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The parts of a simple sentence are termed subject and predicate.
The subject of a sentence denotes that of which something is asserted.
The predicate expresses that which is asserted of the subject.
The subject restricted or qualified by other words is termed the modified subject.
The predicate limited or modified by other words is termed the modified predicate.
The south wind blows softly, is a simple sentence.
A gentle breeze blows from the south.
A gentle breeze is the modified subject.
NOTE. An adjunct is two or more words joined to some other word to modify its meaning. It is generally a preposition with the word following it.
1. A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences.
2. The simple sentences which compose a compound sentence are called clauses.
The wind subsides and the clouds disperse.
The wind subsides, is a simple sentence, or clause. The clouds disperse, is another simple sentence, or clause. The conjunction and connects them.
Together they make a compound sentence.
Metellus conquered Jugurtha and took his elephants.
What kind of a sentence is this? Why? Point out the simple sentences or clauses which compose it. Which is the connecting word?
The clauses of a compound sentence are connected by Conjunctions, Adverbs and Relatives.
1. BY CONJUNCTIONS.
Point out the conjunctions in the following examples, and show what they connect.
True valor protects the feeble, and humbles the oppres
Is this sentence simple or compound? Of how many clauses is it composed? What word connects these clauses?
High seasoned food vitiates the palate, and occasions a disrelish for plain fare.
The desert shall rejoice, and the wilderness shall blos
Disappointment sinks the heart; but the renewal of hope gives consolation.
His vices have weakened his mind, and broken his health.
I know not whether Charles was the author, but I understood it to be him.
In the last sentence, there are three clauses or simple sentences. 1. I know not. 2. Charles was the author. 3. I understood it to be him.
The first two are connected by whether. The 2d and 3d by but. If you would please to employ your thoughts on that
*Particular attention should be given to the subject of connectives; a neglect of which makes parsing a mere mechanical exercise.
subject, you would easily conceive our miserable condi tion.
This compound sentence consists of two clauses or simple sentences. 1. From if to subjects. 2. From you to condition.
The conjunction if connects them.
If he approve my endeavors, it will be an ample reward. If I had known the distress of my friend, it would have been my duty to relieve him.
I thought that Titus was your friend.
That is the conjunction, and connects the two clauses.
I see that you are sad.
I respect him because he is sincere.
II. BY ADVERBS.
NOTE.-Adverbs which connect clauses are called conjunctive
When he is in town, he lives in Soho square.
This sentence consists of two clauses. 1. He is in town. 2. He lives in Soho square. They are connected by the conjunctive adverb when.
Whilst I was lamenting this sudden desolation, the whole scene vanished.
Whilst connects the two clauses.
The rest will I set in order when I come.
III. BY RELATIVES.
He came to the Alps, which separate Italy from Gaul. This compound sentence is composed of two clauses.
1. He came to the Alps. 2. Separate Italy from Gaul.
The relative which connects them, and stands in the place of Alps, to which it refers as its antecedent.
I read the letter which he received.
I am Miltiades who conquered the Persians.
Combinations of words frequently connect sentences such as, in as much as, as well as, in order that, with the intent that, &c., or any expression which seems merely to show the relation between the parts of the sentence.
RULES OF SYNTAX.
THE NOUN AND PRONOUN.
NOTE. It may be understood that the word noun will be used as including both the noun and the pronoun.
A noun joined to another noun, and denoting the same person or thing, is put in the same case; as, Cicero, the orator.
NOTE-This construction is called apposition.
1. A noun is sometimes in apposition with a clause; as, The eldest son was always brought up to that employment, a custom which - he and my father followed.
2. A clause, or a verb in the Infinitive mode is sometimes in apposition with a noun preceding it; as, I would only mention at present one article, that of maintenance of the clergy.
3. A noun in apposition is frequently connected to the one which is explained, by the conjunction as ; as, My father intended to devote me as the tythe of his sons.
NOTE. The word as, appears to be used frequently in the sense of the Latin preposition pro, instead of, in place of, for, in the capacity of.
4. Names or titles employed to distinguish individuals of a family or class, are by some parsed as nouns in apposition; as, George Washington, Mr. Thompson, Dr. West, Col. Hardy; by some they are called adjectives; by others the general name, with the specific appellation or titles, is called a complex noun.
Benjamin Franklin. Franklin is the general name; Benjamin is the specific; together they constitute a complex noun.
Mr. William Barcklay,—a complex noun.
Mrs. E. Thornton,—a complex noun.
Let other examples of complex nouns be mentioned.
5. A noun in apposition with two or more nouns, is put in the plural.
Some passive and intransitive verbs have the same case after as before them when both words refer to the same person or thing; as, it is he. His name is called John.
NOTE.-1. This rule is chiefly applicable to the verbs to be, to become, and some other intransitive verbs, and also to some transitive in the passive form; such as denote to name, to render, to make, and the like.
2. Adjectives and participles are often joined with such verbs to form the predicate; as, The apple is ripe; the day is duwning.
3. A few transitive verbs in the active form, are followed by nouns in the objective case of the same signification as the nomiuative;as, It means nothing; verb signifies a word.
1. The nominative or objective case is used after Infinitives or participles, according as either case is used before the Infinitive or participle.
NOTE. To determine what case the noun following the Infinitive or participle is in, inquire what other word in the sentence means the same person or thing.
I am tired of being an idler. In what case is idler? Why?
I cannot bear the thought of being an exile from my country. Exile is the nominative after being, in the same case with I.
* Several proper nouns which distinguish an individual are always put in apposition; as, William Pitt.-G. Brown.
Nouns common or proper of dissimilar import may be parsed as adjectives when they become qualifying or distinguishing words; as, President Madison, Lake Erie, &c.-Sanborn.