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ders. If the thought of the couplet in such compositions is good, the rhyme adds little to it; and if bad, it will not be in the power of the rhyme to recommend it. I am afraid that great numbers of those who admire the incomparable Hudibras, do it more on account of these doggerel rhymes than of the parts that really deferve admiration. I am sure I have heard the

Pulpit, drum ecclesiastic,

Was beat with fist, instead of a stick; and

There was an ancient fage philosopher

Who had read Alexander Ross over, more frequently quoted, than the finest pieces of wit in the whole poem.


N° DI. Thuriday, May I5, I7 I.

Non equidem ftudes, ballatis ut mihi nugis
Pagina turgefcat, dare pondus idonea fumo.

Pers. Sat. v. 19.

'Tis not indeed my talent to engage
In lofty trilles, or to swell my page
With wind and noise.



HERE is no kind of false wit which has

been so recommended by the practice of all ages, as that which consists in a jingle of words, and is comprehended under the general

* By Addison, dated it is supposed from Chelsea. See final Note to N°7, on ADDISON's Signatures.


name of Punning. It is indeed impossible to kill a weed, which the soil has a natural disposition to produce. The feeds of Punning are in the minds of all men; and though they may be subdued by reason, reflection, and good sense, they will be very apt to shoot up

in the greatest genius that is not broken and cultivated by the rules of art. Imitation is natural to us, and when it does not raise the mind to poetry, painting, music, or other more noble arts, it often breaks out in Puns and Quibbles.

Aristotle, in the eleventh chapter of his book of rhetoric, describes two or three kinds of Puns, which he calls Paragrams, among the beauties of good writing, and produces instances of them out of some of the greatest authors in the Greek tongue. Cicero has sprinkled several of his works with Puns, and in his book where he lays down the rules of Oratory, quotes abundance of sayings as pieces of wit, which also

upon examination prove arrant Puns. But the age in which The Pun chiefly flourished, was in the reign of King James the First. That learned monarch was himself a tolerable Punster, and made very few bishops or privy-counsellors that had not some time or other signalized themselves by a Clinch, or a ConUNDRUM. It was therefore in this age that the Pun appeared with pomp and dignity. It had before been admitted into merry speeches and ludicrous compositions, but was now delivered with great gravity from the pulpit, or pronounced in the most solemn manner at the VOL. I.



council-table. The greatest authors, in their most serious works, made frequent use of Puns. The sermons of Bishop Andrews, and the tragedies of Shakespeare, are full of them. The finner was Punned into repentance by the former, as in the latter nothing is more usual than to see a hero weeping and quibbling for a dozen lines together.

I must add to these great authorities, which seem to have given a kind of sanction to this piece of false wit, that all the writers of rhetoric have treated of Punning with very great respect, and divided the several kinds of it into hard names, that are reckoned among the figures of speech, and recommended as ornaments in discourse. I remember a country schoolmaster of my acquaintance told me once, that he had been in company with a gentleman whom he looked upon to be the greatest Paragrammatist among the moderns. Upon enquiry, I found my learned friend had dined that day with Mr. Swan, the famous Punster; and desiring him to give me some account of Mr. Swan's conversation, he told me that he generally talked in the Paranomafia, that he sometimes gave into the Ploce, but that in his humble opinion he shined most in the Antanaclasis.

I must not here omit, that a famous university of this land was formerly very much infested with Puns; but whether or no this might not arise from the fens and marshes in which it was situated, and which are now drained, I must

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leave to the determination of more skilful naturalists.

After this short history of Punning, one would wonder how it should be so entirely banished out of the learned world as it is at present, especially since it had found a place in the writings of the most ancient polite authors. To account for this we must consider, that the first race of authors, who were the great heroes in writing, were destitute of all rules and arts of criticism; and for that reason, though they excel later writers in greatness of genius, they fall short of them in accuracy and correctness.

The moderns cannot reach their beauties, but can avoid their imperfections. When the world was furnished with these authors of the first eminence, there grew up another set of writers, who gained themselves a reputation by the remarks which they made on the works of those who preceded them. It was one of the employments of these secondary authors, to distinguish the several kinds of wit by terms of art, and to consider them as more or less perfect, according as they were founded in truth. It is no wonder therefore, that even fuch authors as Isocrates, Plato, and Cicero, should have such little blemishes as are not to be met with in authors of a much inferior character, who have written fince those several blemishes were discovered. I do not find that there was a proper separation made between Puns and true wit by any of the ancient authors, except Quintilian and Longinus. But when this A a 2


distinction was once settled, it was very natural for all men of fenfe to agree in it. As for the revival of this False Wit, it happened about the time of the revival of letters; but as soon as it was once detected, it immediately vanished and disappeared. At the same time there is no question, but as it has sunk in one age and rofe in another, it will again recover itself in some distant period of time, as pedantry and ignorance shalt prevail upon wit and sense. And, to speak the truth, I do very much apprehend, by some of the last winter's productions, which had their sets of admirers, that our posterity will in a few years degenerate into a race of Punsters: at least, a man may be


excufable for any apprehenfions of this kind, that has seen Acrostics handed about the town with great secrecy and applause; to which I must also add a little epigram called the Witches Prayer, that fell into verse when it was read either backward or forward, excepting only that it cursed one way, and blessed the other. When one sees there are actually such pains-takers among our British wits, who can tell what it may end in ? If we must lath one another, let it be with the manly strokes of wit and fatire; for I am of the old philosopher's opinion, that if I must suffer from one or the other, I would rather it should be from the


of a lion, than the hoof of an ass. I do not speak this out of any spirit of party.

There is a most crying dulness on both sides. I have seen Tory Acrostics and Whig Anagrams, and do not


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