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(p. 55) which mentions thofe tribes of the Teutih called Belga.'

We fhall tranfcribe a conjecture deferving fome attention:

A like advanced guard, but fixed as a fettled establishment, was kept a ftanding corps on the marc or marches next to Helvetia. The corps was called Marcmannes, and by the Romans Marcomanni: the corps was called thus as the ftanding guard of the Marches or Frontiers; and the commander Maer-Bijuda (from Maere limes and Byjuden imperare). The Margreeve, or, as we English would call him, Lord of the Marches. The Romans, in their imperfect tranflations, enunciation, and writing, called the corps Marcommani, fuppofing them to be a diftinct nation; and the commander Mariobudus, taking this title of office to be a perfonal name. Exactly and in like manner they called the commander of the Teuts, or Teutones, Teuto-bodus.

They made the fame mistake in the appellative or title of office Here-man, the commander of the army of a province, whom they called Ariminius, as if it was his perfonal name.

Perhaps the grave Antiquary may think I carry this matter too far, when I conjecture that the Romans and Greeks made the fame mistake, when they gave to the leaders of the Celts and Gauls the name Brennus, fpecifically as a perfonal name, while the word was only an appellative, Baron, the title of office: yet the following quotation from Joan. Loccenii Antiquitates Suio-Gothicæ juftifies the conjecture, qui fe præclaris facinoribus in bello præftitiffet, nomen Baronis merebatur. And again, the word Barum, in the Norwegian laws, is tranflated by the Danish word Here-man.'

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A very unfortunate paragraph occurs at p. 128, in which the learned author afferts that the Celtic was not, as is com. monly fuppofed, either Erth or Welsh. Where are his proofs? Every authority of value appears to us to confpire in proving it to have been the Erfh. Next he fays that the Cymric was not the language Spoken by the Celts, (granted!) but by the people of Aquitaine only (how very bold and improbable a pofition!) The language of Aquitaine is ftill preferved among the Pyrenees, extends into Bifcay and Navarre, and differs more completely from the patois of Britany and Normandy and the other acknowleged Cymbric remains, than any two living languages of Europe. Thefe inhabitants of Aquitaine are next

faid to have been colonies and fettlements of the Piks and Thagenes:-(till more prepofterous!) It would have been better to guess them of Punic origin, as Leibnitz ferioùfly fuggefts that they came from Africa.-A line or two farther, we are told that the Cymric and Dteufch languages were originally of one root. Of both languages there are very complete memorials they have few words and ftill fewer inflections in common. Finally, the author fays that he can suppose the Celts to have retained many Cymric words and expreffions. The Celts, who are the earlier inhabitants of Europe, had to


learn Cymbric of the intruders: the Celtic names of places and things the Cymbri may here and there have retained. These remarks on a fingle paragraph may be fufficient to caution the reader against receiving, with indifcriminate confidence, the notions of this ingenious writer on the different points here agitated.

The volume terminates with a reply to fome ftrictures of Mr. Whitaker on a former publication by Governor Pownall; who appears to us, by the fort of learning which he has cultivated, better qualified to investigate points of claffical than of northern antiquity.


ART. IX. Obfervations on the Hiftory and Cure of the Asthma; in
which the Propriety of ufing the Cold Bath in that Disorder is fully
confidered. By Michael Ryan, M.D. 8vo. pp. 227. 3s. 6d.
fewed. Robinfons. 1793.

To recommend the use of the cold bath in cafes of asthma is
the principal object of the prefent treatise.
It con-
tains, however, many fpeculations on the nature of this disease,
which occupy the first part of the treatife, and extend as far as
the 107th page. The first chapter is chiefly employed in
fhewing that there are many afthmatic cafes, in which the
breathing of the patient continues affected long after the pa-
roxyfm is over; in which, indeed, a ftricture across the cheft
is felt during the whole of the interval between the paroxyfms,
without any permanent obftruction from tubercles, extrava
fated liquid, &c. This appears from those inftances in which
the asthma, having changed from an intermittent to a continued
form, again becomes intermittent. Dr. R. cenfures the fyf-
tematic writers for inculcating no other idea in their definitions
of asthma, than that of a periodical fpafmodic difeafe, without
the smallest allufion to a permanent affection. We may ob-
serve, however, that fyftematic writers, if not in their defini-
tions, yet in their defcriptions, do pay attention to this eircum-
ftance; as will be evident on comparing the following quota-
tions from Dr. Cullen and the present writer.

