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feveral eftates. 1ft, He propofes that marriage be encouraged among them, and the ftate itself be rendered bonourable. As a part of this fyftem, the husband, fhould be entitled to damages against any white perfon who should prefume to violate the chaitity of the wife, even

:/ with her confent but as this regulation would be of no effect, unless,

the evidence of a negroe thould be admitted in law, he propofes that it should be enacted by the legislature of every island, that the teftimony of the husband should be allowed as legal evidence in the cafe of the feduction of his wife by a white man; and that, fhould the adultery be proved, the injured husband should be entitled to his freedom and to a divorce; or at leaft that his children, fhould he prefer ftill to live with his wife, should be born free. He forefees fome difficulty to his plan on the part of the clergy, who refufe to perform the ceremony of marriage for those who are not previously baptized; and, as it might be improper to adminifter baptifm to perfons not previously inftructed in the principles of Christianity, thoufands might thus, for a great length of time, be deprived of the comforts of matrimony; the confequence of which would be either a decrease of population, or a promifcuous intercourfe no lefs injurious to morality. To guard against thefe difficulties, he proposes that the civil magiftrates should be authorized to record the interchange of marriage vows made be-, fore them by negroe couples not being Chriftians; and that it fhould' be enacted that the fame confequences fhould attend the violation of such a marriage, as if it had been performed by or in the prefence of a clergyman. As to cafes of adultery or feduction among the negroes themselves, he says that a jury of their own headmen would be the fittest tribunal to take cognizance of facts, and that the law should inflic on the offender corporal or fome other punishment.

The second article of his plan is that negroe mothers, who should have brought up three children, fhould be exempted from field or other fevere labour. This part is an enlargement of a benefit already fecured to black mothers by a late act paffed in Jamaica, which allows this exemption to fuch mothers only as fhall have brought forth fix children.

3. That the negroes may be naturalized to the foil, and their attachment more effectually fecured to the whites, he propofes that certain periods of emancipation fhould be enacted by the legislature, as the reward of long services, and as an incitement to fober and virtuous conduct.

The 4th regulation propofed is that the act of the British parliament 5 Geo. II. c. 7. intituled, " An act for the more easy recovery of debts in his Majefty's plantations," should be immediately repealed. The melancholy effects of this ftatute are amply defcribed by Mr. Edwards in his hiftory of the West Indies.

The 5th and laft regulation is, that the markets on Sundays, in the iflands, should be wholly abolished. His obfervations on these markets are thus given: They are truly difgraceful to a Chriftian country, and a branch of that exceffive depravity, and contempt of religion, by which the Sovereign of the Universe has too long been infulted by the inhabitants of the West Indies.

. Any

Any day will do for a market day; but as many of the negroes must have liberty on whatever day it may be appointed, once a week or fortnight, to carry their provifions thither, it is abfolutely neceffary, that the ftatute fuppreffing this abominable practice should give an additional day to the negro for working in his grounds, and the day preceding the market would, perhaps, be moft fuitable; and thus might the flaves reft, and recruit themfelves, on the Sabbath-day, agreeably to the inftitution of Heaven, and the practice of Chriftendom. Above all, that the flaves may, by this relief, have full time, encouragement, and opportunity, to attend upon religious worship and inftruction on that facred feason, the want of which is truly the worst feature in our conduct, and in THEIR condition.'

The author hence takes occafion to obferve that, though the fee of London (in which diocese the British islands are comprehended,) has been filled by able and religious men, and though the prelate who now fills it nobly fet his face in the houfe of lords against the flave trade, the morals of the negroes have been shamefully neglected.

After all, (fays he,) there is fomething fo unaccountable in the management of that diftant part of the charge of thofe Right Rev. Divines, that not candor and charity only, but a wonderful degree of ingenuity, feems neceffary to explain their conduct, fo as to reconcile with the due and faithful exercife of their important truft, the miserable fate of the thousands, and tens of thoufands there, who have lived and died in the most obfcure darkness, perishing, "for lack of knowledge," under the jurifdiction of a Proteftant bishop of the church of England!

