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it happens often enough, to authorize what is there said: but D'Orville himself was hasty in saying, that all the prepositions (omnes prepositiones) were so placed; the fact being, that they are as often; or rather oftener separated from their cases. This peculiarity of joining the prepositions to the cases is not uncommon, at least in MSS. of the 9th and 10th centuries, as well Latin as Greek.

I omitted noticing in its proper place, in my last, that for the hint relative to the mistake concerning Sancti Albani I was indebted to the gentleman who for many years has so ably filled the office of Librarian to the Bodleian Library.

ERRATA in the former number, 'p. 134, for

quam read

quem; for totulum read titulum. p. 137, for Frontis read Fontis ; for incepit read incipit. p. 138, at the end of the Salisbury Service, dele Salisbury. In the 19th number also of the Athenæum, p. 44, 9th line from the bottom, for vocation read location. In the 18th number, p. 55%, 1. 30, transverse Alexandrine and Cambridge. p. 556, 1. 2, for the first o read o.



JULIUS CESAR CORDARA, one of the learned Jesuits who survived the extinction of their society, was born in Alexandria de la Paglia, in 1704. He was the second son of the Count of Calamandrana, in the Upper Monferrat, descended from a noble and ancient family, originally from Nice.

Having, in his very infancy, evinced a quick and lively conception, a calm and sweet temper, and a great fondness for study, he was, by his sagacious father, soon brought to Rome; and, in that metropolis, under the immediate inspection of an uncle, a dignitary of the church, he was placed in the Roman college, governed by the Jesuits, and then in the zenith of its literary fame.

Either from the influence of his friends, or, what is more probable, from his own inclination, in 1718, being not more than 14 years old, he entered the society; and so rapid was his farther progress in the career of learning, that in the 20th year of his age he was employed as a teacher in the college of Viterbo, and then gradually preferred to those of Fermo and of Ancona, and, lastly, to that of Rome.

Although regularly instituted in universal literature, he then evinced a peculiar predilection for those three branches for which he was ever after so justly celebrated-oratory, poetry, and history.

At the age of 23, he first appeared before the public in an elegant discourse on the political and literary, merit of the founder of the Roman college, Pope Gregory XIII., which was soon followed by an

equally equally elegant Latin satyr, " In fatuos numerorum divinatorés, vulgo Caballistas.” If any literary production of that age had a tendency to expose to ridicule, if not entirely to destroy a vulgar and gross prejudice, it was surely this; for it is a known fact, that a sect then existed in Italy among the inferior people, who professed to divine the future prizes in the lotteries, by means of astrological calculations. The Abbé Lorenzini, one of the best poets of that time, and Custode of the Arcadia, was so delighted with this performance, that he presently sent to young Cordara the diploma of member of that academy, with the name of " Panemo Cisseo," the name under which he afterwards published several of his poetical works.

His talents for dramatic poetry became known when he was 30 years of age. In 1735, the princess Clementina, niece of John Sobiesky, king of Poland (queen of the titular James III.) died at Rome, and, owing to her truly excellent qualities, her death was much lamented by her husband and children, and by all her friends and - admirers. The Abbé Cordara thought of paying a tribute to her memory, by an allegoric drama, entitled, The Death of Nice. The drama was acted first in Rome, and then in Tivoli and other parts, with the highest success; and such was the merit of the poetry and style, that it soon went through several editions, one of which was accompanied with appropriate remarks by the celebrated Marquis Eugenio Guasco, and gave reason to suppose, that had Cordara professedly attended to dramatic poetry, he might have proved a rival to Metastasio himself. By this allegoric drama he highly ingratiated himself with the abdicated royal family established at Rome.

