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with cochineal the feveral fhades of aurora. Its folutions in the fluoric, the tartaric, and especially the citric acids, give a beautiful fcarlet. The oxyds of bifmuth and zinc afford purple or lilac colours: but all the other metals, copper particularly, fadden and debase the cochineal-dye; and it would be tedious to enumerate the particular inftances. The great problem in the art of dyeing is to communicate a permanent fcarlet to filk, cotton, and linen. The process recommended by the celebrated M. Macquer produced only a fugitive ftain. The late Dr. Berkenhout, under the idea of difclofing a fimilar difcovery, obtained a large reward from the British parliament.

Chap. xii. confiders the properties and uses of quercitron bark. The application of this fubftance, produced by the quercus nigra, to the purposes of dyeing and calico printing, for a certain term of years, is exclufively vefted in the author by act of parliament. The blackifh exterior coat being feparated, the cellular and cortical parts are, by the affiftance of mill-ftones, reduced to a fine light powder, mixed with ftringy filaments. Thus prepared, the quercitron bark will generally yield as much colour as eight or ten times its weight of the weld plant, or as four times its weight of the chipped old fuftic; the former of which it most nearly refembles: but it is capable, without addition, of producing more cheaply the effects of every other yellow dyeing drug. Of the quercus nigra there are feveral varieties, which all contain a portion of the fame colouring matter: but the quercus nigra digitata and the quercus nigra trifida, befides the yellow, have a fawn tint, which tarniíhes the dye, and ought therefore to be carefully avoided. The decoction of quercitron bark is diluted by acids and deepened by alkalis. With the muriate and murio-fulphate of tin, it produces a beautiful and lively yellow; and, with the fulphates of iron and copper, it forms a colour ir.clining to green. In the application to practice, it is expedient to plunge the bark previously tied up in a bag into hot water, for a few minutes, and then to mix the other dyeing ingredients with the decoction. For woollens, the affiftance of alum alone will afford a pleasant yellow, which can be deepened by the addition of a little powdered chalk. By the fame procefs, a fine green is fixed on cloth taken from the indigo vat, and the Saxon blue is converted into Saxon green: but the moft brilliant colours are produced by the application of the tin bafis. If the ftuff be dyed with one tenth of its weight of bark, and as much of the murio-fulphate of tin, it will receive a beautiful orange yellow; and the fhade may be inclined to yellow by diminishing the proportion of the murio-fulphate of tin, and adding fome alum. The paler dyes are formed by joining a small portion of alum.

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The bafis of iron with the quercitron produces the drab colours, which are darkened by the addition of a little fumach, and are inclined to olive by diminishing the fulphate of iron and fubftituting the fulphate of copper. Woollen cloth boiled with one twentieth of its weight of lime, and then dyed with the bark, acquires a ftrong nankeen tint. With due precaution, the fame dyes may be fixed on filk. The difficulty is greater in the treatment of linen and cotton, which require a more copious depofit of alum, and are apt to be corroded by the tin bafis. By means of the acetite of alum, however, and the gradual application of heat, they receive the various fhades of yellow. This aluminous compound may, in a great measure, be fuperfeded by ufing the aftringent matter of yellow myrobalans, or the decoction of galls promoted by a little barilla ;-the cotton is afterward to be dipt into a calcarious folution of alum. A dye nearly as durable, and more dilute, is procured by previously macerating the cloth with a mixture of foap and barilla.

Dr. Bancroft gives ample and circumftantial directions for the application of quercitron bark, with many interesting obfervations, for which we must refer our readers to the work. It is fortunate that private intereft should concur with public emolument, to recommend the wider extenfion of this valuable drug.