I am well aware that, from the extenfivehefs of the parishes in fome of the islands, Jamaica in particular, and from thofe ecclefiaftical institutes which fetter the clergy, and restrict their regular public miniftrations to confecrated places of worship, by the total want of churches in fome parishes, and by the fcanty number of clergymen in general, the inftruction of the great body of the negroes may have been much obstructed and prevented. But who is to blame for all the lamentable confequences of fuch wretched mifmanagement? Surely, if a little more attention had been paid to this object by the bishops, or the colonial legislatures, or both, a proper remedy might long ago have been found out, and applied. Feeling as a man and a Chriftian, I turn from the awful refponfibility, fomewhere incurred, by the former fyftem, and must conclude with my carneft wifhes, that what can be done, may immediately be put in practice, by thofe whofe duties and functions inceffantly call upon them to attend to their facred and important trust.'

To guard against this want of inftruction in future, he recommends that a teacher or miffionary, properly qualified, fhould be immediately placed on every large plantation, and one appointed to every two or three fmaller estates which may lie contiguous to each other, for the purpose of training up the negroes in moral and religious duties; and he thinks that, as this is a line in which no clergyman will embark, who is not animated with a very fervent zeal, the persons who would beft discharge the duties of fuch a fituation would be teachers taken from fome of the fects of Diffenters, or the Methodists. He pays a REV. AUG. 1795. handfome

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handfome compliment to the Spanish clergy in the West Indies, and holds up their conduct as highly deferving of imitation.

Having thus ftated his plan, the author makes fome concluding remarks, which are very well entitled to ferious attention. We felect the following:

There is a prejudice in favour of the old fyftem, fo deeply rooted in fome minds, and fo officioufly obtruded against every propofal in favour of the flaves, that I cannot conclude without taking

notice of it.

To grant any privilege, or indulgence, to the negroes then, is oppofed, on the pretence of their being already too formidable to the whites, although under that ftrong and severe discipline, hitherto too generally in ufe.

I anfwer, that this objection fuppofes, fallaciously I am fure, FEAR to be the ONLY principle by which the negroes can be held in fubjection. If so, what in the prefent crifis, muft be the anxiety and dread of the whites, who reft all their fecurity on this ground? Such fentiments lead to the utmost extremity of cruelty, as juftifying this principle, that every symptom and appearance of diffaffection in the flaves with their condition and fufferings must be fuppreffed by additional rigour. When the benevolent purpose is affailed on fuch cynical and arbitrary maxims, as could only originate with the Egyptian tafkmafters, I would confidently appeal to the common experience of mankind, if benefits conferred are found, in general, to add fuel to envy and enmity in the human breaft; and if inftances of good-will from man to man, from mafter to fervant, only increase the impatience of fubordination, and heighten the rancour of malice? If so, then the advocates for the fyftem of rigour are right.

Those who seriously believe it, and are always prone to act upon this dark fuppofition as a general rule, exhibit a depravity and degradation of mind, from which we turn with pity and difdain, for no one can believe their fellow creatures capable of a conduct fo atrocious, without feeling the counterpart of fuch baseness in their own breaft.

But the real fact here is, that cruelty, like all other vices, becomes its own punishment; confcioufnefs of fevere and oppreffive management, neceffarily creates uneafinefs in those who exercise it; dread of retaliation deprives them of reft and tranquillity; but unfortunately it happens, that cruelty grows into a habit, perverts the understanding, and gradually dries up all the humane and compaflionate feelings of

the heart.

The benevolent and confiderate planter and manager, who take an intereft in the improvement and comfort of their flaves, fleep in fecurity; they have no apprehenfions from their negroes; their interefts are one; and in cafe of external alarm and attack, fuch mafters can rely with confidence on the fidelity and courage of their flaves, to defend them to the laft extremity *."

Such

In Bermuda and the Bahamas, where there are no importations of flaves from Africa, and where the negroes are treated with atten

Such is the fubftance of the pamphlet before us; in which our readers will perceive that the amiable author pleads with great zeal, and with infinite honour to himself, the caufe of the friendless and the diftreffed. It is evident that he cannot be charged with French or atheistical principles; for the whole drift of his work is not merely to make the negroes happy, but to make them happy by forming them into good Chriflians. Religion is the very basis of his plan. May fuccefs attend the exertions of a man, whofe with is not for the deftruction but the comfort of his fellow-creatures!

TRAVEL S.

Sh. Art. 17. A pedeftrian Tour through North Wales; in a Series of LetBy J. Hucks, B. A. izmo. Pp. 160. 2s. 6d. Boards.

ters.

Debrett. 1795.

