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Art. 71. Letter to William Wilberforce, Efq. M. P. Member of the
British Society for the Encouragement of good Servants. 8vo.
IS. Allen and West.

Schemes well intended for public fervice are not always judicious, or may at least admit of confiderable amendment and improvement; and it is generally true that the benevolent and the wife will be inclined to liften to any propofals of this nature. Refpecting fervants, one very principal fource of the evil lamented is to be attributed to mafters and miftreffes themselves; the gratification of their own pride, as to the dress and appearance, the provifion and wages, of their fervants, certainly does very naturally tend to render them idle, expenfive, infolent, and in a courfe of time, often in a fhort period, fit only to become heavy burdens on the public. On this fubject, the writer of the pamphlet before us expatiates. Inftead of offering rewards for the encouragement of good fervants, he propofes an act of parliament for the regulation of wages, the correction of mifbehaviour, and the giving of characters; and he refpectfully recommends it to Mr. Wilberforce to bring fuch a measure forwards. He expofes the error into which some are betrayed under the idea of being kind to fervants. It is probable that feveral of our readers will incliné to believe that a real alteration in the manners of fuperiors may do more to remedy the evil, than methods of mere reftraint or force :but we must leave the fubject, only obferving that the title-page not improperly recommends this little performance to the perufal of every perfon who keeps a fervant. A very large circulation, indeed, would be the confequence.

FAST SERMONS, Feb. 25, continued. Art. 72. The Caufe of National Calamities, and the certain Means of preventing or removing them. Intended to have been preached on the 25th of February, but not delivered on that Day, on account of the Author's Indifpofition. By D. Taylor. 8vo. Button, &c.


This preacher piously contends for a General Reformation' of all orders, ranks, and degrees among us, without excepting even the higheft; expreffing his fentiments as a Chriftian minister with a laudable freedom, without the least appearance of indecent invective, His language is plain, and well fuited to the capacities of a common auditory; and the difcourfe, which is highly enriched with fcripture quotations and phrases, breathes throughout an ardent fpirit of piety. The fubject of our national conteft with France, which has been too much agitated in the generality of our late Faft Sermons, is here judiciously avoided.

Art. 73. The Efficacy of the Divine Aid, and the Vanity of confiding in Man.-Preached on Occafion of the late General Faft, March 25, 1795. By Benjamin Dawfon, LL. D. Rector of Burgh, in Suffolk. 4to. Is. Johnson, &c.

An excellent and pious commentary on the text, Pfal. cviii. 12. with very judicious applications to the appointment of the day, and the emergency emergency of the times.

So printed in the title-page.


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Art. 74. A Sermon preached Sept. 7, 1794, on Occafion of the Death of the Rev. William Turner, Minister of the Congregation of Proteftant Diffenters in Weftgate, Wakefield; and published at their Requeft, by William Wood. To which are added, Memoirs of Mr. Turner's Life and Writings. 8vo. 1s. Johnfon.

The fubject of this funeral eulogy appears to have fupported, through a long life, a character of high refpectability, and to have well deferved the public atteftation here given to his merit. The fermon is very happily adapted to the occafion, and is written with great correctnefs and elegance. It exhibits, in a ftriking point of light, Mr. Turner's peculiar merit as a Chriftian minifter. The annexed memoirs, drawn up, if we mistake not, by his fon, the Rev. Mr. Turner, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, are a fimple and interefting narrative of the life of this excellent man.

E. Art. 75. The 109th, commonly called the Imprecating Pfalm, confidered, on a Principle, by which the Pfalm explains itself: preached in Chelfea College Chapel, April 6th, 1794. By the Rev. William Keate, M. A. Rector of Laverton, in the County of Somerset, and Prebendary of Wells. 4to. pp. 38. 1s. 6d. Rivingtons. 1794.

To a writer who thinks more than he reads, it may very probably happen that he shall write and publifh that which is in fact a new dif covery to himself, and which he imagines will be fo to the public, but which fhall appear, on farther inquiry, to have been already difcovered and communicated. This, it is well known, has often happened with respect to improvements in fciences and the arts; and in no branch of knowlege is it more likely to happen than in philology. Similar degrees of ingenuity and learning, employed on the fame difficult fubject of critical inquiry, may eafily be conceived to terminate in the fame explanation. This is the cafe with respect to the fubject of the fermon now before us. Not willing to believe that David could have written the 109th pfalm as a ftring of imprecations J against his enemies, critics have exercifed their ingenuity in devifing fome interpretation which might reconcile the language of this pfalm with the fentiments of humanity. Of thefe, the most fatisfactory is that which puts the imprecations into the mouth of David's enemies. Dr. Sykes understood the pfalm, from the 5th verfe to the 20th, as a recital of the curfes of very flanderous men against David. Dr. Kennicot, in his fecond differtation on the ftate of the Hebrew printed text, quotes Dr. Sykes's comment with approbation; and it was afterward adopted by Bishop Lowth. The fame interpretation is given. by Saverio Mattei, advocate of Naples, in his tranflations and commentaries. It appears, however, that, prior to the compofition of the fermon before us, Mr. Keate had not been acquainted with the authorities by which he might have fupported this interpretation; and that all the merit which there may be in the commentary, by which this interpretation is here fupported, belongs to Mr. Keate. Among the ingenious arguments urged by him, that which appears moft conclufive is that, at the fixth verfe, where the curfes begin, the number is


