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10. Cafe of Paralyfis of the Mufcles of Deglutition, cured by an artificial Mode of conveying Food and Medicines into the Stomach; by Mr. J. Hunter. This difeafe occurred fuddenly in a hypochondriac man aged 50; and, refifting the first remedies applied, it became neceffary to invent a method by which life might be fuftained till the affection of the throat fhould give


The inftrument made ufe of was a fresh eel-fkin, of rather a small fize, drawn over a probang, and tied up at the end where it covered the fponge, and tied again clofe to the fponge where it is fastened to the whalebone, and a fmall longitudinal flit was made into it just above this upper ligature. To the other end of the eel-fkin was fixed a bladder and wooden pipe, fimilar to what is ufed in giving a clyfter, only the pipe large enough to let the end of the probang pafs into the bladder without filling up the paffage. The probang, thus covered, was introduced into the ftomach, and the food and medicines were put into the bladder, and fqueezed down through the eel-fkin.'

By means of this inftrument, not only food, but the prefcribed medicines, valerian in powder and tincture, and four of muftard, were conveyed into the ftomach. its ufe became

unneceffary in about three weeks.

11. Of a remarkable Deviation from the natural Structure in the Urinary Bladder, c. of a Mule; by Dr. Baillie. For this defcription, which cannot be well understood without the accompanying plate, we must refer to the work.

12. A Cafe of Emphysema, not proceeding from local Injury; by Dr. Baillie, The fubject of this cafe was a girl ten years of age, admitted into St. George's hofpital for anafarca and afcites. The day before her death, Dr. B., on attempting to feel her pulfe, was fenfible of the crackling of air under his fingers, and he found the fame crackling in the cellular membrane of various other parts. At the fame time, water was evidently accumulated in the cellular membrane of the legs and face. On diffection, air was found in the places in which the crackling had been felt; alfo in the cavity of the stomach and inteftines; in their cellular membrane; in the fmall veffels running on them, and between the lamina of the peritoneum; likewife in the cellular membrane between the pleura and pericardium. Water was contained in the pericardium and thorax. The remarkable circumftance in this cafe was the prefence of emphyfema without external injury, or a previous putrefactive procefs. Dr. B. fuggefts only two ways in which it could happen; either from fome chemical change in the watery fluids effufed into the cellular membrane, by which air is feparated from them; or from a fecretion of air by the small blood-veffels diftributed among the cells. He inclines to the latter opinion; obferving that we are certain that,


in fome cafes, the blood-veffels are endowed with fuch a power of fecretion as in fifhes, in which bags of air are found that could not have been filled by any other procefs; and that it is no more difficult to conceive the fecretion of air from the blood, than from any other fluid.

13. Cafe of unufual Formation in a Part of the Brain; by Mr. A. Carlisle. This deviation chiefly confifted in the total want of the falciform procefs, and in the coalefcence of what are commonly the two hemifpheres of the brain, into one. No confequences, as to the function of the organ, seem to have followed this uncommon ftructure.

14. Hiftory of a fatal Hæmorrhage from a Laceration of the Fallopian Tube, in a Cafe of an Extra-uterine Foetus; by John Clarke, M. D.-For this very fingular cafe we must refer to the book.

15. Obfervations on the loofe Cartilages found in Joints, and most commonly met with in that of the Knee; by Everard Home, Efq. This gentleman begins with ftating Mr. J. Hunter's opinion on the origin of thele bodies. Conceiving the blood to be poffeffed of a vital principle, he fuppofes that coagula of it within the body will often retain their vitality, adhere to the furrounding parts, and become vascular. The nature of these organized excrefcences, he afferts, will partake of that of the cavity in which they are formed; hence, in the joints, they will be bony or cartilaginous. If knocked off by accident, they will remain foreign bodies within the cavity, fuch as those in question are found to be. This idea of their formation Mr. Home confirms by the cafe of a fractured humerus, in which the bones did not unite, but a new capfular cavity was formed at the place of fracture, in which the ends of the bone played on each other; while a number of excrefcences, of different degrees of hardness, rofe from the furfaces of the bone, and from the edges of the capfule; and 30 or 40 fmall fubftances of the fame nature, evidently broken off from them, were found loofe in the cavity.