"After fome fleep in the morning, (fays Dr. Cullen,) the patient, for the rest of the day, continues to have more free and eafy breathing, but it is feldom entirely fuch. He ftill feels fome tightnefs across his breast, &c."

In the generality of asthmatic attacks, (fays Dr. Ryan,) the patient ftill feels the remains of the diforder about him; his breathing, from a stricture across his breaft, is rendered uneafy.'

Dr. R. adds that the paroxyfms very often abate of their violence, and almost totally vanish, while the tightness across the cheft ftill continues to harafs the patient.-We have not


much difficulty in allowing that the intercalary dyspnoea in athma is owing to the fame affection or difpofition of the bronchiæ, which exifts in the paroxyfm, rather than to obftructions compreffing the air veffels of the lungs. As to tubercles, we are inclined to doubt their connection with the true fpafmodic afthma :-for although it is faid that, in fome young perfons, afthma has terminated in confumption, it may be afked, ift, whether the tubercles were produced by the afthma? and, 2dly, whether dyspnoea has not been in these cafes inaccurately termed afthma?

Chapters II. and III. treat of the caufes of asthma.. In chap. 2. it is contended, in oppofition to Willis and modern authors, that great mobility of the nervous fyftem is not fo much the caufe as the confequence of afthma: no one particular temperament or habit of body, (we are told,) is more fubject to it than another,' as Cullen alfo remarks, nearly in the fame words, though he adds that a particular conflitution of the lungs is the predifpofing caufe but even to this the prefent author afcribes little or nothing. Of hereditary predifpo. fition he alfo thinks highly. As dyfpepfia, hypochondriafis, and other nervous symptoms, come on after the afthma is formed; Dr. R. thinks that it would be as erroneous to impute the origin of asthma to those flight caufes which afterward occafionally bring on a paroxyfm, as to exalt to the rank of primary caufes of intermittent fever every irregularity' capable of inducing a relapfe. In confirmation of thefe opinions, he obferves that afthma prevails principally among hard working people of rigid fibres and robuft habits.

In the 3d chapter, Dr. R. attempts to prove that the difeafe generally proceeds from cold: at least the effects of cold are often obfervable, if the diforder be carefully attended to at its commencement. For fome days before the asthma is completely formed, the patient frequently complains of an uneafinefs of breathing, cough, pains in his head and other parts of the body. Sometimes a ftrong tendency to inflammation takes place; and in confequence thereof a pain or ftitch in either fide is frequently felt, together with a fenfation of cold in different parts, analogous to what occurs in catarrhal affections. If a stricture be alfo felt at the fternum, an afthmatic paroxyfm may be expected, unless prevented.' Lying-in women, and convalefcents from fevers, Dr. R. affirms from his own obfervation, are liable to atma beginning in this way, if they unguardedly expose themselves to cold while in a ftate of perfpiration. It is allowed, he obferves, that humoural afthma is owing to cold; now between this and the fpafmodic, there is no eflential dif, tination, nor do phyficians hefitate to afcribe fpafmodic com


plaints of the ftomach and bowels to cold. In order farther to thew that cold is capable of producing asthma, cafes from Hoff, man and Willis are adduced. The first of thefe does not appear to us to be a clear cafe of fpafmodic afthma; after expofure to fevere cold, the patient was feized with pneumonia ; the inflammatory fymptoms were removed by venææfection: the oppreffive dyspnoea (ingens anhelatio) not only remained, but dyfury and flatulence alfo came on. The last two affections were removed by the phyfician, who conftri&tionem afthmaticam debellare haud potuit: Hoffman mentions diftin ly that this patient ftaid at Stetin, two days after his expolure to fevere cold, fub illibatâ fanitate: a fact which will be turned to advantage by thofe who maintain that cattarrh and pneumonia are not immediately produced by cold. His last two quotations from Hoffman, and that from Willis, are much more to Dr. R.'s purpose. In the remainder of this chapter, the author endeavours to corroborate his doctrine by the authority of the antients, and to confute an opinion of Dr. Millar. He has, in our judgment, fucceeded better in the latter attempt than in the former: --but here, as elsewhere, he is deficient in clofenefs and precifion.

