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2. Both words sometimes stand before, and sometimes after the verb; as, Art thou he? Am I a traitor? Monster as thou art, I

will yet obey thee.

NOTE. Transposition for the sake of emphasis, and in questions is not unfrequent.

3. A verb in the Infinitive mode, a phrase, or a sentence, is some times used as the nominative after a verb; as, It is not to be ascribed to the mellowing effects of time.


The nominative case is the subject of the verb.


A verb must agree with its nominative case in number and person.

NOTE. The verbs need and dare, when intransitive, are sometimes used in the plural form with a singular nominative.



1. A verb in the Infinitive mode, a participle, a clause or part of a sentence, may be the nominative to or after a verb.

2. Methinks (imperfect methought,) is called an impersonal verb, compounded of the pronoun me in the objective case, and the verb think, which follows the analogy of some Latin and Greek verbs, and by custoin, is used with the objective instead of the nominative case, and in the third person instead of the first.

3. As regards, as concerns, as respects, as appears. These are phrases without a nominative case expressed.

The pronoun it is often used before these verbs, and in parsing, should be supplied when wanting.

4. As follows. The nominative can be supplied before this verb, as the connection requires; he addressed the assembly as follows. This can be analyzed thus; he addressed the assembly in a manner as this which follows.

By several authors, as is considered a relative pronoun when used before the verb follows; as, the circumstances were as follow, [those which follow.]

5. A verb in the imperative mode, and the transitive verbs need, want, and require, sometimes appear to be used indefinitely, without a nominative; as, Let there be light; There required haste in the business; There needs no argument for proving, &c. There wanted not men who would, &c. The last expressions have an active form with a passive sense, and should perhaps rather be considered elliptical than wanting a nominative; as, haste is required; no argument is needed, &c.

6. The verb which agrees with the nominative case is sometimes omitted; as, to whom the monarch; replied is omitted. What a bloom in that person! The verb is is omitted.


Two or more nouns connected by and, expressed or understood, generally require a plural verb; as, Charles, Thomas, and George are brothers.


Two or more nominatives singular, connected by or or nor, require a singular verb; as, Ambition or pride controls him.

NOTE 1.-If one of the nouns is plural, the verb must be in the plural number.

NOTE 2.-If the nominatives are of different persons, the verb must agree with the nearest.


The nominative of a collective noun requires a verb in the singular or plural, according as the noun denotes unity or plurality; as, the class was large; my people do not consider.

NOTE 1.-The plural form of the verb is more commonly used. NOTE 2.-When the definitive this, or that, precedes the noun, the verb must be singular.


A noun or pronoun in the possessive case is governed

ny the noun which denotes the thing owned or possessed; as, Virtue's reward.


1. The noun denoting the thing owned or possessed is often omitted, when it can be easily supplied; as, We dined at Peter Garrick's; house is omitted; Vital air was a discovery of Priestley's; that is, of Priestley's discoveries; the same as to say, vital air was one of Priestley's discoveries.

2. The possessive is often governed by a participial clause; as, Much will depend on the pupil's composing frequently. Pupil's is governed by the clause, “composing frequently.”


The objective case is governed by transitive verbs and prepositions; as, The sun imparts warmth to the ground. NOTE.-Participles of transitive verbs likewise govern the objective case.


Some intransitive verbs are followed by an objective of kindred signification to their own; as, He dreamed a dream; let him die the death; to run the race; to sleep the sleep of death; to live a life of


NOTE 1.-Some other intransitive verbs are occasionally followed by an objective; as, "The brook ran nectar;" "to grate harsh thunder;" he went his way; he repented his folly.

NOTE 2.-Some transitive verbs in the passive form are often followed by an objective case; as, "The bishops were allowed their seats;" "I was shown a new potato ;"" he was forbid the emperor's presence.


Nouns which denote time, quantity, measure, distance, value, or direction, are often put in the objective case without a preposition; as, He is ten years old; the rule is a foot in length.

NOTE: In analyzing, such nouns with the adjectives joined to them are to be treated as adjuncts, modifying or limiting some other words in the sentence.


1. The word HOME after the verbs come, go, and the like, is generally in the objective case without a preposition; as, My intention is to come home, unless I receive a commission to St. James.

NOTE. When an adjective or an article is joined to the words home, north, &c., the preposition is used; as, He has gone to his home.

REMARK 2. The words worth, like, near and high, are followed by the objective case, without a preposition ; as, He is like his fath er. He is worth a million. He lives near the river.

NOTE.-The preposition is sometimes used after near, nigh and the like.



Verbs signifying to ask, to teach, to call, to choose, to make, to render, to constitute, and some others, are often followed by two objectives; as, He asked me a question; "and God called the firmament Heaven;" "God seems to have made him what he was." They chose or elected him clerk. Simon he surnamed Peter.

NOTE 1. The verb cost is sometimes followed by two objectives; as, It cost me much labor.

NOTE 2.-In many cases when the verb is followed by two objectives, the preposition to, is easily supplied; as, Give me some drink; that is, give to me; he offered me a seat; that is, to me.

REMARK 1.*-Verbs signifying to ask, to teach, offer, promise, pay, allow, which in the active form have two objectives, retain one objective in the passive form; as, I was asked a question; he was taught grammar; great indulgence was offered me; I was allowed great liberty; A shop was promised me.

*See Dr. Crombie, R. XIII, S. N. 1.

REMARK 2.-The preposition is often omitted before the objective case; as, Wo is me, that is to me.


Any word, phrase, or sentence, can be used as a noun in the nominative or objective case; as, Examine the why and the how. There is an if in the way. And is a conjunction.


A noun joined with a participle, standing unconnected with the subject or predicate of the sentence, is in the case independent; as, The oration having been spoken, the assembly was dismissed.

NOTE 1.-The noun independent may have adjectives and modifying adjuncts.

NOTE 2.-In analyzing, the case independent or absolute, with the participle and other modifying words, may be called an abridged expression, which may be formed into a complete sentence by changing the participle into a verb, and supplying other necessary words; as, Tarquinius reigning, Pythagoras came into Italy. Tarquinius reigning, is an abridged expression and is equivalent to while Tarquinius was reigning.


Nouns and pronouns denoting persons or things addressed, and nouns in abrupt and exclamatory clauses, are in the case independent.


Names, titles, captions, and signatures, standing unconnected, are sometimes parsed as the case independent; they may however be considered as abridged expressions, to which in analyzing and parsing, such words can be added as are necessary to complete a sen



The Spectator; that is, this book is entitled the Specta


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