These were the works for which, in his youth, Cordara was distinguished. In his riper years he was the author of performances of much higher importance. Among these, that which in order of time, and, perhaps, also in order of merit, first offers itself to our notice, is his excellent satires on the literary spirit of the agė, published under the name of “L. Sectanus," in 1737, and entitled, “ L. Sectani, q. Fil. de tota Graeculorum hujus ætatis litteratura. Some of the most prominent features of the scientific and literary spirit of the eighteenth century, and those, indeed, which, most of all, render it superior to any former enlightened age, are the universal analysis, the encyclopedic institution, and the methods of popular instruction three capital improvements for which the century may justly congratulate itself. Nevertheless, whether the analytic spirit have not too much obtruded upon subjects of taste; whether the systems of universal erudition have no tendency to produce superficiality of knowledge; and whether, in fine, the popularity of the sciences do not occasion some disregard for depth of learning, are questions not easily to be solved. Let the matter, however, be as it may, it is certain as a fact, that at the period to which Cordara's satires refer, a class of half-learned men existed in Italy, as well as in the rest of civilized Europe, who, with an insolent and dogmatic spirit, and with the most assuming and disgusting manners, thought themselves authorized to condemn the existing literary institutions, the classification of


sciences, the methods of teaching, and even the principles of taste. To expose and ridicule these self-appointed legislators of human understanding was the object of the author iu his satires; and in this he succeeded beyond, perhaps, his own expectation. The work was highly approved by the learned; and it rapidly went through seven editions, the sixth of which was in Holland, and the seventh in Germany: it was bitterly criticised, merely from personal motives, by the Abbé Lami; as this excellent journalist thought that he was the leading figure, whom, under the name of Rullo, the author had introduced into one of the satires.

In 1742, the place being then become vacant, the Abbé Cordara was appointed historiographer of his order. Accordingly, in 1750, he published, in elegant Latin, two volumes in folio, intended as a continuation of those which had already been written by his predecessors, and containing the history of the order, under the generalate of Mutio Vitelleschi (the sixth general, we believe) who governed it from 1615 to 1645—" Historia Societatis Jesu, Pars sexta, complecten res gestas sub Mutio Vitellesco.” Here some of our readers will, perhaps, ask, why this well-deserving author chose to write the greater part of his publications in Latin; and to this question we answer, that many others in Italy then followed a similar practice. If, again, it be asked, why so late as the middle of the eighteenth century some eminent authors in Italy chose to write in Latin, we answer, that they considered this circumstance as an additional merit; but' this answer requires a commentary. The Italians have always regarded themselves as the best Latinists in modern times;, and this pretension is, perhaps, not over-rated; for, the great affinity between their vernacular language and the Latin, the Liturgy of the church, and the transactions of the bar, both performed in Latin, give them a great advantage over all the other inhabitants of Europe in feeling the Latin idiom. They are, however, mistaken, if they consider this as a real merit; for, besides the impossibility of expressing, with propriety and precision, all our ideas, all our new discoveries, in a dead language, nobody will ever see the reason why, even in scientific intercourse, the Latin language should still be the organ of communication, when the modern languages are so much improved and generalised. On the contrary, every body, perhaps, will be inclined to. think, that too much attention towards the dead languages may be an obstacle to the improvement of the living idioms. And, upon this principle, we should not wonder if we were told that the extensive use of the Latin in Italy is one of the reasons why the Italian prose has never reached that degree of perfection of which it is naturally capable, and why, on the contrary, it has been taxed with want of precision and perspicuity in the analysis of ideas. The merit, therefore, either of Cordara, or of any other of his contemporaries in Italy, with respect to their Latinity, if reduced to its proper standard, will be estimated at a low rate. It must, however, be acknowledged, that this Jesuit was one of the most pure and elegant Latinists of his time, and that the work which has occasioned these observations, was


really written in a masterly style. The famous Castruccio Bonamici, himself an elegant Latinist and historian, although a professed enemy of the order to which Cordara belonged, in a letter of 30th October, 1751, speaks of his works in the following terms : " Ea certe in eo libro sententiarum vis, is splendor verborum, ut si Cicero scripsisset historiam non fuisse aliter scripturum putem." Nor less flattering was the eulogy bestowed on the author by the editors of the “Bibliotheque des Sciences" in Holland, who, tom. i. art. 6, p. 89, called him, “ La plus belle plume de l'Italie.'

