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Dycryn twryv torvoz yn eban,

Dycyrç hynt dyçre gwynt gwaezvan ;
Dycymmriw-ton amliw am làn,
Dycymmer uveliar bár barn,

Dygrys gwrys gwres tanze allan.

When God fhall reveal his countenance, the houfe of earth will uplift itfelf over us: a panic of the noife of legions in the conflict, will urge on the flight; harfhly the fhrill voiced wind will call; the motley-tinted wave will lave with foamy rage around the shore, the glancing flame will take to itself the vengeance of justice, recruited Cafnodyn. by the heat of contending fires ever breaking out.

Baran, a. (bar) Appearing, or that is in view.

Baránez, s. pl. aggr. (baran) Prefence; appearance.

Ugain punt o'i voz

A'm rhozes yn rhoz;

O'i varànez ni'm didoles.

Twenty pounds with good will he as a gift on me bestowed; from his prefence he did not feparate me,


Baranres, s. m. pl. t. i. (baran-rhes) A rank or file of foldiers.
Hofi digoni a zigones llew

A'r llu tew trylew trwy varanres.

Delighting in fatiating with what fatiated the lion, and the thick vigorous hoft through the front rank.

Baranu, v. a. (baran) To appear; to come in view.

Baranwg, s. m. (baran) A prefence; appearance.
Y forz yd gerzwyv gwrz yd gre branes,

Gwr yfly o varanwg yn ei hary fle,
Llawer uçenaid i'm rhaid yd re."


The way I walk eagerly do the ravens cry: a man who out of prefence defends her, many a figh efcapes for my fate.

• Barawg, a. (bâr) Wrathful. s. f. a fpur.

LI. P. Moç, i Wenlliant.

Barcud, s. m.—pl. t. au (bar-cad) A kite; a puttock.
Ilaws gwneuthur hebawg o varcud, na marçawg o dacawg.

It is easier to make a hawk of a kite, than a knight of a bumkin.

Barcutan, s. m.—pl. t. od (barcud) A kite, or glead.
Bardys, s. pl. aggr. (bar-tys) Shrimps. fing. bardyfen.


• Barz, s. m.—pl. beirz (bâr) One that makes confpicuous; a prieft; a philofopher, or teacher; and as poetry was a principal requifite, and the vehicle for fpreading of knowledge, he was neceffarily a poet. The fyftem of Bardifm having fallen to almoft total obli vion, poetry is the only characteristic preferved, by which the an cient Barz is recognized by the vulgar of the prefent time; therefore they confider him in no other view, but fimply a poet, the fame as prydyz. After paffing the gradations of tuition, as an Awenyz, he was ftiled Barz Ynys Prydain, or Bard of the Isle of Britain; a title that originated with the fyftem. His dress was unicoloured, of sky blue, an emblem of peace and truth, his perfon was facred; for he might pafs in fafety through hoftile countries; he never appeared in an army but as an herald, or under the mo dern Ff2

dern idea of a flag of truce, and never bore arms, neither was a naked weapon to be held in his prefence. Such of the order as performed the functions of religion were called Derwyzm; and Ovyzion were perfons admitted into the order by diploma, in confideration of their merits, without going through a regular tuition. Barz Ynys Prydain was a character formed in the fchool of Nature, far beyond the tracings of hiftory, that flourished in various spheres till the death of the late Llywelyn, and in confequence of that fhock has remained fecluded to this day, amongst a few votaries in the obfcure parts of Wales. On the introduction of Christianity the Barz still acted as priest under the privilege of his order; as his maxims were perfectly confonant, as far as they went, with the doctrines of Revelation, his fyftem ftill remained the fame. But about the fourth century the clergy of the Roman church gained an afcendancy fo as to deprive the Bards of being exclufively eligible for the priesthood, and confequently the patronage for which no longer remained in the order. Barz Taleithiag was a bard that prefided at a provincial Gorfez; but he, nor Barz Ynys Prydain, had fupremacy no longer than whilft he actually prefided; and was elected to the Chair juft whenever a meeting was held. The Barz Teulu, or Domeftic Bard, was the eighth officer in the prince's household. A graduated Bard was ftiled Barz wrth vraint a devawd Beirz Ynys Prydain; he was alfo in later times called Barz Caw, Cadeir Varz, and Barz Caderiawg. The leading maxims of the inftitution were for perfect equality, peace, moral rectitude, and the investigation of nature, having for its motto -Y GWIR YN ERBYN Y BYD, The Truth against the World.