This pedestrian tour will be read with amufement if not with inftruction. It throws fome agreeable light on the manners of the Welsh; who, like most mountaineers, retain a fimplicity and antiquenefs of character, towards which it is gratifying to turn from the artificial grimace of a too exquifite civilization. The author thus fums up his impreffions:

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Upon the whole, I have been as much charmed with the manners of the people, as with the country which they inhabit; there is a boldness and originality in all their actions, which marked the conduct and characterized the features of their ancestors. A love of liberty and independence is implanted by nature in their breafts, and is cherifhed into maturity on their mountains and fea-coafts by a hardy, and defultory manner of life. With refpect to hofpitality, they ftill preferve their original character; the manner of it is undoubtedly much altered, it is lefs magnificent but more pleafing; the ftranger is not conducted, into a noble hall, and placed at the right hand of the chief; no bards attend with the fongs of times that are paft; the walls are no longer hung with the maffy fpears of departed heroes, or decorated with the fpoils of a vanquished enemy; the conch does not found to war, nor is the boffy fhield ftruck as the fignal to meet the threatening foe. Strange ferocious manners were blended with the hofpitality of those days; but, happily for mankind, fuch barbarous features of uncivilized ages are at length every where humanized into more refined and focial enjoyments. Whether fociety has not arrived at an excess of refinement; whether a great degree of refinement is not the parent of vice and corruption; and if fo, whether an age of barbarity, with honefty and virtue, or an age of refinement, with effeminacy, vice, and corruption, is most defirable, or moft calculated to produce the immediate and eternal happiness of mankind? I leave to be determined by thofe who have leifure and inclination, to confider with attention fo abftracted a fubject.'

tion, protected by laws, and their offspring well taken care of, by their miftreffes; they become fo attached to their owners, that ofter, when taken prisoners, in privateers, by the Americans, in the late war, they have returned from the Continent, as foon as poffible, to their former masters.'

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There are paffages in which the author feems to hint at having embraced the Manichæan system. Tay.

Art. 18. Travels, chiefly on Foot, through feveral Parts of England, in 1782, described in Letters to a Friend. By Charles P. Moritz, a Literary Gentleman of Berlin. Tranflated from the German, by a Lady. 12mo. pp. 269. 35. 6d. Boards. Robinsons. 1795. It may be hoped that this real tour, (for it is not a work of imagination,) which is cheap and entertaining, will be read by innkeepers and other profeffors of hofpitality, as it may ferve to convince them that a guest on foot ought not therefore to be fufpected of dishonesty, poverty, or ignorance; that a deference to Appearance and a fervility to Confequence are often carried farther than their interefts require, or their independence should permit; and that no small nor contemptible portion of the reputation of their country, among foreigners, depends on fecuring to fuch of them as travel among us thofe leffer comforts and conveniences, the enjoyment of which predisposes the mind to look on every thing in a fatisfied and good-humoured mood.

It is difficult to lay in what we are the wifer for perusing this little book: yet there runs through the whole a point of view fo peculiar, and a temper fo philofophic, that we cannot confider it as loft time to have read it.

MECHANICS, &c.

Art. 19. Experimental Enquiry concerning the natural Powers of Wind
and Water to turn Mills and other Machines, depending on a circular
Motion; and an experimental Examination of the Quantity and
Proportion of Mechanic Power, neceffary to be employed in giving
different Degrees of Velocity to heavy Bodies from a State of Reft.
Also new fundamental Experiments upon the Collifion of Bodies.
With five Plates of Machines. By the late Mr. John Smeaton,
F.R. S. 8vo. 4s. 6d. Boards. Taylor. 1794.

The feveral treatifes now collected into one volume were published in the 51ft, 66th, and 72d volumes of the Philofophical Transactions; and an account was given of them in the 23d, 57th, and 69th volumes of the M. R. As they relate to fubjects that are interesting to the practical mechanic, and derive fingular value from the established reputation of the author, the republication of them in the prefent form will be acceptable to many perfons, who have no opportunity of referring to the volumes of the Tranfactions in which they first appeared.

MILITARY.

Do

Re-s Art. 20. Memorandums of Field Exercife for the Troops of Gentlemen and Yeomen Cavalry. By an Officer of Light Dragoons. 8vo. 8vo. 25. Law. 1795 It appears, from the preface, that the obfervations and inftructions, here offered to the perufal of the gentlemen and yeomanry compofing the volunteer cavalry in Kent, are compofed by a young but intelligent officer, who, as we apprehend, is properly qualified for fuch an undertaking; the utility of which, to a newly raifed volunteer corps, is fufficiently obvious. Two plates are annexed, for explaining feveral movements in the evolutions.

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