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British minifter who wrote it, but alfo in the fovereign republic which received it; and they refolved, coft what it would, not to give up their defigns againft Geneva. Let Brifft fpeak for himfelf:

"The aristocrats of Geneva (faid he,) have recourse to other artifices they endeavour to raife up the British cabinet against us; and they contrive, by their intrigues, to get a minifter plenipotentiary difpatched to them, who comes to affure them that the crown of England takes an intereft in their fituation, and approves their meafures. No doubt the people of England will one day hear with indignation. of the attempt to make their influence ferve as a protection to fome few intriguers, and to crufh freemen: no doubt they will call for an account of this profitution of their name: but come what will, the French republic will not give way: fhe is not to be frightened by the interpofition of a king; and the new comedy intended to be acted at Geneva cannot delay the juftice which the owes herself."

The great crime of Geneva was, after all, that fhe had caufed herself to be included in the neutrality of her allies the Swifs; and this ftep was called by Briffet," an ill difguifed acceffion to the coalition of crowned heads:" but was not Geneva a fovereign ftate as fuch, had the not a right, without asking the leave of France, to execute her long-standing treaties, and to take fuch precautions as fhe deemed neceflary for her own fafety? The interference of a neighbour against whom he had not made use of any language that could be conftrued into a threat, or even a meditation of hoftility, "was, ipfo fatto, a violation of her fovereignty, and perhaps the moft tyrannical in its nature that could poffibly be conceived; for it was plainly founded on this principle: We have declared that we renounced for ever all offenfive wars; we have fince marched in great force against a neighbour of your's; and you, fearing left we fhould attack you alfo, fend for a military aid from your friends the Swifs, and introduce it into your city. Does not this prove that you fufpect the fincerity of our declaration; to fufpect is to affront; and, next to downright hoftility, the greatest crime, which you could commit against us, is to prefume to depend for your fafety and existence on any thing but our honour." It might be afked, what could France gain by getting poffeffion of Geneva; we really cannot fay, unless the entertained defigns against Switzerland: in that cafe, indeed, it would be of immenfe value to her, as being the key of that country. In any other refpect, France muft lofe more in reutation than fhe could gain in intereft, by making herfelf miftrefs of Geneva. What could fignify the addition of the Or what could trength of 25,oco people to 25 millions? hoftility avail the former under fuch odds? Geneva could not a defenfive think of attacking France; her measures must have been of

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a defenfive nature. We confess that we have never been able to confider with patience the attempts of France on the freeft republic on earth, and the most democratical ftate that exifted at that time in the world; a ftate in whofe legiflative affembly upwards of two thousand men, out of a population of little more than 25,000 men, women, children, and minors, actually had feats, and voted perfonally, not by proxy or reprefentation.

From the Supplement, we learn feveral particulars of the revolution at Geneva, and of the hardships to which fuch of the inhabitants were expofed, as had not been put to death or banifhed; that, by a kind of fine, about 600,000 Louis d'ors had been raised on 1100 individuals, even after they had experienced the confequences of the first general plunder; that the newly constituted authorities notified, to the Genevans fettled in foreign countries, their advancement to power, and called on them to fend to the treafury of Geneva patriotic contribution confcientiously proportioned to their fortunes; threatening, in cafe of refufal, to fet them down as debtors to the nation, which would proceed against them in proper time and place, Among others, M. Chauvet, now in London, received fuch a notification: but, inftead of a draft or bill of exchange, be fent in return a moft cutting and reproachful answer.

The following facts are given by our author to prove that the citizens of Geneva, who have been forced by the influence of France to concur or at least acquiefce in the revolution of their city, did not at any period, either before or fince, ceafe to be attached to their former magiftrates. It was neceffary to elect a person to perform the office of Treasurer-General, then vacant by the difmiffion of the gentleman who had previously filled it. The leaders of the revolution had taken care to deprive of the right of voting, on this occafion, all thofe whom they confidered as hoftile to their party, and thofe only were suffered to vote, on whom they thought they could confidently rely: what then must have been their furprife, when, on cafting up the numbers, (the election was by ballot,) they found a majority of 500 votes for the very man whom they had thought proper to difmifs? The gentleman was too prudent to accept the office under these circumftances: but the event fhewed that the people were in their hearts enemies to the revolution; which, it was faid, had been demanded by the people. The fentences pafled on the victims of that revolution were fo far from being agreeable to the people, and they gave their opinion of them in terms fo little ambiguous even in the clubs, that it was found neceflary in those affemblies to put it to the vote, whether an address should not be prefented to the ruling powers, praying that fuch of the fentences as had not yet been executed might be annulled,