Fan vyner canu cerz, y Barz Cadeiriawg a zyly zeçreu a'r canu cyntav o Zuw a'r ail o'r brenin bieuvo y llys: ac oni byz izo ev à ganer, caned o vrenin arall. Gwedy y Barz Cadeiriawg, y Barz Teulu biau ganu y trydyz canu o gerz amgen.

When a fong is defired to be fung, it is the duty of the presiding Bard to begin with the firft fong addreffed to God, and the fecond to the king to whom the court belongs: but if there is none to him that fings, let him make mention of another king. After the prefiding Bard, the domeftic Bard is to compofe the third piece on an indifferent fubject. Welsh Laws.

Barzaeth, sm.—pl. t. au (barz) Bardifm, or the fyftem, and maxims of the Bards.

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Of the fruit of genius, agreeable to the reafon of bardifm, there would not be driven a word into his head without a hammer. Edm. Prys.

• Barzair, s. m.—pl. barzeiriau (barz-gair) The bard's word; pa

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To me there is a lord, the protector of the harmony of the Bards, and who poffeffes my commendation.





Barzas, . f. (barz) The fyftem of Bardifm; the learning and maxims of the Bards; philofophy.

Mez y barzas urzafawl,

Byd baç yw dyn iaç dan wawl.

Saith the revered Bardifm, a little world is man in his vigour, under the light.

Ior. Vynglwyd. Barzawd, s. barzodau (barz) The bardic fcience; the sciences in general; philofophy.

Barzawl, a. (barz) Bardic, or relating to the order of the Bards. ← Barzawr, s. m.—pl. barzorion (barz) The genius of the Bards, the


Haezws deivniawg ri devnyz vy marzawr,
Llwrw llavnawr llawr llawryz.

The accomplished chief merited the substance of my bardic learns ing, from the effect of the blade in the ground is the liberal hand. Cynzelw. Tyvwys anghydvod rhyngzynt trwy eiriau'r barzorion a'r cerzorion.

There grew diffentions between them by means of the words of the Bards and fongfters." Car. Llungarvan.

It is to be lamented that the grammar promifed by Mr. Owen in his propofals has not been prefixed, as it no doubt would have accounted for certain fingularities in a fatisfactory manner. This volume includes the letters a and b, and part of , and has a fault common to moft dictionaries and bibles, that of not being paged.

ART. VIII. An Antiquarian Romance, endeavouring to mark a Line,
by which the most antient People, and the Proceffions of the earliest
Inhabitancy of Europe, may be investigated. Some Remarks on
Mr. Whitaker's Criticifms annexed. By Governor Pownall. 8vo.
PP. 221. 55. Boards. Nichols. 1795-



N our 69th volume we gave a full account of Gov. Pownall's Treatife on the Study of Antiquities; a work which first fuggefted the ingenious idea that the names of places, recorded by Homer as in the language of the gods, are not arbitrary founds, but appellations derived from the indigenous inhabitants then not fuperseded by the nomenclature of the Trojans, a Phænician colony. Now thefe names of places, admitting a natural explanation in the Gaelic dialect, go fome way to prove that the original inhabitants of the plain of Troy were of Celtic or Gaelic ftem; 2nd confequently that the Celts or Gauls are like the other northern nations of Afiatic origin, (which is conformable to the mafs of teftimony,) and not, as an Irifh antiquary fuppofes, an importation from Bifcay,-nor, as a Scottish antiquary intimates, the autochthones of Western Europe.



This Antiquarian Romance is a continuation of the path of investigation purfued in that treatife; and in a ftill more defultory manner it brings together many very curious and important paffages from the antients concerning our European progenitors, many crude and ftrained etymological conjectures, and many interefting antiquarian anecdotes and remarks, interfperfed with very rational digreffions concerning the philofophy of hiftory. It would have been much better to break it up into diftinct chapters, or differtations, in order to exhibit clearly those several definite pofitions, and the evidence in their behalf, which the author afpires to annex as new truths to thofe already received by the inquirers into thefe topics. The hiftoric horizon is no doubt capable of being extended in all dire&ions; and our knowlege of time paft may yet be very confiderably increased.