Chap. xiii. enumerates the feveral vegetable fubflances which afford yellow adjective colours.-1. The American hicory or Juglans Alba contains not only in its bark, but in its green leaves and in the rinds of its nuts, a colouring matter very fimilar to that of quercitron bark, only feebler and prepared with more difficulty. The ufe of this dyeing drug is, likewise, for a term of years, appropriated to our author by the British legiflature. 2. The weld plant, or refeda luteola, grows in many parts of Europe, the cultivated fort being smaller and richer in colour. It requires two years for its maturity, and gives also a very precarious crop. The trouble of previously extracting the tint, and the charge of tranfporting a bulky commodity, with other inconveniencies attending it, are likely to bring weld into difufe.-With this fubftance, Dr. Williams, feveral years ago, pretended to fix a green dye on cottons; and parliament was furprized into a grant of a confiderable reward to the inventor. 3. Venice fumach or rhus cotinus, improperly called young fuftic, is a fhrub that grows in Italy and the South of France. Its root and ftem, employed in chips with the nitro-muriate of tin, give an orange-yellow but the colour proves extremely fugitive. 4. Fuftic or morus tinctoria,

which

which we inaccurately denominate old fustic, is a large tree indigenous to the Weft Indies. It affords a tolerably durable but not a bright colour. The word flic feems to be a corruption of the term fuftet, denoting a mouldy fmell, by which appellation the Venice fumach was known in France. 5. The common fumach or rhus coriaria of Spain and Portugal gives, with the aluminous bafis, a pale and feeble dye. 6. The French berries, or unripe berries of the rhamnus infectorius, communicate a lively though fugitive colour. 7. Saw-wort, or ferratula tinctoria, the dyer's broom or genifta tintoria, the five species of heath which our inland produces, the bark and fhoots of the Lombardy poplar, and the leaves of the sweet willow, all form a pleafant but tranfient yellow. 8. The American golden rod, or folidago Canadenfis, which grows plentifully between Canada and Hudfon's Bay, is rich in colouring matter, and gives a beautiful dye, with the aluminous bafis, to wool, filk, and cotton. The three-leaved hellebore is employed by the Canadian Indians to give a yellow ftain to prepared fkins. Many other vegetables of lefs note yield dif ferent tints of yellow.

The volume clofes with an appendix, containing an abfira&t of a paper which Dr. Roxburgh very lately tranfmitted to the Directors of the Eaft India Company, on a new fpecies of nerium or rofe-bay; the leaves of which afford indigo. This nerium tinctorium, the thit ancalls of the Hindoos, grows plentifully in the mountainous tracts of the Carnatic, and through the whole extent of the Circars. It is a middling-fized tree, with leaves from fix to ten inches long and from three to four broad, numerous, fmooth, and of a pale green colour, The feafon from April to July is the moft proper for gathering the leaves, of which two or three hundred pounds weight will yield one pound of indigo. To extract this dye, the leaves are fcalded and agitated in hot water, when a little lime is added to the liquor to affift granulation. In the northern parts of the Coromandel coaft, the natives precipitate their indigo with a cold infufion of the jambolong tree, or jambolifera pedunculata, a very powerful aftringent. Dr. Roxburgh defcribes another indigo plant, the car-necli of the Hindoos, which he has chofen to de nominate indigofera cærulea. It is a fhrubby fpecies, growing naturally in dry barren tracts. The leaves, digefted in boiling water, afford about one two-hundredth part of their weight of beautiful indigo. The fame gentleman has performed a number of interefting experiments, with a view of illuftrating the theory of indigo-but, as most of his obfervations are already anticipated, it would be fuperfluous to dwell any longer on this

fubject.

fubject. We will just mention that indigo may be purified and exalted, by diffolving the heterogeneous matter with the fulphuric or rather the muriatic acid.

In taking leave of the learned author of this work, it should be noticed that he has prefixed to each chapter a very apt motto, felected from works of merit. We are forry to remark that the great interruptions in the prefs have fenfibly hurt the unity of plan and compofition. The reader feels it irkfome to be repeatedly referred to other paffages of the book-but an adequate apology for this blemish may be found in the utility of the general delign.