With respect to the removal of thefe bodies in the kneejoint, Mr. H. directs that they fhould be pushed into the upper part of the joint above the patella, and preferably towards the infide; and, being fecured, fhould be cut upon.' The incifion fhould be made in the direction of the thigh, firft drawing the fkin to one fide, that the internal wound may not correfpond to the external. After extraction, the edges of the wound are to be brought together by fticking-plafter and the uniting bandage.

16. Attempt to improve the Evidence of Medicine; by Dr. G. Fordyce. This paper may properly be regarded as a fort of lecture

lecture on the method of noting down medical cafes. The writer obferves that the evidence of medical knowlege has hitherto confifted, for the moft part, in deductions made by practitioners from their cafes, without publishing the cafes themfelves, unlefs when they were of an extraordinary kind. He therefore gives a tabular scheme for the keeping of cafes, in which are noted a great variety of circumstances preceding and accompanying the disease, fome remotely, others nearly connected with it; from which he supposes that a cafe would appear with the whole of its evidence, and that a complete collection of them would form a perfect body of known medicine. For the fuccefs of fuch a plan, however, it is evident that there must be both writers and readers: but, from furveying the formidable bulk occupied by a fingle cafe kept after this method, we should expect that very few practitioners would take the pains to write, and fewer ftill to read, any number of them:nor can we conceive, indeed, that, in an art of which the neceffary objects are fo numerous, any real advantage would arife from distracting the attention by a multiplicity of circumftances, most of which, probably, have fcarcely any relation to the main purpose of effecting a cure. What the present state of phyfic seems rather to want, is a difcovery of the cardinal points to which medical treatment in each disease is to be directed. Every practitioner knows that a few leading fymptoms are what really regulate his practice; and that a number of preceding and concomitant facts, though they may contribute to the accuracy of defcription of a disease, as a phanomenon of nature, have no place in the confideration of its treatment. The art would be long, indeed, were it to require, in each individual cafe, a comparison with all the innumerable varieties which might be noted in fimilar cafes.

While we thus exprefs our doubts as to the use and practicability of the scheme here laid down, we do not mean to deny that Dr. Fordyce's paper contains many valuable remarks. A confiderable part of it is occupied by an account of London, its climate, fituation, foil, various inhabitants and modes of living, &c. given as an example of the medical manner of defcribing a place; which is curious and inftructive, though interspersed with fome oddities. The reft of it is a commentary on the feveral articles in the table, concluded by an observation on one of the cafes given as a fpecimen. In this, the Doctor speaks with great confidence of the efficacy of Peruvian bark in eryfipelatous inflammation, and reprefents himself as an inventor of this point of practice.

17. Obfervations and Heads of Inquiry on Canine Madness, drawn from the Cafes and Materials collected by the Society refpect


ing that Difeafe; by Dr. J. Hunter. Notwithstanding the number of cafes of canine madnefs which have been published, it is certain that many points refp.cting the hiftory of this dreadful difeafe are ftill unfettled. It was therefore a laudable

purpose in this fociety to endeavour, by means of their correfpondences, to collect into one point all the certain knowlege that could be procured on this fubject. The first head is on the generation of the poifon. This appears to arife much more frequently from infection than from fpontaneous production; fince, in fome infulated fituations, great numbers of dogs have for many years remained free from any attacks of madness. The Symptoms of the difeafe in dogs conftitute the fecond head. Among thefe, the most remarkable aad moft different from common opinion are, that the animal can fwallow both folids and liquids during the whole difeafe, readily eats what is offered to him, has no fear of water, and never avoids it. As to the animals communicating the disease, it appears that all domestic animals, birds as well as beafts, are capable of receiving the infection,but how many can infect others is as yet undetermined. All of the dog-kind, and cats, have been known to communicate it. The danger from a bite depends on the vafcularity of the part bitten, and on the degree in which the teeth are loaded with the poifon. Bites in the face are most dangerous; in the hands, confiderably fo; in other parts, the previous wiping of the teeth by the cloaths greatly leffens the chance of infection.

