considered of, and liked, by the clergy.” And her successor James I. said; “I never did, nor will presume to create any article of Faith, or to be judge thereof; but to submit my exemplary obedience to them” the. clergy “in as great humility as the meanest of the land.”

Thus then, in the words of the Reformation Statute, “the Sovereign, as the fountain of all jurisdiction, has supreme control over the Church Courts, inasmuch as their legal status is derived from the State, and their spiritual authority exercised by leave of the State.” And this control the State is bound in the interest of the Church to exercise. In the words of one holding high Ecclesiastical position at the present time: “The appeal from the Archbishop to the King for lack of justice was not introduced at the Reformation, neither was it a transfer from the Pope, who never had it. It is the old unalienable prerogative of the Crown, often asserted against the

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