ART. IV. The Hiftory of Great Britain, connected with the Chronology of Europe; with Notes, &c. containing Anecdotes of the Times, Lives of the Learned, and Specimens of their Works. Vol. I. Part II. From the Depofition and Death of Richard II. to the Accellion of Edward VI. By James Pettit Andrews, F. A. S. 4to. pp. 366. 11. 1s. Boards. Cadell jun. and Davies. 1795. IN our Review for August 1794, we gave an account of the

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preceding part of this volume, and expreffed our approbation of the judgment with which Mr. A. had felected his materials, and of the accuracy and precifion with which he had arranged and compreffed them. His plan of uniting the chronology of Europe with the Hiftory of Great Britain appeared to us well calculated for gratifying the curiofity of his more inquifitive readers, and for infpiring with the love of general information those who had hitherto chiefly confined their views within the limited horizon of their native foil. We commended the author's diligence in recurring to the original fources of information, and in employing the authority, and often the very words, of contemporary writers for the purpofe of illuftrating not only the public tranfactions, but the manners, the genius, and the tafte of the ages which he defcribes. His anecdotes of the virtues and vices of the times, and his fpecimens of literature and poetry, cannot fail to intereft thofe readers who prefer the progreffive and various hiftory of the human mind to the tirefome and laborious idleness of kings and conquerors, the ravages of war, and the uniform frauds of policy. The pleafantry, with which the biographical sketches are enlivened, may appear to critics of a certain caft inconfiftent with the dignity and gravity of hiftorical compofition: but we know not why this fpecies of writing should be exclufively confined to the crimes and calamities of men; and why our remote ancestors should not be brought on the stage, to gladden us with their mirth as well as to deprefs us with their forrows, to brighten the fmiles of pleasure as well as to thicken the gloom of melancholy.

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In this fecond part, we have the fame plan and execution on which the preceding volume was conducted; with this fingle difference, arifing from the nature of the materials, that the analogous pictures of government, arts, and manners, are here drawn with greater circumftantiality and fullness. The author has not, however, allowed himself to be diverted from the original defign of his compilement, by the copioufnefs and variety of his fubject. In illustration of this remark, we have an example in the following account of government, from the year 1400 to 1485:

The power of each department of legislature became now more accurately defined, although no confiderable alterations had been 'made in either.

The king's authority was moft affuredly not in general defpotic, fince he could neither repeal nor change any law which had been made by confent of his parliament. Yet that difpenfing power which each monarch affumed, when it fuited his purpose, threw far too great a weight into the fcale of royalty. The fovereign befides retained the cruel right of giving in marriage the wards of the crown, although that prerogative (as well as that of purveyance) was exercifed in a much more moderate degree than it had been of old.

[FORTESCUE DE LAUDIBUS LEGUM ANGLIE.] He could likewife prefs for his service not only foldiers and failors, but also musicians, goldsmiths, embroiderers and various forts of artificers. [IBID.]

• The peers attended their duty in parliament at their own expence. The reprefentatives of the commons were always paid from the commencement of reprefentation. Towards the clofe of the 14th century it was fixed at 4s. per diem for knights of fhires, and half that sum for each burgefs.

The sheriff's influence in returning members was extenfive and frequently abufed. Sometimes they made no proper elections of knights, &c. fometimes no return at all, and fometimes they returned fuch as had never been elected.'

[PREAMBLE TO STAT. 23 HEN. VI. CAP. 14.] For these and fuch like mifdemeanors he might be fued by action at the affifes and was liable to fine and imprisonment.

The qualification requifite for knights of fhires was 40l. per annum. It appears too that ftrength of body and conftitution was demanded, for the parliamentary writs about this period directed the electors to chufe not only the wifeft but the ftouteft men (potentiores ad laborandum), that they might be able to endure the fatigue of the journey and of clofe attendance. [PRYNNE.]

Befides their pay, the members of the House of Commons had the privilege, for themfelves and their fervants, of freedom from all arrefts. A neceflary exemption, that they might be enabled to perform their duty. But this privilege (as well as their pay) attended on the members only during their actual fervices, and quitted them at the end of each feflion; allowing only for the few days which they

might

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