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Rule V; Chapter IV; that is, this is Rule V, &c. Henry Martyn; that is, the memoir of Henry Martyn. Spectator, Rule V, Chapter IV, are strictly parts of sentences, and can be parsed as nouns in the nominative after the verbs.


Pronouns agree with the nouns, or words for which they stand, in gender, number and person; as, Thou, who speakest; they went their way.


1. Pronouns which refer to two or more nouns connected by and, must be in the plural number; as, George and Thomas excel in their studies.

NOTE.-When the nouns refer to the same person or thing, or belong to different propositions, the pronoun agrees according to Rule XIV.

2. Pronouns which refer to two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor must be in the singular number.

NOTE.-When the nouns connected are of different persons, the first person is preferred to the second, and the second to the third.

3. The pronoun it refers to nouns without regard to number, gender, or person; to Infinitives, to clauses, and even to whole paragraphs.

4. The pronoun whatever or whatsoever is sometimes used for the sake of emphasis; as, No ground whatever; when used in this manner it may be treated as an adjective belonging to a noun understood; as, No prudence whatever, i. e., no prudence, whatever prudence may exist, can deviate from this scheme.

NOTE.-It is frequently redundant, or is used indefinitely; and when so used, may be parsed in apposition with the Infinitive or clause following; as, "It is the mark of a generous spirit to forgive injuries;" the proper subject of the verb is, to forgive injuries, and it is redundant, or unnecessary to the sense; but such a usage is authorized by the best writers.

5. The pronouns himself, itself, themselves, &c., are used in the

nominative or objective case, and are frequently a mere repetition for the sake of emphasis, and in many cases are to be parsed in apposition with some noun or pronoun expressed or understood; as, He himself said it.

6. What is also sometimes used adverbially in the sense of part, ly; as, What with the war, what with the sweat, &c.


Adjectives belong to nouns which they qualify or define; as, A tall tree; a high mountain.

NOTE-Adjectives which denote but one, must be joined to a singular noun; those which denote more than one must be joined to a plural noun; as This man, these men, two birds, one bird.

NOTE-A plural adjective is sometimes found with a singular noun; as, "A fleet of twenty sail ;"" forty head of cattle."


1. Adjectives are frequently separated from the nouns to which they belong; as, The day is pleasant. Great is the Lord. A river twenty rods wide.

2. Adjectives are used to modify Infinitives, parts of clauses, and whole propositions; as, To see the sun is pleasant; to advance was difficult; to retreat hazardous.

3. Adjectives are used to modify both the action of the verb, and its subject; as, The wind was blowing fresh; he grew old in the sørvice of his country.*

4. Adjectives are sometimes used to modify other adjectives; as, Deep blue, a witch hazle mineral rod, pale red.

NOTE.-Several adjectives are sometimes joined to a single noun; as, Liverpool deep blue earthen pitchers.

5. The adjective is often used along, the noun with which it agrees being understood; as, The brave; the righteous.

NOTE.-The adjective is sometimes used indefinitely, without direct reference to any nour; as, To be wise and good, is to be great and noble. A noun, however, can generally be supplied in such instances; as, For one to be wise, is for one to be great, &c.

*Adjectives of this kind are treated by some grammarians as ad verbs, or as adjectives qualifying the noun only, but either way is not according to the sense, for they show both manner and quality, and therefore refer to the subject and predicate of the sentence


Pronominal adjectives limit the nouns to which they belong, or are used alone as pronouns; as, This day, few men, both men, many people, the latter day, some think, few come, &c.


Each other. One another.

These elliptical expressions may be explained as follows: Righteousness and peace have kissed each other; that is, each has kissed the other.

We ought also to love one another; that is, one ought to love, &c "When ye come together to eat, tarry one for another;" it might be, for one another.

"Exhort one another daily; let each exhort the other, &c."


Articles define or limit the signification of the nouns to which they belong; as, A man, an hour, the horse.

NOTE 1.-A or an is joined to nouns in the singular number only, except when the noun is preceded by the adjective few or many;

, A few men; a great many men; or by some collective word, as, 4 hundred men, &c. The is joined to nouns singular or plural.

NOTT 2.-When an article and a descriptive adjective belong to the same soun, the article stands first; as, A good man, the wise


EXCEPTION. 4 sometimes stands after the adjective many; as, Full many a gem; many a flower.

NOTE 3.-The article the is frequently joined to adverbs in the comparative or superlative agree, and to adjectives used as nouns ; as, The more I examine it, the better I like it; the least of the apostles; a few, the many, the good. I was astonished not a little.

NOTE 4.-When two or more adjectives or nouns refer to the same individual, the article generally stands before the rst only; as, A great and good man; but it is sometimes repeated for the sake of emphasis; as, The wise, the virtuous, the patriotic Franklin.


The Infinitive mode follows a verb, noun or adjective.

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A verb in the Infinitive may follow:

1. Verbs or participles; as, I hope to succeed, wishing to go. 2. Nouns or pronouns, as, A time to die ; a desire to improve; how is it possible for him to succeed? there is a message for you to convey.

3. Adjectives; as,

is anxious to hear.

4. As, than; as, He is so conceited as to disdain to have anything to do with books; he desired nothing more than to know his imperfections.

5. Adverbs; as, The rope is strong enough to suspend a ton. I know not how to address you.

6. Prepositions; as, What went ye out for to see ?*—my friend is about to take his departure.

7. The Infinitive is often used independently; as, To say the least he has erred in judgment; " but to proceed with our argument."

8. The Infinitive mode is often used in the office of a verbal noun, as the nominative case to the verb, and as the objective case after verbs and prepositions.

9. When the Infinitive denotes purpose or design, it is frequently preceded by the phrase in order, but this phrase is often omitted.


The Infinitive mode has an objective case before it when that is omitted; as, I believe the sun to be in the centre of the solar system; I know him to be a man of veracity.†


The verbs which follow bid, dare, durst, hear, feel, let, make, need, see, and their participles, are used in the Infinitive without the sign to; as, He bid him go.

*This form of expression is now obsolete; it occurs in the scriptures and in ancient writings.

†This construction is far less common, and less elegant, in the English than the Latin language; still it frequently occurs.

The sign to is retained after these verbs when used in the pas. sive form. The sign is also sometimes retained after make and dare.

NOTE. The verbs watch, behold, know, observe, have, comm find, and some others are occasionally followed by the Infin without the sign to.


1. Participles belong to nouns or pronouns, which the limit or explain.

2. Present and compound participles govern the sam case as the verbs from which they are derived.

3. Participles are often governed by prepositions; a= I am weary with hearing him.


1. Participles preceded by an article are called participial nouns as, By the preaching of repentance.

2. Participles preceded by the article should always be followed by the preposition of; by the preaching repentance is incorrect; it should be of repentance.

3. Participles not preceded by the article should not be followed by of; preaching of repentance it should be preaching repentance.

4. Participles are sometimes used indefinitely, or without reference to any noun or pronoun expressed; as, Generally speaking, his conduct was very honorable.

5. Participles like the verbs from which they are derived, have the same case after as before them; as. I was not conscious of my brother's being a drunkard; drunkard is in the possessive case without the sign, after being, or as some prefer, in apposition with brother 6. The participle without the article is sometimes used as a noun in the nominative or objective case, and still retains its power of government; as, Not attending to this rule is the cause of a very

common error.

7. Adjectives derived from verbs, and having the form of participles, are called verbal or participial adjectives.

8. The participle in ing is sometimes used passively; as, Forty and six years was this temple in building; not in being built.


It is equally so as if one should pretend to feel as much pain while a friend's leg is cutting off.―Johnson.

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