This large historical performance two years after was followed by another, of less bulk, but, perhaps, more curious—" Caroli Odoardi Stuartii, Walliae principis, expeditio in Scotiam, Libris IV. comprehensa." The author attached the highest importance to this work, both in respect to the matter and to the style; and, notwithstanding his characteristic modesty, he was not sorry to hear it called his master-piece by his friends. It might be wished, indeed, that this book had been imported into England; for, having been written on original and immediate communications from the Pretender himself and his followers, it would, in all probability, throw new light on the remarkable event which constituted its subject.

We shall mention one more historical work from the pen of Cordara, and that is, the “ History of the Germanic and Hungarian College at Rome," published in 1770. This publication is far from being on a matter of universal concern; its subject is local, or, at most, national; and it has, perhaps, no other merit at present, than as being one of those numberless compilations of partial or local history of literature which appeared in Italy in the latter half of the last century; although, like all the rest, it may, some time or other, prove a valuable repository of materials for works of a higher order in literary history.

The Abbé Cordara had already passed the greatest part of his life in profound tranquillity. Far from possessing that misanthropic turn which very often belongs to literary characters in claustral life, he had lived, both in Rome and in the adjacent villas, with persons the most distinguished either by rank or dignity: his apartment in the college was one of the principal rendezvous of men of talents; and all were charmed with his sprightly and appropriate bons mots, his amiable manners, and especially with his humanity and cordiality. He was, however, involved in the storm which fell upon his order, under the pontificate of Ganganelli. The two powerful princes of the house of Bourbon had waged war against the Jesuits, and, to adopt an expression from the late Mr. Burke, “persecuted monks with the spirit of a monk.” At their request, the general of the order, Laurentio Ricci, was arbitrarily confined in the castle of St. Angelo; and other conspicuous members were subjected to restrictions of several kinds, by the Roman magistrates. Cordara, apprehending that some measures might be taken against him also, in 1772 left Rome, although with the greatest regret, and retired to Turin.

Neither, however, by this removal, nor by the extinction of his Vol. IV.

2 I


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order, in the subsequent year, nor even by his advanced age, was he prevented from exerting his intellectual powers with success. On the contrary, it is remarkable that he then resumed his juvenile pursuits in poetry and belles lettres. He composed his drama, “ the Deliverance of Betulia," which, by no means, impaired his reputation, or betrayed any decay in his powers. He also then wrote his burlesque poem, " the Foundation of Nice," which is accounted one of the best performances of the kind; his “ Essay on Military Eclogues" (a subject 'till then, perhaps, untouched); and, so late as 1783, a very judicious eulogy of Metastasio, deceased in the preceding year.

During his residence in Turin, the Abbé Cordara often visited his native place, Alexandria; but he waved all the burdensome marks of respect which were intended for him by his townsmen. Towards the close of his life he constantly resided there, but it was in a secular college, with the greatest simplicity and modesty.

Julius Cesar Cordara died in 1790. His historical eulogy was written of him by his countryman, the Marquis Charles Guasco, the son, we suppose, of Eugenius, who had been the editor of the pastoral drama, the Death of Nice: and the municipal government of Alexandria decreed, that iu the hall of the palace of the city an honorary inscription, on marble, should be placed to perpetuate his memory, He left behind him a great number of manuscripts, which, according to common report, were to be arranged and published by his pupil and friend, the Abbé Carrara, of Rome. It is not in our knowledge whether this design was ever carried into execution. The printed works of this writer, however, which we have mentioned, are of sufficient merit to entitle him to biographical record.

F. D.

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LATE ANGELICA KAUFFMAN. In the biographic sketch of this excellent female artist, inserted in the 18th number of the Athenæuin, we detailed her labours so late as the year 1795, and we concluded (p. 561) that she had not ever after produced any work that could, in point of invention, come inte competition with the greatest of those which we had already noticed.” We have since received a more correct information; and from this we are enabled to state, that, from the year 1796 to 1799, notwithstanding her already advanced age, Angelica Kauffman executed works which rivalled any that had previously issued from her pencil, and would be competent of themselves alone to give her the rank which she already occupied among modern artists.

În 1796 she finished a large and beautiful picture, representing our Saviour in that peculiarly interesting scene where he says,

66 Suffer the little children to come unto me. The surrounding disciples, the mothers pressing forward with their infants, and the children receiv


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