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limited range both of information and of interest, is an enemy of growth. Turning from the distasteful before it is understood is an enemy of growth.
Failure to see the relation of the subject of one's special interest to other subjects is an enemy of growth. The pretense of investigation and discovery before mastering existent knowledge is an enemy of growth. The habit of cynical indifference toward men and things and of aloofness from them, sometimes supposed to be peculiarly academic, is an enemy of growth.
These, then, are to be shunned while formal education is going on, if it is to carry with it the priceless gift of an impulse to continuous growth. "Life,'' says Bishop Spalding in an eloquent passage, is the unfolding of a mysterious power, which in man rises to self-consciousness, and through Self- sciousness to the knowledge of a world of truth and order and love, where action may no longer be left wholly to the sway of matter or to the impulse of instinct, but may and should be controlled by reason and conscience. To further this process by deliberate and intelligent effort is to educate” — and I add, to educate so as to sow the seed of continuous growth, intellectual and moral.
AND AS A FIFTH EVIDENCE of an education I name efficiency, the power to do. The time has long since gone by, if it ever was, when contemplation pure and simple, withdrawal from the world and its activities, or intelligent incompetence was a defensible ideal of education. To-day the truly educated man must be, in some sense, efficient. With brain, tongue, or hand he must be able to express his knowledge and so leave the world other than he found it.
Mr. James is simply summing up what physiology and psychology both teach when he exclaims: "No reception without reaction, no impression without co-relative expression - this is the great maxim which the te her ought never to forget. An impression which simply flows in at the pupil's eyes or ears, and in no way modifies his active life, is an impression gone to waste. It is physiologically incomplete. It leaves no fruits behind it in the way of capacity acquired. Even as mere impression it fails to produce its proper effect upon the memory; for, to remain fully among the acquisitions of the latter faculty, it must be wrought into the whole cycle of our operations. Its motor consequences are what clinch it."
This is just as true of knowledge in general as of impressions. Indefinite absorption without production is fatal both to character and to the highest intellectual power. Do something and be able to do it well; express what you know in some helpful and substantial form; produce, and do not everlastingly feel only and revel in feelings — these are counsels which make for a real education and against that sham form of it which is easily recognized as well-informed incapacity.
Our colleges and universities abound in false notions, notions as unscientific as they are unphilosophical, of the supposed value of knowledge, information, for its own sake. It has none. The date of the discovery of America is in itself as meaningless as the date of the birth of the youngest blade of grass in the neighboring field; it means something because it is part of a larger knowledge-whole, because it has relations, applications, uses; and for the student who sees none of these and knows none of them, America was discovered in 1249 quite as much as it was in 1492.
High efficiency is primarily an intellectual affair, and only longo intervallo does it take on anything approaching a mechanical form. Its mehanical form is always wholly subordinate to its springs in the intellect. It is the outgrowth of an established and habitual relationship between intellect and will, by means of which knowledge is constantly made power.
For knowledge is not power, Bacon to the contrary notwithstanding, unless it is made so, and it can be made so only by him who possesses the knowledge. The habit of making knowledge power is efficiency. Without it education is incomple
These five characteristics, then, I offer as evidences of an education correctness and precision in the use of the mother-tongue; refined and gentle manners, which are the expression of fixed habits of thought and action; the power and habit of reflection; the power of growth, and efficiency or the power to do. On this plane the physicist may meet with the philologian and the naturalist with the philosopher, and each recognize the fact that his fellow is an educated man, tho the range of their information is widely different and the centers of their highest interests are far apart.
They are knit together in a brotherhood by the close tie of those traits which have sprung out of the reaction of their minds and wills upon that which has fed them and brought them strength. Without these traits men are not truly educated, and their erudition, however vast, is of no avail; it furnishes a museum, not a developed human being.
It is these habits, of necessity made by ourselves alone, begun in the days of school and college, and strengthened with maturer years and broader experience, that serve to show to ourselves and to others that we have discovered the secret of gaining an education.
A Factor in the Industrial Competition of
The following article, which has appeared in papers in Belgium, France and England, was sent from this country for publication in Europe by M. Rudolph Meyhoffer, who came from Brussels as an international delegate to the Young Men's Christian Association jubilee in Boston last June. He stayed long enough to study industrial and educational conditions in our leading states, including the burning question of American trade supremacy. The conclusions of this article, presenting a glimpse of how “others see us,” cannot fail to be of interest to all American readers.
England and other European countries are anxiously asking for the causes of the commercial supremacy of the United States. A recent number of the English edition of the “ Review of Reviews" says:
"'Cassier's Magazine' (an English periodical) contains an interesting series of short articles by some of the most prominent engineers and busi
ness men in the United States upon the question of American competition.
Most of the writers agree in saying that the American workman is the chief agent in enabling American manufacturers to take first place in the world. Mr. Walter McFarland of Pittsburgh gives one important reason for this.
It appears that the American workmen are much better timekeepers and far less given to dissipation than those in Great Britain. One of the best firms of British shipbuilders, which has had no trouble with its men for years, recently stated that there is a loss of time, amounting to nearly 20 per cent., due largely to drunkenness. If anything approaching these figures is true generally, there can be no surprise that (English) firms open to competition from well managed American works should have a hard time.”
In inquiring as to the cause of this greater sobriety of the American, the fact appears that twenty years ago business interests in the United States paid no attention to the effect of the beverage use of alcohol or of tobacco on working ability. About that time, the now almost universal study of physiology which includes with other laws of health those which relate to the nature and effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics, began to be a legal requirement for all pupils in the public schools of this country.
