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1. An artificial fphere, for exhibiting the celeftial motions. 2. Archimedes's method of inveftigating the mixture of gold and filver in Hiero's crown, mentioned by Vitruvius. 3. His pneumatic and hydraulic engines, mentioned by Tzetzes and Tertullian. 4. Archimedes's fcrew, the ftructure and ufe of which are well known. 5.The Helix, by means of which, according to Athenæus, he launched a large fhip belonging to Hiero. 6. A fingular kind of locket, the account of which is imperfect. 7. The Trifpafton, by which large weights might be raifed by a very fmall power. 8. Various warlike machines. ufed in the defence of Syracufe. 9. His burning glaffes, by the combination of which he is faid to have fet fire to the Roman ships.

Torelli's next object, after the arrangement now defcribed, was to correct the mistakes that had been occafioned by the ignorance or negligence of tranfcribers. With this view, he perufed every feparate treatife with great attention; and he confulted thofe writers who had employed themselves in the fame way. The principal of thofe, by whofe labours he profited, were Commandinus, Rivaltus, Barrow, and Wallis. He acknowleges himself moft obliged to Dr. Wallis, particularly in the treatifes de Dimenfione circuli and Arenarius. He had alfo recourfe to a Latin edition of Archimedes by John of Cremona, by means of which he corrected fome mistakes that had occurred in the edition printed at Bafil. The defects of this verfion he fupplied by fuch conjectural emendations as appeared to him to be equally juft and neceffary. His critical fkill in the Greek language, and his accurate acquaintance with the Attic and Doric dialects, were of very confiderable service to him in this department of correction. He alfo derived fome affiftance, though less than he at firft expected, from a comparison of the Bafil edition with a MS. copy preferved in the library of St. Mark at Venice. The various readings which feemed to be the most important and useful he fubjoined in the margin, with fuitable references from the

text.

The third object, which engaged the very diligent attention of Torelli, was a new tranflation of the original Greek into Latin. In this department of his undertaking, he availed himfelf of the verfion of Cremona and of the tranflation of Commandinus, as far as they could be of any service to him. The value of both he has duly appreciated.

As for the two books Περὶ οχεμένων, or of bodies foating on fluids, our author afcribes them, without hesitation, on the authority of Strabo and Pappus, to Archimedes. A Latin copy of them was found by Nicholaus Tartalea, who took pains in

making

making feveral neceffary amendments. These books were published about the middle of the fixteenth century. Commandinus discovered them about the fame time with Tartalea; and he was more fuccefsful, according to Torelli, not only in correcting their errors and fupplying their defects, but in improving the ftyle of the original. Our editor has followed the copy of Commandinus, without making any very material alteration. Torelli differs from those who afcribe the book of Lemmata to Archimedes. An Arabian copy of it is preferved in the Palatine library at Florence: but the prefent editor has contented himself with publishing a Latin translation of it by Abraham Ecchellenfis.

Of Eutocius, the commentator of Archimedes, it will be fufficient to say that he lived at Afcalon in Palestine about 1200 years ago; and that the copy, to which his commentaries refer, and which he obtained from his preceptor Ifidorus, the principal of the architects of the church of St. Sophia, must have been much more correct than any other to which we can have access: -but of this MS. if it were, indeed, different from that which was found at Conftantinople, no traces have yet been difcovered. Of the commentaries of Eutocius, thofe rank the highest, which illuftrate Archimedes's work De Sphæra & Cylindro; in one of which we have a recital of the various methods practifed by the antients in the folution of the Delian problem, or that of doubling the cube. The others are of lefs value; though we cannot help regretting that Eutocius did not pursue his plan of commenting on all the works of Archimedes, with the fame attention and diligence which he employed in his remarks on the sphere and cylinder. His commentaries are annexed to the feveral propofitions to which they belong; as are alfo occafional notes by Torelli.

In this edition, the Greek and Latin are printed in separate columns, like the editions of Euclid and Apollonius, which it very much resembles; and, as it is executed on the fame plan, Archimedes in his prefent ftate is a fit companion for the other

two antient mathematicians.