The Governor ftates that it is his object to animadvert on the univerfal deluge of barbarians which overflowed the Roman empire; to inveftigate and determine who and what these people were; whence they came; and by what routes, and in what manner, (when they advanced to invade the old world,) they made their irruptions. It was a remark of Leibnitz, that barbarous nations must be claffed by their languages, and not by their names merely; (for reafons well confirmed at p. 40 of the Treatise on the Study of Antiquities;) nor by their manners, which are feldom exclufive; nor by their locality, which is feldom permanent. The anfwer, then, to the first queftion fhould confift in afcertaining how many languages, radically diftinct, were spoken by the northern barbarians. In our own ifland, they have left the remains of three,-the Gaelic, the Welth, and the Saxon. With a bold contempt of this plan of claffification, however, Governor Pownall talks of the Cymri, who spoke Welth, as Tartars, who spoke Slavonian; and of two other nations of the fame race and family with thofe, the Teuts, who spoke a Gothic dialect, and the Oïm, Goyem, or Gygim, whofe fpeech we fhall contentedly leave to be afcertained by the Parfons's and Bryants, and fimilar commentators on the 10th chapter of Genefis. Again, at p. 442 we hear of Cymric Vics, which founds to us like talking of Welsh Scotchmen. Hence an inextricable confufion involves the whole fyftem of our author, which we know not how to combat, because we know not how to define it.

The book, however, abounds with curious fragments. Such is the account of the Taracheufis or falt-fifh; which, from a paffage that might farther have been adduced out of the Mirab. Aufcultat. feems to have been an article of Phænician com

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merce very early. Such, alfo, is the explanation of the Cimbric deluge; and the following account of fome Pikih navigations:

The fhips in which they made thefe excurfions were navigated both by fails and oars: the least, which one reads of, carried twelve rowers, and as many fighting men: others an hundred, and fome one hundred and fifty. They generally made their expeditions with a number of thefe, as a fleet.

One objection oppofing itself to thefe long voyages arifes from the idea of the victualling; but this we have obviated. Another objection against thofe voyages across the open fea, beyond the fight of land from Scandinavia and the Baltic, a paffage of at leaft feven days in their time, arifes from the difficulty of conceiving how it was poffible for these navigators to fet and keep their courfe: an anfver to that objection derives from the fact, that they did this by the flight of birds. It is almoft unneceffary to ftate that birds of paffage crois the German ocean twice annually, from the Continent to and from the British ifles. Founded on this obfervation these navigators framed their courfe, in taking their departure, from the courfe which they had obferved thefe birds to take at their emigration. They took with them on-board feveral birds, fometimes hawks, but generally ravens. When having made fome progrefs in this courfe, and out of fight of land, if they were in any doubt of, or wifhed to fet their courfe to the point where the land lay, they let fly one of thefe birds; thefe, after mounting high aloft in the air, always took their courfe to land, and fo became their pilots; following whofe line of flight the navigators. fteered their course. The following narrative fupports this. Flocco, an Orcadian, fetting out on a voyage to difcover Iceland, took with him three ravens. In taking his departure from the Orcades, he fet his courfe North; after being out at fea, he let fly one of his ravens ; this returned back to the Orcades: he ftill perfevered in his courte, and let fly a fecond; this returned to the veffel: ftill perfifting, he let fly the third; this went off directly North, and never returned. Flocco followed this courfe, and arrived at land. This navigator acquired, from this measure, perhaps a novelty to the people of the Orcades, the furname of Raf'na-Flocco. This ufe of the pilot-raven, common to the Danes and navigators from the Baltic, gives the reason of their taking the raven for their ftandard.

There is another ftory of one of thefe adventurers, who, when out at fea, in the German ocean, and off the English coaft, let fly a hawk, who made directly for the land, either Suffolk or Norfolk, as now called. This navigator fteered after this his pilot, his courfe, and fell in with the land. He pretended only to follow his hawk, and to recover it; but his real defign was to spy the land.'

The obfervation (p. 51) on a paffage in Tacitus is very favourable to Mr. Pinkerton's hypothefis, that the Piks were a Gothic tribe. With him, Governor Pownall may alfo be fuppofed to coincide in a pofition much more questionable, that the Belge were not Cymbri but Goths, from the paflage (p. 55)


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