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measures that would lead to the deftruction of royalty in Europe, he nevertheless recommends a fyftem by which fome of the allies might, with benefit to the general balance of power, be enriched with the fpoils of France. The following paffages, (whether fpeaking found political sense or not, we will not prefume to say,) moft certainly give no favourable opinion of his Lordship's confiftency; nay they may be thought to fhew that he himself had no fyftem whatever in politics:

"Nay, more, if the whole French frontiers in Flanders were con quered, and ceded to the Emperor, it would ultimately tend to the fafety of our allies, and the tranquillity and peace of Europe: thofe fortreffes were originally vefted in the Houfe of Auftria, and guaranteed by our ancestors, till they were wrefted from them by Louis the XIVth, and thefe conquefts were confirmed by the ficklenels and fervility of Charles the Second, at the treaty of Nimeguen, as is fufficiently manifeft from Sir William Temple's negociations.'If that part of Flanders which was wrefted by the tyranny of Lou's the XIVth from the Houfe of Auftria, fhould be reflored to the Emperor, if Rouffillon fhould be given back to Spain, and Savoy re-inftated in her ancient limits, perhaps thofe ceffions might ferve as ramparts to the rest of Europe, and draw lines on the frontiers of thofe ftates against the pestilence.'

The noble writer's excufe on thefe various heads, perhaps, may be that thofe effays were written at different times; and that, forgetting what he had faid in one, he had conformed to the "exifting circumftances" when he wrote the others. Abler men have fometimes been caught napping; aliquando bonus dormitat Homerus. He may not thank us for this apology for him: but, had we been able to make a better, it should have been at his fervice.

On the whole, however, though there are paffages in this publication which are certainly cenfurable, yet they are greatly out-numbered and over-balanced by others that are justly entitled to praife. The effays on which we have not touched contain many useful obfervations, highly creditable to the judgment and feelings of the ingenious writer,


ART. IV. Hiero: on the Condition of Royalty: a Converfation from the Greek of Xenophon, By the Tranflator of Antoninus's Medi. tations". 12mo. pp. 138. 2s. 6d. fewed. Robinfons. 1793. VERY literary relic of Xenophon, one of the finest writers as well as moft illuftrious statesmen of antiquity, must be valuable; and this is particularly the cafe with respect to the fmall dialogue entitled Hiero, or the condition of a tyrant. * See Rev. N. S. vol. ix. p. 258.

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Hiero was tyrant, or king, (for it is well known that the word tyrant originally fignified nothing more than a king or fovereign,) of Syracufe. At first he was haughty, vindictive, and cruel but afterward, in confequence of frequent intercourse with wife men, he became modeft and humane. The other fpeaker in this dialogue is Simonides, an eminent philofopher and poet. In the converfation, a parallel is drawn between the condition of fovereigns and that of private perfons, and precepts are delivered for the conduct of kings in general. The dialogue is conftructed with great accuracy of method, and is expreffed with inimitable fimplicity, not without a confiderable mixture of vivacity. It is well calculated to give the reader a strong conviction of the burdens of royalty; and to prove that, if their station in fociety be neceffary for the general good, it is by no means defirable for its own fake.

The tranflator of this piece, the Rev. R. Graves, has already fhewn himself well qualified for the work. His English ftyle, which poffeffes in a high degree the qualities of purity and ease, is particularly fuited to the task of tranflating Xenophon; and he has fucceeded fo happily in the prefent tranflation, that we fhould rejoice to find him going on with his author, in those pieces of which elegant tranflations are ftill wanting, particularly in that excellent moral work The Memorabilia:-Of the treatifes which, before the publication of this work, have never appeared in English, the number is very fmall: but in that number the present is reckoned by the tranflator. He has chanced, however, to overlook a tranflation, the fecond edition of which was printed at Glasgow by R. and A. Foulis in 1750: but it was by no means to excellent as to fupercede the neceffity of a fecond attempt. That the reader may fee how far fuperior the prefent verfion is to the former, if not in ftrictness of interpretation, at least in eafe and elegance, we fhall transcribe the fame paffage from both.

Hiero, it is well known from the Odes of Pindar, was fond of public games, particularly the Olympic. Simonides, having faid fome things to difcourage this tafte, thus proceeds:

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yourfelf the love and efteem of your fubjects, a point whereof you are fo very defirous; and your victory fhall not be published by a fingle herald, but all mankind fhall unite in the celebration of your virtue. thus admir'd on all hands, you will not only be beloved by private perfons, but by whole cities; and ador'd, not only within the walls of your own palace, but in the public view of all men.

"Thus you may with fafety fee what fpectacles you pleafe abroad, or enjoy the fame fatiffaction by staying at home. fince you will never want thofe about you, who will take delight in acquainting you with their difcoveries, in every thing that is ufeful, excellent, or fair, and all others will be ambitious of offering you their fervice.

"All, in your prefence, will ftrive to please you in the moft complaifant and obliging manner; and thofe who are abfent will be paffionately defirous of feeing you. all mankind will not only be your friends, but your admirers,

"You will have no body to ftand in fear of, tho' all the world will be in continual fear for your fafety.

"Your fubjects will obey your pleasure, with moft willing fubmiffion, and of their own accord, they will be providing beforehand the proper means for your prefervation. and in cafe of danger, you will not only find them fand by you, but run before you, and meet the danger, and repel it with the hazard of their lives, before it approach your perfon. and tho' they should even load you with prefents, you will not want friends on whom to beftow them. they will all rejoice at your profperity, and venture their lives

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And, in the first place, you will fucceed immediately in the grand object of your ambition, the gaining the love of your fellow-citizens: and, in the next place, this victory of yours will not merely be proclaimed by a fingle herald, (as at the Olympick games) but all mankind will concur in celebrating your virtue.