The appendix contains a commentary on certain propofitions in the treatise on bodies floating in fluids, by Mr. Robertfon, as a kind of fubftitute for the commentary of Commandinus, which is not published; and a collection of various readings in the copies of Archimedes, preferved at Florence and Paris, collated with the Bafil edition.

As the feveral treatifes of Archimedes have, in one form or other, been long in the hands of the public, we fhall not detain our mathematical readers by giving any particular account of their contents:-but we shall take the liberty of recommending

this

this edition of Archimedes as a very valuable acquifition to the lovers of fcience, and as doing much honour to the judgment and attention of Dr. Torelli, and alfo of Mr. Robertfon, to the Oxford Prefs, and to all the parties who have been concerned in the publication of it.

ART. VI. Tranfactions of a Society for the Improvement of Medical and Chirurgical Knowledge. Illuftrated with Copper-plates. 8vo. PP. 343. 7s. 6d. Boards. Johnfon. 1793.

THE

firft paper in this collection confifts of Obfervations on the Small pox, and the Causes of Fever; by Dr. G. Fordyce. Dr. Fordyce flatters himself that he has difcovered the great effential in inoculation, which makes the difeafe favourable. It is, to introduce as little as poffible of the variolous matter in the operation. With respect to preparation, he ranks it with the many practices of fuperftitious quackery which have been. invented to delude mankind.-Some other remarks, which here occur, are, in our opinion, too trite to have merited infertion.

As, in the small-pox, neither fresh matter, nor that which is already in the veffels, has any effect in exciting new fever after the difeafe is fully brought on, fo, carrying on the analogy to other fevers, Dr. F. thinks it probable that all infections only act for a fhort time, and then produce no farther effect. This idea is confirmed by the recovery of fever-patients in the infectious wards of an hofpital, as eafily and frequently (much more fo, the Doctor fays,) as in a private house. Hence he concludes that, during the courfe of an infectious fever, the infection, having once operated, has nothing more to do with the disease. He applies the fame ideas to fever from cold or anxiety, in which the first impreffion produces the disease, though he acknowleges that continuing the caufe will keep up the fever. He makes fome obfervations on the application of the word putrid to violent fevers, which often go through their course without one fign of putrefaction. When they take place, it seems not to be from the proper effect of the infectious vapour, but from the confequent debility. The practical conclufion is, that it is feldom of any use to employ remedies to remove the caufe of the fever after it has actually taken place.

2. Obfervations on the Inflammation of the internal Coats of Veins; by Mr. J. Hunter. This celebrated anatomist had found, on diffection, that, in all violent inflammations of the cellular membrane, the coats of the larger veins paffing through. the part were alfo inflamed; and that their internal furfaces had taken on the adhefive, fuppurative, and ulcerative inflammations. From this circumftance, he was led to a new manner of accounting for the inflammation frequently happening to the REV.MAY, 1795.

D

arm,

Re-s.

arm from bleeding. The ufual fuppofitions of a tendon or nerve being wounded, or of a bad habit of body, often have no foundation in these cases. Mr. Hunter thus reprefents the state of the cafe as he has observed it:

The manner in which thofe fore arms come on, shows plainly that they arise from the wound not healing by the first intention; for the external wound, in most cafes, firft fefters or inflames, then fuppurates and ulcerates, fo that the cavity of the vein becomes impervious. In fome this fuppuration is only fuperficial, the vein and parts below having united. In others the fkin fhall appear to be united, but not close to the vein, fo that a small abfcefs fhall form between the skin and the vein; it fhall burft and discharge a thin watery fluid, and no farther mifchief happen; but when this imperfection of union is continued on to the cavity of the vein, then the vein inflames both upwards and downwards, and that often for a confiderable way, and the furrounding parts join in the inflammation.

