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and of taking the most effectual fteps for facilitating the use of them throughout the whole republic, decrees as follows:

1. The æra already fixed for the adoption of new weights and measures by the law of the firft of Auguft is poftponed till farther order meanwhile, the citizens are invited from this time forwards to give a proof of their attachment to the unity and indivifibility of the republic, by introducing into the tranfactions and calculations of commerce the new measures.

2. There shall be but one standard of weight and measure for the whole republic. This fhall be a fcale of platina, on which fhall be delineated the metre adopted as the fundamental unit of the fyftem of menfuration.

This standard fhall be executed with the greatest precifion, conformably to the experiments and obfervations of the commiffioners intrufted to determine it. It fhall be depofited in the archives of the legislative body, together with the statement of the operations ferving to afcertain it, in order that at all times hereafter they may easily be verified.

3. Into the chief town of each district shall be sent a model conformable to the primary ftandard, and a model of the weight deriving from the new fyftem of meature. Thefe models fhall be the prototypes of all others used by the citizens.

4. The extreme nicety intended to be given to the standard of platina not being effential to the common measures, they may coninue to be fabricated after the manner now practifed, and of the length defcribed in the former decree.

5. The new mcafures fhall be called the republican, and their several nomenclature is adopted as follows:

Metre is to be the measure of length equal to the ten-millionth of the arc of the terreftrial meridian comprehended between the north pole and the equator.


Are, the fquare meafure for the furface of land, each fide to confift of ten metres.

Stere, the cubic meafure for fuel; its height, breadth, and length, each one metre.

Litre, the liquid measure, the contents of which shall be equivalent to the cube of the tenth part of a metre.

Gramme, the abfolute weight of a cube of pure water at the freezing point, the fide of which meafures the hundredth part of a metre. The fundamental monetary unit fhall be called Franc and not livre as heretofore.

6. The tenth part of the metre fhall be called a decimetre, and the hundredth part a centimetre.

Ten metres fhall be called a decametre, one hundred metres an bectometre, one thousand metres a kilometre, and ten thousand metres a myriametre.

• The decametre will be a convenient length for the measuring of land; the kilometre and myriametre for itinerary distance.

7. The denominations of all other forts of meafure fhall follow the fame analogy the tenth part of the litre being called a decilitre, the


hundredth part of the gramme, a centigramme. Ten litres fhall be called a decalitre, and, one hundred litres, an hectolitre. A kilogramme, a myriagramme, fhall be weights of one thousand, and ten thoufand grammes.

In fpeaking, however, of monetary divifions, decime and centime fhall continue in ufe for the tenth and hundredth part of the franc.

8. In weights and measures of capacity, each of the decimal measures shall have its double and its half; in order to give the neceffary variety which convenience requires: thus there fhall be a double-litre and demi-litre, a double hectogramme and demi-hectogramme, and fo forth.

9. In order to render the difufe of the antient measures less troublesome, it fhall be executed piece-meal, and at periods to be decreed by the Convention, whenever the republican measures shall be manufactured in fufficient quantity, and the other preliminary difpofitions for the change adopted.

The new fyftema fhall first be applied to monies and affignats, next to measures of length, and progreftively to fuperficial and solid meafures..

10. The operations relative to the determination of the fundamental unit to be deduced from the fize of the earth, begun by the academy of fciences, and purfued by the board of measures, fhall be continued by farther commiffioners, felected principally from among the mathematicians, who have hitherto applied to this object, to be nominated by the Committee of Public Inftruction; in virtue of which regulation the aforefaid board of meafures is fuppreffed.

11. A temporary agency to confit of three members shall be formed, in order to fuperintend, under the authority of the Committee of Public Inftruction, whatever relates to the renovation of weights and measures. Thefe three members are to be named by the Convention, at the fuggeftion of the Committee: which fhall fix their falary, in concert with the Committee of Finance.