And you will not only attract the refpect of a few individuals, but the love of whole cities; and not only be admired privately, within the walls of your own palace, but publickly, and by the whole world.

You may also, if you defire it, either go abroad to fee any thing rare or curious, or fatisfy your curiofity though you remain at home. For there will always be a crowd of thofe about you, who will be proud to exhibit whatever they have discovered, either ingenious, beautiful, or ufeful; and of thofe who will be ambitious to ferve you.

Every one who is admitted to your prefence will be devoted to your perfon; and those who live at a distance, will paflionately defire to fee you. So that you

will not only be refpected, but fincerely and cordially beloved by all men. You will be under no neceffity of foliciting the favours of the fair fex, but muft even fuffer yourself to be folicited by them. You will not be afraid of any one, but every one will be anxious for your preservation.

Your fubjects will pay you a voluntary obedience, and carefully watch for the fafety of your perfon. And fhould you be expofed to any danger, you will find them alert, not only to affift you, but to protect you, and avert the danger at the hazard of their own lives. You will be loaded with prefents;

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as freely for your interefts, as their own. your proper treafury will be all the riches, and poffeffions of your friends. take courage therefore, Hiero, make your friends rich, that you may by that means enrich yourfelf. advance the grandeur of your city, that you may make yourself fo much the more powerful, and forget not to procure for them fuch alliances, as may readily afford their mutual affiftance in time of war.

"Look upon your country as your houfe; your citizens as fo many friends; your friends as your children; and your children as your own life; and do your utmost to exceed them all in doing good; for if you furpafs all your friends in offices of beneficence; it will not be in the power of your enemies to oppofe you. and if you perform thefe things aright, be affured, that you fhall poffefs the most honourable, and valuable of all bleffings to mankind for you fhal lead a life in perfect happinefs; and be envyed by none.'

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prefents; nor will you want friends to whom you may have the pleasure of imparting them. All men will rejoice in your profperity, and will contend for your rights, as earneftly as for their


And you may confider the wealth of your friends as treasure laid up for your use.

Take courage then, Hiero, enrich your friends with a liberal hand; for by that means you will enrich yourself. Augment the power of the ftate, for thus you will render yourself more powerful, and fecure alliances in time of war.

In a word, regard your country as your own family; your fellow-citizens, as your friends; your friends, as your own children; and your children, as your own life: but endeavour to furpass them all in acts of kindness and beneficence. For if you thus fecure the attachment of your friends by acts of beneficence, your enemies will not be able to refift you.

To conclude, if you regulate your conduct according to thefe maxims, be affured, Hiero, you will obtain the most honourable and most valuable poffeffion which mortals can poffibly enjoy; you will be completely happy, yet unenvied by any one.'

Tranflations of the antients ought not to deviate from the original, either in the way of paraphraftic illuftration, or for the fake of concealing the author's true meaning. Of the former kind is Mr.G.'s parenthefis in the preceding paffage referring to the Olympic games, of which no mention is made in the original; of the latter, is the turn given to the paffage concerning love, which in the original has a very different meaning from foliciting the favours of the fair fex. This alteration is, however, more excufable than the Glafgow tranflator's omiffion of an entire fentence refpecting matrimonial infidelity, which Mr. Graves has rendered faithfully, and has accompanied


with a fhort remark in the way of note: it is the laft fentence in the following paragraph:

Neither has it efcaped the attention of feveral states, that friendship is the greatest and most valuable good that mortals can enjoy. For under many governments, the laws permit adulterers alone to be flain with impunity. And for this reafon; that they fuppose them to alienate that affection and friendship which a woman ought to have for her husband. For if a woman, by any extraordinary concurrence of circumftances, fhould be guilty of an act of infidelity, the husband may not perhaps efteem her the lefs, if he is convinced that her friendship for him continues inviolate and undiminished *.'

The work is introduced by a dedication, in the ftyle of eafy pleafantry, in which the writer beftows a panegyric on his Dedicatee, Mr. Drake jun. M. P. for fetting a good example of early rifing; introducing alfo the following feasonable apoftrophe:

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Ye legiflators of Great Britain! liften to the voice of your country! who calls upon you, not to devote yourselves to destruction, by rufhing into the midst of foes, like Codrus; or to leap into the fiery gulph, like Curtius; but-to keep better hours; to rife in the morning before twelve o'clock; nor think the new regulation of the minifter, which requires your attendance at four o'clock in the afternoon, any infringement of the rights of man. Set the example! and your ladies will regulate their hours of pleasure by your hours of bufinefs; and by degrees, perhaps, reftore the virtuous manners of our sober ancestors.'

ΑΣΚΑΛΩΝΙΤΟΥ ΥΠΟΜΝΗΜΑΤΩΝ. Archimedis que fuperfunt Om-
nia, cum Eutocii Afcalonite Commentariis. Ex recenfione Jofephi
Torelli, Veronenfis, cum Nova Verfione Latina. Accedunt Lectiones
Variantes ex Codd. Mediceo et Parifienfibus. Fot. Chart. Max.
Jl. 155.
Min. l. 5s. Oxonii, e Typographeo Clarendoniano.
Londini, Elmfley. 1792.


THE names and writings of Euclid, Archimedes, and Apol lonius, have been long in very high eftimation. The induftry with which their works have been collected; the ingenuity and labor with which deficiencies occafioned by the lapse of time have been fupplied, and errors arifing from various transcripts have been corrected; and the attention which commentators have employed in elucidating obfcure and difficult paffages; fufficiently fhew, if any evidence befides that of their intrinfic value were neceffary, how juftly they have been appreciated. By renewed and laudable efforts of this kind, we are

• Comfortable doctrine. If a China difh happens to flip out of a poor girl's hand, and is broken, who can blame her?'



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