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pofe, iron rakes and tongs are depofited in the tomb. The entrance is closed by an iron door, four feet fquare, on the eaftern fide, as high up as the terrace, to which a road is raifed. Upon the wall, above the door, an additional wall is raifed, to prevent people from looking into the tomb, which the Parfees are particularly careful to prevent. A Perfian inscription is on a ftone inferted over the door, which we once copied, but have forgotten its tenor. From the bottom of the wall fubterraneous paffages lead to receive the bones, &c. and prevent the well from filling.

Men of great property fometimes do not chufe to be depofited in thefe indifcriminate receptacles, and caufe a small one to be built for their own families. Soorabjee, formerly a rich merchant of Bombay, is laid in a private one in the garden to his houfe on Malabar Hill; and we understand his tomb is grated over; if fo it is the only one on the island so covered. The public tombs are, we think, five in number, but not now all in use, fituated about three miles north westerly from Bombay fort: the largeft, for they are of different fizes, is that here defcribed. We have feen accounts of this cuftom of the Parfees, and defcriptions of their tombs, but never any correct.

Led by idle curiofity, when very young, we went into every tomb on the island, the private one in Soorabjee's garden excepted; not only into the tombs but into the wells. We were not then aware of the impropriety, or fhould not fo indecently have obtruded on the facred repofitories of the dead."

The fixth note, concerning European adventurers in the Eaft, and the profelytes there made to animal magnetifm, is curious. The feventh illuftrates a common-place idea which cannot too often be repeated,-that national antipathies are chiefly the work of defigning ftatefmen; who, by thefe means, worry their fubjects, to the fport or profit of their own ambition. The eighth note, on the obfcenities of Indian worship, (although we by no means with to be numbered among the herefy-ferrets,) appears to us exceptionable. It is one thing to maintain that it is cruel to affociate ideas of future punishment with actions unhurtful to fociety :-it is another to infinuate that the rites of public worship fhould be converted into provocatives of libertinifm. The eleventh note, concerning the fwinging martyrs, offers a new groupe for Superftition's limbo of fools. The feventeenth corrects an error of Dr. Robertfon, relating to the antient Mufiris, and the nineteenth offers an elegant critical remark on a paffage of Milton.

The appendix first prefents a copy of the partition-treaty between the Company, the Nizam, and the Mahrattas. The following are the fecond and ninth articles:

Tippoo Sultaun, having engagements with the three contracting powers, has notwithstanding, acted with infidelity to them all; for which reafon, they have united in a league, that, to the utmost of their power, they may punish him, and deprive him of the means of disturbing the general tranquility in future.

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The three contracting powers having agreed to enter into the prefent war, fhould their arms be crowned with fuccefs in the joint profecution of it, an equal divifion fhall be made of the acquifitions. of territory, forts, and whatever each firkar or government may become poffeffed of, from the time of each party commencing hoftilities; but should the honourable company's forces make any acquifitions of territory from the enemy, previous to the commencement of hoftilities by the other parties, thofe parties fhall not be entitled to any fhare thereof. In the general partition of territory, forts, &c. due attention fhall be paid to the wishes and convenience of the parties relatively to their respective frontiers.'

Next follows a differtation on certain coins of Tippoo, and on the Zodiac rupees, belonging to Mr. Morgan of Southgate: then, reafons for believing that the metropolis of Tippoo fhould be fpelled Sree rung puttun, inftead of Seringapatam as is ufual; and, laftly, a gloffary and index.

Mr. Moor's ftyle is not very pure: but he makes no pretenfions to ftudious habits; and he has certainly deferved the thanks of the public, by the copious fund of varied and valuable infor mation which he has brought into the bazaar of literature.

ARL. VI. Difcourfes preached before the Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn. By the Affiftant Preacher, Robert Nares, A. M. Chaplain to his Royal Highnefs the Duke of York, &c. 8vo. pp. 350. 6s. Boards. Rivingtons. 1794.