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and the judgments reverfed. Accordingly, 2302 persons affembled, all of them being of the number of thofe whom the French party called patriots; and yet, ftrange to tell, out of thefe the numbers against reverfing the judgments were only 350! The confequence was that the judgments were reverfed, not indeed in a legal way by a vote of an affembly of the people in general council, but by the fole authority of the chief of the new magiftrates; who was fo little accustomed to respect the law, or the fovereign people, in whofe behalf he affected to have brought about the revolution, that even in doing an act of mercy he could not perfuade himself to act in a legal manner. This man, whofe name is Boufquet, had feen the first edition of the prefent work, and had felt fo fore under the attack made on him by the author, that he has fince published an anfwer, in which he fcarcely denies one fact charged on him, or defends the bloody deeds of thofe over whom he prefided; his only defence is that he acted from neceffity, and had engaged in the revolution for the purpofe of directing and leffening the force of a storm which he could not controul. Our author fhews that even this kind of defence is not founded in truth. Of one Gafe, a parfon, belonging to the church of Geneva, a man who bore rather a good character before the revolution, he gives the following anecdote: Some of the revolutionifts, who had more humanity than others, finding that there was a defign on foot to break into the prifons, and to murder all the prifoners confined fince the revolution, applied to Gafe as one of the new revolutionary fyndics, and defired that he would adopt meafures for defeating fo fhocking a defign, and for protecting the lives of the prifoners. The anfwer of the unfeeling monster was, "I had rather that three or four hundred ariftocrats fhould perifh, than that a single patriot should receive fo much as a fcratch."-Soulavie, the French minifter fent to Geneva, and under whofe aufpices it would feem that all the atrocities attending the revolution in that city were perpetrated, is now a prifoner in France, where he remains ftill untried, under a charge of being one of Robespierre's

terrorists.

M. D'I. gives a sketch of the former conftitution of Geneva; which, though without a king, and in reality as well as in name a republic, appears to have had a very strong resemblance to the conftitution of England; particularly in the diftribution of power, and in making three different bodies checks on each other; and in the neceffity of the concurrence of all three to enact a law binding on the community.

The fupplement contains many other things worthy of notice; and those who will read the whole work attentively will find fufficient

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fufficient proofs that, when M. D'I. attacks the Gironde party, and many measures of the revolution, it is not because he is an enemy to liberty, (for true liberty he feems to cherish dearly,) 1 but because he is hoftile to what he conceives to be anarchy, licentioufnefs, and tyranny, prefented to the world under the facred name of heaven-born freedom.

In his title page, the author fays, " depuis le mois d'Octobre 1792, au mois de juillet 1795." He fhould have faid, jufqu'au mois de Juillet 1795. We have remarked, on a former occaion, that there are many provincialisms in his language.

Sh....

TO THE READER.

T appears scarcely neceffary to apologize for the great dispropor, tion which the articles in this Appendix, refpecting the affairs of the contending powers on the Continent, bear to thofe which relate to other topics.-The foreign Prefles are now scarcely employed on any other fubje&s; and furely no others are, at this unhappy and unparalleled juncture, equally interefting and important. Perhaps the attention of the greater part of the inhabitants of the whole earth is chiefly, we had almost said exclufively, turned to this one vaft and all-engrofling obje&; and may we not conclude that the great queftion among the powers of Europe, regardless of the once loved Arts which are not cultivated but in days of peace, is only" To Be—or not to Be!"

Looking anxioufly forwards to the return of those happier times in which, alone, literature and fcience can flourish, we hope it will not be long before we fhall again be enabled to gratify our readers with a greater variety of FOREIGN materials, than can be expected in the prefent ftate and circumftances of learning, and, we are forry to add, of LEARNED MEN; who have little encouragement, amid the horrors of Hottility and Uproar, to trim the midnight lamp by which the minds of men were in "other times" illuminated; and by which they were naturally led to love, improve, and affift each other, inftead of acting, as we now fee, under the dictates of mutual hatred and the fpirit of extermination:

Ingenuas didiciffe fideliter artes

Emollit mores.

OVID.

INDEX

INDEX

To the REMARKABLE PASSAGES in this Volume,

N. B. To find any particular Book, or Pamphlet, see the
Table of Contents, prefixed to the Volume.

Α

ADDISON, Mr. his account of
the little Italian republic of
St. Marino contraverted and
amended, 450.

Alfred the Great, his reign not
unfavourable to flavery, 441.
America, publications relative to,
141. 312.

American States, inducements of
Englishmen to migrate to, 313.
Summary view of American
hufbandry, 316. Plaister of Pa-
ris in high request there for
manure, 317. Various foils and
climates in the different ftates,
ib. Condition of the inhabitants,
as cultivators of the earth, pre-
ferred to the mercantile fyftem,
315. American politics, 319.
Generally republicans, ib. En-
cumbered and perplexed by re-
taining fo much of the English
legal code, 321.

Amos, Mr. his account of the pre-
fentation of his machine for drill
husbandry to the fociety for
arts, &c. 155.

Anderfon, Eneas, his account of

Lord Macartney's embaffy to
China, 72. His defcription of
Pekin, 73. Of the journey

thence to Canton, 79.
Angels, the worship of, remarks on,
139.

Animal fubftance converted into
fpermaceti, 158.
Anjpach, Margrave of, his com-
munication of curious papers to
the Royal Society, 160.
Archimedes, particulars of his life,
29. Editions of his works, 30.
Torelli's edition printed at Öx-
ford commended, 31.
Architecture, how far carried to
perfection by the antient Greeks,
172.

Ariftotle, his POETIC, commenta-
tors on, 323. Mr. Tyrwhitt's
edition characterized, 324.
Emendations in the text, 326.
Critical remarks, 328. Annota-
tions by the last editor, and by
the Monthly Reviewers, 365.
Objections to the arrangement
of Mr. T.'s edition, 375.
Affignats, aftonishing depreciation
of, 564. Immense emiffion of,
565.

Afthma, definitions and cafes of,

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