12. The bufinefs of this temporary agency fhall be: 1. to inquire into and facilitate the fabrication of accurate new weights and measures for general ufe: 2. to provide and diftribute the feveral prototype ftandards among the districts: 3. to draw up and diffeminate the inftructions neceffary to facilitate a clear understanding of the new measures, and of their relation to the old: 4. to fuggeft to the Committee of Public Inftruction, and through it to the Convention, any farther regulations which may be neceflary to the introduction to the new measure: 5. to afcertain and account for the feveral expences incurred in the determination and establishment of the new measure: 6. to correfpond with the conftituted authorities and the citizens relative to what concerns the new measure.

13. The fabrication of the republican measures fhall be managed as much as poffible by mechanifm, as well to fecure uniformity, accuracy, and celerity of proceeding, as to facilitate the fale of them at low prices.

14. The temporary agency may patronize the neceffary machinery, either by ordering it from able artifts, or by granting premiums to the most fuccefsful. It may make advances of money, or materials,


rials, or machinery, fo purchased to the undertakers of the new mea fures and weights: - but, in each cafe, it shall obtain the authority of the Committee of Public Instruction.

15. The agency fhall regulate, as far as may be neceffary, the form to be given to each measure, and the material to be used in the fabrication of them.

16. On each measure shall be graven its name; and each fhall be warranted by a flamp of the republic.

17. In each district an officer fhall be appointed to affix this ftamp after the proper comparison.

13. The choice of measures appropriated to each species of merchandize thall be fo managed that fractions less than one hundredth be not neceffary. The agency is to pursue this object with the leaft poffible disturbance of the ufages of business.

19. To the tables of the relation between the old and new meafure ordered by the decree of the 8th May, the agency are at liberty to fubititute graphic fcales, which define it without an intermediate calculation.

20. To facilitate the external relations of France with other countries, the agency fhall compofe a work ftating the relation of the new measure to each of the measures used in the large commercial towns of other countries.

21. Provifionally, the national treasury may advance for these feveral objects 500,000 francs.

22. The law of the 4 Frimaire, which orders the decimal divifion of the day, is indefinitely fufpended.

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23. The preceding articles of decrees on this fubject, which may be contrary to the prefent arrangement, are abrogated.

24. From the publication of the prefent decree, all farther manufacture of the old measure is prohibited under pain of confiscation, and of a fine double in value to fuch measure: alfo the importation of fuch measures from foreign parts. The civil administrations are fe verally charged to fuperintend the execution of this article.

25. As foon as the prototype standard of platina shall be completed and prefented to the legislative body, a public monument shall be erected, in which it may be preferved from injury. The agency fhall produce a plan for this monument, deftined to confecrate, in the most durable manner, the creation of the republic, the triumphs of the French, and the state of advancement which fcience had attained under its protection.

26. The Committee of Public Inftruction fhall take without delay the feveral steps above particularized for the entire renovation of the measures of the republic, and fhall progreflively propofe to the Convention the neceffary legislative difpofitions.

27. The temporary agency fhall give an account of its operations progreffively to the Committee of Public Inftruction.

28. All the conftituted authorities are enjoined, as alfo all the public functionaries, to concur with all their power in the important operation of the renewal of measures and weights.'

It is to be hoped that M. PELTIER will have fufficient encouragement to go on with this journal, which promifes fre


quently to communicate fome curious information; and because it may be useful that fuch a body as the Convention, which is foolishly intolerant of internal contradiction, fhould have its

more remarkable proceedings criticized with feverity. Tay.

ARI. XVII. Reflexions fur la Guerre, &c. i. e. Thoughts on the
War, in Answer to " Thoughts on Peace addreffed to Mr. Pitt
and to the French Nation." By M. D'IVERNOIS. 8vo. PP.
157. 38. Elmsley, Debrett, &c. London. 1795.