changed from the plural to the fingular; and that at the nineteenth, where they clofe, the number changes again, and David fays; "though they curfe, yet blefs thou." The explanation carries with it a confiderable degree of plaufibility, and it is fupported very ingeniously by the author; whofe difcourfe, together with the notes by which it is illuftrated, we recommend to the perufal of every reader who may be inclined to liften to the infinuations against revelation, which have been drawn from the character of David.

Art. 76. The Confequences of the Vice of Gaming, as they affect the
Welfare of Individuals, and the Stability of Civil Government, con-
fidered: Preached in the Cathedral Church of Winchester. By
Thomas Rennel, A. M. Prebendary of Winton, &c.
Rivingtons. 1794.



Ne quid nimis is a maxim which, though often quoted, is not yet become obfolete. It is much to be lamented that there fhould be any bccafion to apply it to preachers who appear fo much in earnest in reproving vice as the author of this fermon. Yet we are not without apprehenfion left, in their zeal for reformation, they fhould ftretch the bow of religious difcipline till it break. Gaming is certainly a moft mischievous practice; and every friend to order and virtue will acknowlege the general propriety of the picture which Mr. Rennel has drawn of its deftructive effects, in contaminating the heart with bafe and malignant paffions, in annihilating the domeftic affections, in banishing every principle of religion, and in undermining the foundation of public virtue and public happinefs:-but it will be much lamented, by those who have not yet been inftructed in the fchool of Methodifm to think all amufement criminal, that there should be fome danger left the beneficial operation of his folemn addrefs to the public, on the fubject of gaming, should be fruftrated by the severity with which he pronounces an indifcriminate and univerfal cenfure on the use of cards and dice. Indolence and frivolity are the natural effects of wealth; and, reprchenfible as they may often be under the appellation of follies, men will not easily be perfuaded that they are to be ranked among thofe heinous fins which threaten them with damnation. E. Art. 77. Preached at the Meeting-house in Hoxton-fquare, Mar. 15, 1795, on Occafion of the Death of the Rev. Thomas Toller. By Andrew Kippis, D. D. F. R. S. & S. A. To which is added the Address delivered at the Interment of the Deceased, by the Rev. Hugh Worthington, jun. 8vo. JS. Brown.

The friends of Mr. Toller will be gratified by the tribute here paid to the virtues, learning, and amiable qualities of the deceased; and the readers of ferious divinity will be pleafed with the explanatory and practical obfervations of the difcourfe: in the introduction to which, Dr. K. oppofes with Lardner and others a common opinion haftily drawn from the verfe preceding the text (2 Tim. iv. 7, 8.) that the 2d Epistle to Timothy is the laft that Paul ever wrote. The fubfequent verfes do not justify this idea; and, by the name of Timothy


See M. Rev. vol. xxviii. p. 271.



being joined to that of Paul at the head of feveral epiftles, the con-
trary feems to be proved; or that, after the vifit of Timothy to the
Apoftle at Rome, which this epiftle follicits, the Apoftle wrote feveral
letters to the churches, to the Philippians, and to the Coloffians.
Mr. Worthington's addrefs is fuited to the place and the occafion.


++ Our review (in Dec. 1794) of Dr. Prieftley's Letters to a Young Man, in answer to Mr. Evanfon's Diffonance of the Evangelifts, has brought us a letter, figned Clericus Leiceftrenfis, containing feveral learned obfervations in reply to different parts of Mr. Evanfon's work, much too long for us to infert. If the writer fhould chufe to lay them before the public, they will of courfe come under our notice. In reply to his complaint against us, that we did not in that article do justice to the clergy, when we remarked that none of them had thought it neceffary to ftep forwards in defence of the facred writings; we fhall only say that we evidently referred particularly to replies to Mr. Evanson, and ought not to have been misunderstood as bringing a general charge againft the clergy, for not having written in defence of the Gofpel: it was impoffible that we fhould have forgotten the names of Lowth, Kennicott, Newcome, Tennifon, Paley, &c. &c. to whom we have so often paid the well-earned tribute of respect.