• We find all thefe variations in different cafes; for the difeafe fometimes goes no further than an inflammation in the vein near to the orifice, which is often refolved; at other times the inflammation is carried further, but fuppuration is prevented by the adhefive inflammation taking place in the vein at this part, fo as to exclude the fuppurative inflammation, and the veins in fuch cafes may be plainly felt after the furrounding tumefaction has fubfided, like hard cords. But this falutary effect is not always produced, and fuppuration in the vein is the confequence, but often fo confined, that only a fmall abfcefs forms in the cavity of the vein near to the orifice. The confinement of the matter in this part of the vein, arifes from adhesions in the vein a little above and below the orifice. But in many cafes the inflammation and fuppuration are not confined to this part from the adhesions not having taken place; for it frequently happens that an abfcefs is formed, occupying a confiderable length of the vein both ways; and we often have more than one abfcefs, nay at times there is a series of them, and generally in the direction of the vein, between the orifice and the heart; but not always in this courfe, for we find them fometimes between the wound and the extreme parts.'

Thefe inflammations of the vein are a frequent confequence of the bleeding of horses, when fufficient care is not taken to close the orifice; and many horfes die from this cause. Mr. H. likewife thinks that the exposure of the cavities of veins after great injuries, or operations, is the cause of many of the extenfive inflammations fometimes fucceeding them. The practical rules refulting from thefe ideas are, after bleeding, to bring the fides of the orifice in clofe contact, and to retain them by a thick comprefs, rather of lint or linen than fticking-plafter; and, when inflammation has once begun beyond the orifice, to make a compreffion on the vein at the inflamed part, with a view of caufing its fides to adhere together.

3. Process for preparing pure Emetic Tartar by Re-crystallization; by Mr. Jenner, Surgeon at Berkeley.

The mode of repeated

repeated cryftallization is an obvious one for obtaining any falt in its perfect purity; and that of the metallic falt in question is undoubtedly of much importance. In the procefs, there is nothing remarkable.

4. Account of the Diffection of a Man, that died of a Suppreffion of Urine, produced by a Collection of Hydatids between the Neck of the Bladder and Rectum; with Obfervations on the Manner in which Hydatids grow and multiply in the Human Body; by J. Hunter, M. D. A man, 46 years old, died fuddenly, after fome complaints of pain and difficulty in paffing urine. On diffection, the bladder was found to be enormously diftended, and a large tumour filling the pelvis was difcovered between the neck of the bladder and the rectum. This contained much water, and many hydatids of various fizes, from 1 inch in diameter to the fize of a pin's head. Other smaller tumours, containing hydatids, lay near the neck of the bladder. A large tumour was also found between the ftomach, fpleen, and pancreas, and adhering to all three. It was made up of smaller tumours, the contents of which were various; hydatids of different fizes, whole and burft, matter like foftened ifinglafs, and clear water with minute grains. They had all thick coats, double, and endowed with a ftrong elaftic power. All the hydatids had alfo two tranfparent and contractile coats. Some had small hydatids on their inner furface; and the water, containing the grains above mentioned, alfo appeared by the microscope to be full of minute hydatids.

The hydatids in their growth and decay appear to pass through various ftages; they are firft found floating in the fluid that fills the hydatid, and afterwards attached to its coats. The hydatid thus pregnant with young, if the expreffion may be allowed, adheres to the neighbouring parts, increafes in fize, and becomes itself a fac, containing numerous fmall hydatids. Thefe after a certain time decay, and the fkins or empty bags are fqueezed together into a fubftance like ifinglafs. It is probable they ftill undergo a further change; two fmall bodies, of the fize of the common bean, of a cheese. like confiftence, and covered with a skin, were taken notice of adhering to the bladder near its neck; it may be a question whether those were not the remains of hydatids? but that must be determined by future obfervations. It is to be obferved, that the young hydatids are found in two very different ftages; in the one they are attached to the coats of an hydatid, that floats loofe in the parent bag or fac; in the other, extremely fmall globules adhere flightly to the inner furface of a bag or fac, which is firmly attached to the neighbouring parts, and covered with a ftrong outer coat. It is obvious that the progrefs of growth is very unequal in thofe two, and indeed inverted; for in the first the young ones are as large as the heads of pins, while the parent bag is not larger than a walnut, and floats unattached; but on the contrary, in the fecond there is a large fac with a strong

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