ART. XVIII. Reflections on the War, &c. &c. By FRANCIS
D'IVERNOIS, Efq. Tranflated from the original French. 8vo.
PP. 135. 35. Elmfley, &c. London. 1795.

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M. D'IVERNOIS is well known by his ftruggles for liberty in his little native republic of Geneva, by his voluntary exile from his country, when it could no longer withstand the conftitution impofed on it by the Comte de Vergennes, and by feveral very able fubfequent publications on the ftate of affairs in France. In the pamphlet now before us, he writes as if the author of the "Thoughts on Peace were a man: but, from the preliminary addrefs, it is evident that he confiders himself as answering a lady, viz. the Baronefs de Stael, to whom that production is generally afcribed; and, though he combats with great vigour most of her opinions, he poffeffes too much gallantry to omit paying her many high compliments. He tells her, it is true, that the counfels which he gives, and the facrifices which the requires as preliminaries to peace, feem to him to be big with danger: but he at the fame time acknowleges that the principles, from which her errors fpring, appear to him to be too refpectable to suffer him to point them out and refute, them without rendering homage to the excellence of her mʊtives. He does this, he fays, the more readily, as he himself would a twelvemonth ago have feconded her exhortations to peace; for, by a termination of hoftilities at that period, the difafters which have fince happened might have been prevented. Strange as it may found to her, he declares that it is by those very difafters, which he would then have made peace to prevent, that he is now convinced of the neceffity of a vigorous profecution of the war he requests that he will not, from this declaration, conclude that he is inconfiftent, and not governed by any fixed principle nor fyftem; for he trufts that a perufal of his work will fuffice to fhew that fuch a conclufion would be as unjuft as it would be injurious to him.

See our laft Appendix.


M. D'IVERNOIs divides his pamphlet into five chapters, to which is added a conclufion. In chap. 1ft, he difcuffes three important queftions:-Whether the war has really been more difaftrous to the combined powers, than a fyftem of neutrality would have been? Whether they ought to confent to any terms of peace, which fhould leave the French in poffeffion of the smallest part of their conquefts? Whether the chances of making them reftore thofe conquefts, and of a fuccessful termination of the war, be not in favour of that fide which is poffeffed of the most lafting refources for prolonging the conteft; or, in other words, which has the longest purfe?

For the difcuffion of these questions, he does not think it neceflary that he should go back to the origin of the war, nor confider how far it was just on the part of Austria and Pruffia; he feems to have principally at heart to fhew that it cannot be imputed to England, who did not draw the fword till she found herfelf neceflitated to defend her allies who were actually attacked by the French. He confeffes, however, that to him it appears probable that it was the war that led to the fcaffold the unfor tunate monarch, whom it was the avowed object of the confederates to feat firmly on his throne. The triumph of guilt and wickedness, he fays, was complete in France, before England joined the confederacy; nay, the found even herself attacked in what was deareft to her, her conftitution, by the attempts of the French fyftematically to propagate in every flate their revolutionary principles. Under fuch circumstances, to ftand neuter would in his opinion have been tantamount to a fubmiffion to or adoption of those principles; and fo far is he from condemning thofe powers which at laft refifted them, that he blames them only for not having taken the field against them fooner. He defires the advocates for neutrality to ftate how it came to pafs that this very fyftem, which they so strongly recommend, afforded no protection to Holland, to the Palatinate, nor to Savoy. He next confiders what have really been the boafted advantages gained by thofe ftates which have declared for a neutrality, and have refused to join their neighbours in a war against France.

With respect to Sweden, (he fays nothing about the state of Denmark,) he obferves that, notwithstanding her boafted internal tranquillity, fhe has, fince the beginning of the French revolution, feen her king fall by the hands of a murderer, and a most dangerous confpiracy fet on foot against his fucceffor. Here we think that M. D'IVERNOIS appears to be very much at a lofs for an argument, when he states a cafe which can be nothing at all to his purpose, unless he could make out what he does not attempt, that France was at the bottom of that con


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