Dogs are much more fufceptible of infection than men. It is not probable that the difeafe ever rifes fpontaneously in the human species; and, when that has been suspected, tetanus or fpafms in the throat have probably been miftaken for the true hydrophobia. Under the head of effects of the poifon on the hu man fpecies, an enumeration of all the ufual fymptoms in their progreffive order is given: but thefe, being taken from well known cafes, do not require our particular notice. As to diffections, we are told that they have afforded nothing in the leaft decifive as to the origin of the fymptoms of this difeafe. With regard to prevention, the total inefficacy of all internal prophylactics or fpecifics is afferted as a matter fully proved. Of the local treatment, the purpose is either to remove the poi fon by washing it out, to deftroy the infected part by cauftic, or to cut it out. The first of thefe modes may be useful immediately after the bite, but we cannot much depend on it. The fecond may be applied where the knife cannot be used, but this laft method is always to be preferred in places that admit of it. Great care should be taken to remove every part through which the teeth have penetrated. It is not certain how long after the bite this may be performed with fuccefs: but, on the whole,

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there is reafon to believe that abforption of the poifon, from the wounded part, does not take place till the darting pains are felt proceeding from it towards the body. The treatment of the difcafe is the next point confidered. Every method hitherto employed after the acceffion of the hydrophobia has been fo unfuccefsful, that nothing of probable ufe is fuggefted by paft experience; and the matter is entirely open to new experiments. A few things are here fuggefted; of which arfenic, faid in the Eaft Indies to be fuccessfully ufed as a fpecific against the poifon of ferpents and of a mad dog, appears to us moft worthy of a trial. The antiquity of the difeafe is another head of inquiry. Ariftotle is the firft writer who exprefsly mentions it; and his imperfect knowlege concerning it, with the filence of Hippo-crates, render it probable that it was a new difeafe a fhort time before the days of Ariftotle.

18. Obfervations on Ulcers; by Everard Home, Efq. Unctuous and watery dreffings to ulcers having both been found to be attended with difagreeable effects, the application of powders has been fubftituted by various practitioners, and a variety of different fubftances have been used in this way. From the enumeration of them in this paper, it appears that the practice has been wholly empirical, and not attended with any remarkable fuccefs. The article, which Mr. Home has chiefly employed, has been powder of rhubarb; which he has found to poffefs confiderable powers in promoting the granulation and healing of ulcers. Sometimes, it proves too irritating; in which cafe, the addition of a portion of opium moderates its effects. Of various other vegetable powders tried, that of columbo root feemed moft to resemble rhubarb in efficacy.

ART. VII. The Antiquities of Athens,
James Stuart, F. R. S. and F. S. A.
and Architects. Vol. III. Folio.
Boards. Taylor, &c.

meafured and delineated by
and Nicholas Revett, Painters
Imperial Paper. 51. 10s. in

AMONG the various fources from which modern arts derive

their best examples, they are indebted to none more than to those beautiful remains of Grecian tafte, which are exhibited to the world through the joint labours of Meffrs. Stuart and Revett. Sculpture had attained its zenith of perfection, long before the conqueft of that country by the Romans; and the examples which are perpetuated, in this work, must ever be ranked as of the highest importance to the arts. The specimens of architecture cannot be less esteemed, if confidered only as to the purity of ftyle, and the chalte imitation of the primitive models, which they exhibit; happily blending the ufeful and the



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