PERHAPS there is nothing which would contribute more to

increase the utility of preaching, than to employ it lefs on general and common-place topics, and to give it a more pointed direction towards the prefent ftate of opinions and manners. General difcourfes in proof of acknowleged principles, or in illuftration of obvious moral fentiments, gradually lose their effect but addrefles to the public, judiciously adapted to correct rifing errors, to counteract growing prejudices, or to give a check to fashionable vices and follies, can fcarcely fail of making a ftrong and beneficial impreffion.


The author of this volume of fermons appears to be so far fenfible of the truth of the above remark, as to fuffer himself to be in fome degree influenced by it in his choice of fubjects of difcourfe, and in his manner of treating them. There is particularly one characteristic fault of the prefent times, which feems to have attracted his imagination with uncommon force, and against which a great part of the eloquence of these difcourfes is levelled; namely, the fault of indifference with respect to religion. Mr. Nares regards it as the peculiar crime of the age that the spirit of religion is become extremely weak, and that, while many renounce the name of Chriftians, even among those who retain it the neglect and contempt of Chriftian


duties, inattention to Chriftian knowlege, and forgetfulness of Christian hopes, are fhamefully prevalent.

The general caufe of this error he conceives to be the increase of fancied knowlege, and the pride of imaginary wisdom. Vanity and prefumption, he fays, have hurried men with blind precipitation into the abufe of metaphyfics; where, immersed in central darkness, they have imagined that they difcovered, and could demonftrate, whatever pernicious fancies the ruler of the darkness of this world thought it most expedient for his purpose to fuggeft.

With thefe ideas concerning the fact and its caufe, it might have been expected that Mr. Nares, especially in fermons delivered before the intelligent fociety of Lincoln's Inn,—who have long been accustomed to argumentative discourses from preachers of the firft celebrity,-would have prefented his audience with elaborate difcuffions on fome of the main points on which the truth of religion, natural and revealed, is known to reft; or on fome of thofe difficulties which are acknowleged by the learned to prefs with the greatest weight on the general queftion:-or, if this were an undertaking which a modest regard to the quid valeant humeri led him to decline, it might at leaft have been expected that he would have eagerly feized the opportunity, which his favourable fituation afforded him, of refuting fome of thofe flimfy objections against revelation, to which certain brilliant wits have lately given fuch a degree of currency as to make infidelity fashionable. This might have been exceedingly inftructive and ufeful to the younger part of his audience, who cannot commonly be expected to devote much time to ftudies, however important, which are foreign to their profeffional purfuits. With the fingle exception of an Eafter fermon, on the refurrection of Chrit, we find no discourse in this volume which at all comes up to our idea of a caveat againft infidelity, fuited to an enlightened and learned auditory. Mr. Nares, it is true, harangues with confiderable fluency and energy on feveral popular topics, fuch as the fublimity of devotion; the importance of religion; the mercy of God; the regard of God for the temporal welfare of man; the duties of proving all things, holding faft the faith, and not concealing our religion: he explains, with ingenuity, feveral difficult texts of fcripture; and he inveighs vehemently against what is called rational Chriftianity. Lamenting, alfo, the melancholy neceffity which God has impofed on the minifters of religion, that at this late day they fhould be obliged to contend for the fundamentals of their faith, as if they were of new invention, he, through feveral difcourfes, ftands forth as a ftrenuous defender of what are called the mysteries of religion, particularly the



doctrine of the Trinity. All this may very well ferve to confirm those who are already found in the faith,' but we fear that it will be of little efficacy in ftemming the torrent of infidelity. We are even apprehenfive that the pertinacity with which certain incomprehenfible doctrines are maintained to be fo effential to the Chriftian faith, that the name of Chriftian is affumed in vain by those who call them corruptions, may rather ferve to increase than to diminish the number of infidels for they will be ready enough to urge that no reasonable man can be bound to embrace a religion, which teaches doctrines contradictory to the first principles of natural religion and common understanding. If what Mr. N. afferts in one fermon be indeed true, that thofe infidel writings which for a time seduced fo many, are finking rapidly into oblivion,' revelation may be fafely left, without any extraordinary efforts on the part of its advocates, to refume its wonted authority:but if it be true, as he elfewhere fays, that infidelity, encouraged by its triumphs in a neighbouring country, will probably attempt new conquefts among us,' and that the prefent is an awful period for the Chriftian world,' in which every Christian fhould begin to collect his forces for a contest severer, perhaps, than this theatre of human action has produced for centuries :' it is unquestionably the duty of every champion for revelation, not to wafte his time and breath in blowing the trumpet of orthodoxy, but, with his Chriftian brethren of every fect, to retire. within the fortrefs, and there exert every nerve in defence of the common caufe.