• We have received a letter figned R. Hall, M. D. Jedburgh, relative to our review of Dr. Aikin's Essay on the Impreffion of Reality attending Dramatic Representations, printed in the 4th vol. of the Manchester Tranfactions: (fee Rev. vol. xiii. p. 184,) The purpofe of Dr. H. is to fhew that the originality of thought which we attributed to that effay, as well as to Dr. Darwin's fimilar analysis of our emotions on fuch occafons, ipffet afide by a prior claim of the late Dr. Gregory, in his wellknown Comparative View of the State and Faculties of Man, &c. and Dr. H. has laid before us quotations, by which it clearly appears to have been Dr. Gregory's opinion, that an illufion really takes place in our minds at the reprefentation of a well-acted drama: but we conceive Dr. H. to have rather mistaken the point in queftion. The notion that the imagination often undergoes a temporary deception when addrifles are made to it, especially in theatric reprefentations, is certainly too common and general to be claimed as an original conception by any modern writer, and may eafily be traced from Horace down to the prefent times. Dr. Johnfon, in oppofing it, was arguing againft what appeared to him to be a vulgar error. The originality, which alone we meant to attribute to Dr. Aikin, was in his procefs of illuftrating this idea, and in proving, by an analyfis of the operations of the mind, through the feveral progreffions of reverie, recollection, reprefentation, up to reality itfelf, that the impreffions excited are identical in their nature, and only differ in degree; which, we apprehend, he has fatisfactorily fhewn by the perfect fimilarity of the effects produced in all these cafes. Now, in the quotations from Dr. Gregory, we discover nothing like this mode of analytic proof of the pofition,


though there is, undoubtedly, a general agreement in the refult; which, indeed, is little more than an amplification of Horace's

" modo me Thebis, modo ponit Athenis."

We fhall add that, from Dr. Aikin's delicacy in refpect to Dr. Darwin, we cannot doubt that he would have acknowleged an obligation to Dr. Gregory, had he been conscious of making use of that gentleman's train of thinking.


†§† F. J. P. writes concerning a Volume of Sermons by Mr. Charters, printed at Edinburgh in 1786, of which we gave a favourable account in our 76th Vol. p. 495. He fays, You will find a confiderable part of one of them tranfcribed into the late Lord Kaims's Sketches on Education, as the fentiments of a friend he valued. The reafon I now beg leave to mention them to you, is, that I lately heard a much admired preacher in one of the new chapels at the weft end of the town, give the latter half of his fermon verbatim from this volume; and it was at the time fo much remarked by the congregation, that if it had any merit, I think it no more than justice to give it to the real author.'

ISI In acknowledging W. D.'s letter, we have to obferve that we do not recollect who is the writer to whom Bafnage alludes, in the paffage which our correfpondent has taken the pains to transcribe. There is a work which leans towards the opinion that the Apocalypfe fpeaks of events contemporary with the period at which it was written, enti tled, Difcars Hiftorique et Critique fur l'Apocalypfe, par M. Avauzit de Geneve it was printed at Geneva, but with " Londres, 1770," in the title-page. There is alfo a myftical work by J. G. Herder, entitled Maran-Atha, printed at Riga, in 1779; which favours a fimilar mode of explanation, and difplays much acquaintance with the fpirit of oriental allegory. We ftein alfo embraces the theory mentioned by Bafnage, and defended by Abauzit and Herder. E.Tay.-G.

S *+* The author of the Sketch from the Landscape wishes to point out to the Monthly Reviewers a fmall typographical error in their quotation from the Word to Mr. Price, (Rev. for March, p. 320, 1. 3). which spoils the fenfe. Instead of from the canvas of nature,' read ⚫ from the canvas to nature.'

+++ We record with pleasure the proper remark of G. F. B. on p. 520 of our laft Appendix, that the Earl of Strafford's third wife, who was alive at the time of his execution, was only step-mother to his furviving children. A letter figned A. M. alfo contains the fame obfervation.

Itt The pamphlet from Norwich is too remote from our plan, with refpect both to the date and to the locality of the subject.

In the laft App. p. 522, 1. 34, for

526, 1. 15, for

Regicidifm,' r. a Regicide.
rhetorical,' r. theoretical.

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In the Rev. for May, p. 62, 1. penult. for viterous,' r. vitreous.

P.218. 1.4. see the Greek, corrected.


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