During the past ten or fifteen years the children have been carrying from the schools to the homes of the 75,000,000 people of the United States the story of the evil nature and bad effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics.
As a result of the diffusion of this knowledge the railroads of the United States now almost universally refuse employment to men who drink whether on or off duty.
Hon. Carroll D. Wright's Labor Bureau investigations show that more than seventy-five per cent of the employers of skilled labor in the United States require total abstinence of their employees, and fifty per cent of the employers of unskilled labor demand the same. These requirements, the cordial acquiescence in them by the employed, and the commercial supremacy which this knowledge helped to secure to the United States, have been promoted by the truth taught by the school that alcoholic drinks injure working ability.
The different reception given by the workmen to the employers' demand for abstinence where scientific temperance is not taught in the public schools is well illustrated by the following incident.
The manager of the Borsig factory in Germany recently posted an order forbidding the workmen to bring into the factory beer or other spirituous liquors or to drink the same during working hours. The workmen, numbering over a thousand, held a meeting and objected to the order. The next day they conspicuously carried in their beer.
During the excitement caused by the order a pamphlet appeared by an old factory official, who affirmed that the use of alcoholic drinks was detrimental to the laborers own interests. He referred to the cleverness and sobriety of the American workmen which makes them able to do very exact
and precise work, which he says is not possible in German industry because of the drinking habits of the laboring classes.
The American workman does not resent the employer's demand for abstinence because he has learned, often from his child in the public schools, that alcohol not only dulls the brain but weakens that nerve control of muscle that is necessary to the precision essential for fine work.
The nomination for knighthood of Sir Hiram Baxter, the American born inventor, for his work in England was one of the last official acts of Queen Victoria. In an article in the June number of The World's Work" Sir Hiram furnishes indirect testimony to the same point. While describing the results of the English trade unions, he adds:
“The English workman spends a great part of his earnings in beer, tobacco, and betting: he has no ambition.” Of course not, for beer in dulling the brain dulls ambition. The "American workman," he says,
'wishes to get on; he accomplishes a great deal more work in a day than any other workman in the world." "He does not drink,” says another English writer.
England is beginning to see the difference in results between occasional talks by temperance advocates to school children and the systematic graded public school study of this topic required by law in the United States.
At a recent meeting in Birmingham, addressed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the presiding officer, Mr. Edwin Smith, said: "We are being beaten in skill
by America. She has been lavish in spending money in educating the brains of her people while we have been lavish in poisoning them. If we spent per head on alcohol the same as America, our drink bill would be about sixty-six millions (pounds) less than it now is. We cannot succeed commercially while we are handicapped in this way to the extent of forty-eight per cent. The great mass of the working people of this country are totally ignorant of the effect of drink.” He said that England ought not to leave the education on this subject merely to the temperance societies, but that it should be undertaken by the state. Surely if the state must encourage the traffic for revenue it should in fairness educate every child in Government schools as to the nature and danger of alcohol, and the benefits of total abstinence."
He added in closing: "If the state will only educate the children against strong drink
England commercially may even yet be saved.'' It has been wisely said that “Industrial supremacy belongs to that country which enjoys the cheapest materials, the most improved machinery, the most efficient labor."
As clear brains and steady nerves are needed for the preparation of both material and machinery as well as for their use in production, that nation, other things being equal, whose brains are not dulled by alcohol and other narcotics will win in the world's competitions.
CONDUCTED BY JENNIE L. HAVICE.
JACOB ABBOTT, author of the Rollo books, and much other useful and interesting, although old-fashioned, juvenile literature, lays down the following fundamental rules for teachers and parents :
“When you consent, consent cordially;
When you refuse, refuse finally;
Commend often; never scold." Some bulky volumes on teaching contain less pedagogical wisdom. A very skillful and successful teacher attributes much of her success to a faithful observance of these four concise and simple rules.-Exchange.
Mrs. J. L. Havice addressed the Laguna Honda Mothers' Club on Punishments," and spoke first of the coöperation of mother and teacher, and the great good that is likely to accrue from it. Mothers who visit the schools, or are interested in the clubs will find that the teacher is interested in them and in their children. They are specially interested.
In one of the city schools a small boy was forming careless habits, i. e., he was inclined to be playful and inattentive to lessons. When remenstrated with, he simply laughed (a very bad thing for him to do) and went on doing the same thing the next day and the next. The teacher felt that, this being his first year, the thing should be nipped in the bud. She therefore wrote a note to his mother asking for an interview and pleading for help. The mother having visited the school, she knew she would not be disappointed. The child was lectured, bribed, and scolded. An interview with the teacher then resulted in the decision that the child should know where the place was or submit to corporal punishment. The mother knew, as the teacher could not, that physical pain was the one thing the child dreaded. He was made to fully understand what punishments would be meted out to him; since which time he knows the place.” That was several weeks ago, and I am quite sure there has been no further complaint. This is coöperation.
Punishments in school would be greatly simplified if children were trained according to Bishop Vincent's idea, viz: how to eat, how to drink, how to breathe, how to walk, how to run, how to play, how to obey, how to help, how to reason, and how to deny themselves. As they are not thus trained (not many of them), it is an absolute necessity that they have something of the same love for children — mother love.
Since every true woman is a mother at heart, we sometimes find the mother instinct more predominant in a childless teacher than we sometimes find it in the mother of seven children. It is therefore meet that we give