ART. VII. Salluft on the Gods and the World; and the Pythagoric Sentences of Demophilus, tranflated from the Greek; and five Hymns by Proclus, in the original Greek, with a Poetical Verfion. To which are added five Hymns by the Tranflator. 8vo. 45. Boards. Jeffery. 1793.


T is by no means certain who was the Salluft that wrote concerning the Gods and the World: whether the Secundus Salluftius Promotus, the friend of the Emperor Julian, and, in 363, his fellow-conful; or whether fome philofopher lefs engaged in active life, fuch as the one mentioned by Suidas to have difagreed in fome refpects with Proclus. His book on the Gods, &c. of which Marfilius Ficinus had spoken with approbation, was printed at Rome with a Latin interpretation in 1638, and was reprinted by Gale in the Opufcula Mythologica, in 1671.. A. French verfion of it occurs in the Philofophe Payen of M. de Formey. The tranflation here offered to the public, we think, is fuperior to fome former energies of the whinifical author. We hall infert, as a fpecimen, the eleventh and twelfth chapters:



CHAP. XI.-Concerning a good and depraved Polity.

But the forms of polities are produced according to the triple divifion of the foul; for the rulers are affimilated to reafon, the foldiers to anger, and the common people to defire. Hence, when all things are adminiftered according to reafon, and he who is the best of all men poffeffes dominion, then a kingdom is produced: but when, from reafon and anger in conjunction, more than one hold the reins of government, an ariftocracy is produced: but where government is carried on through defire, and honours fubfift with a view to poffeffions, fuch a polity is called a timocracy; and that polity which takes place in oppofition to a kingdom is called a tyranny; for the former adminifters every thing, but the latter nothing, according to reafon. But an oligarchy, or the dominion of a few, is contrary to an aristocracy; because in the former, not the best, but a few only, and thofe the worst, govern the city. And laftiy, a democracy is oppofed to a timocracy; because in the former, not fuch as abound in riches, but the multitude alone, is the ruler of all things *.' CHAP. XII.-From whence Evils originate, and that there is not a nature of Evil.

But how came evil into the world, fince the gods are good, and the producing caufes of all things? And, in the first place, we ought to affert that fince the gods are good, and the authors of all things, there is not any nature of evil, but that it is produced by the abfence of good; juft as darkness is of itself nothing, but is produced by the privation of light. But if evil has any fubfiftence, it must neceffarily fubfift either in the gods or in intellects, in fouls or in bodies: but it cannot fubfist in the gods, fince every god is good. And if any one should say that intellect is evil, he muft at the same time affert that intellect is deprived of intellect: but if foul, he muft affirm that foul is worse than body; for every body confidered according to itself, is without evil. But if they affert that evil fubfifts from foul and body conjoined, it will certainly be abfurd, that things which feparately confidered are not evil, fhould become evil from their conjunction with each other. But if any one should say that dæmons are evil, we reply, that if they poffefs their power from the gods they will not be evil; but if from fomething elfe, then the gods will not be the authors of all things: and if the gods do not produce all things, either they are willing but not able, or they are able but not willing; but neither of these can be afcribed with any propriety to a god. And from hence it is manifeft that there is nothing in the world naturally evil; but about the energies of men, and of thefe not all, nor yet always, evil appears. Indeed, if men were guilty through evil itself, nature herfelf would be evil; but if he who commits adultery confiders the adultery as evil, but the pleasure connected with it as good; if he who is guilty of homicide confiders the flaughter as evil, but the riches refulting

All the forms of polities mentioned in this chapter are accurately difcuffed in Plato's Republic, which the reader will do well to ftudy, together with the fragments of the Commentaries of Proclus on that inimitable work.'


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