The 4th chapter treats of the prognofis in afthma, and reprefents it as a much lefs hopeless diforder than it is generally conceived to be. He even thinks that ftrenuous endeavours will often triumph over the difeafe in the most alarming and unpromifing cafes.'

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In the 5th chapter, the author reviews the ufual palliative remedies of asthma,-more, as it appears, for form's-fake, like the writers of inaugural differtations,-than as having much. new information to communicate, He fays that he can aver, from experience, that a bold and liberal adminiftration of opium at its beginning, (when inflammatory fymptoms are not prefent,) will often put the diforder in fuch a train that no extraordinary skill will be requifite for finishing the cure.

The remarks on blood-letting, volatile medicines, bark, &c. appear to us to be generally common-place, and fometimes vague; to which lait head many theoretical obfervations belong.

Thus much for the fhell of the work. We are now to give our readers a tafte of the kernel.-In chapter 6th, the hints of Caelius Aurelianus, Smollet, Floyer, and fome others, refpecting the use of the cold bath in afthma, are quoted at length, and juftly pronounced to be unfatisfactory and deficient. The author then proceeds to the relation of fix cafes; of which we shall felect the first as one of the faireft fpecimens of the work that we can offer to the reader.

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CASE I.-The firft inftance of the good effects of cold-bathing in asthma that happened to come within my knowledge, was that of a woman, about twenty-five years of age, who had borne feveral children. From her first pregnancy onwards, the was subject to fpafmodic complaints of the ftomach and bowels, both during the periods of geftation, and the intervals thereof; without the fmalleft tendency, however, to any diforder of the lungs. But on exposing herself to cold shortly after a lying-in, fhe began to feel an uneafinefs in her breathing, attended with a fhort teafing cough, which, in a few days, terminated in a confirmed fpafmodic afthma. In no cafe whatfoever were the pathognomonic fymptoms of idiopathic afthma better marked than in the prefent: the fits returned most commonly late in the evenings, preceded by flatulence, continued through the night, and ended towards morning with a free and plentiful expectoration. In fact, all thofe fymptoms were prefent that ufually characterife the moft violent and alarming state of this difeafe.

Blifters, afafoetida, camphor, and the rest of the ufual remedies in thofe cafes were tried; but all to no purpofe, for the fits till returned every night with very little abatement of their violence. At length recourfe was had to cold-bathing, and the fuccefs that attended its ufe far exceeded any expectations that were formed of it. In less than a week from the first immerfion, the patient found herself very fenfibly relieved; and by continuing the practice for the space of fix weeks, the obtained a complete and lasting recovery.

If a fingle fact can authorife a particular mode of treatment in any difeafe, we are certainly warranted in recommending the cold-bath in afthma from the precedent before us, especially as the utmoft precaution was taken to guard against any deception about it. I was altogether fo exact, that I even intermitted the bath for a few days, after fome change for the better had taken place, in order to fatisfy myfelf of its efficacy: but the patient began to relapfe fo fuddenly into her former fituation, that an immedate repetition of the bath was found abfolutely neceffary.'

The fecond patient, a labourer, had been ill with the afthma above twelve months; he had not bathed in the fea more than fix days, before he found a fenfible change for the better; and, by continuing the practice once a day for feven weeks, the afthmatic fits were totally removed'. The date of this cafe is 1785 are we to understand that the fits have never recurred fince? The two fucceeding cafes are highly encouraging; in the next, a radical cure was not obtained by fea-bathing, but much relief had followed bathing in a river. In the fixth cafe-that of a perfon attacked by fpafmodic afthma, after having been fome time fubject to lowness of fpirits, giddinefs, naufea, and other nervous fymptoms-the effects of bathing in falt water are particularly ftriking; and, presuming the reports to be accurate, we can hardly fufpect a fallacy in the inference, deduced from them, refpecting the power of the cold bath. As it is fuppofed, however, (and, in the author's opinion, with fome reafon,) that coughs, catarrhs, and


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