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inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; The President of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; - The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from twothirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.




Acquisition, national spirit of, reflec-
tions on, II. 312.

ADAMS, JOHN, delegate to first Conti-
nental Congress, I. 13. On Wash-
ington's appointment as commander-
in-chief, 42. One of the committee
to prepare Declaration of Indepen-
dence, 50. His account of the Dec-
laration, 82. First minister to Great
Britain, 257. Answer to his com-
plaints about the treaty, 257. In-
structed to negotiate treaty with the
Netherlands, 280. One of the com-
missioners to procure commercial
treaties, 287. Views of, respecting
taxation of slaves, II. 159. Practice
of, respecting cabinet, 409.
ADAMS, SAMUEL, delegate to first
Continental Congress, I. 13. Re-
serve of, respecting Constitution, II.
533. Disapproves of Constitution,
Character of, 534. Position
of, in convention of Massachusetts,
534. In favor of Hancock's amend-
ments to Constitution, 538.
ADAMS, captain in the Revolutionary
naval force, I. 74.


Address of the Colonies to the people
of Great Britain, I. 23.
Admiralty Jurisdiction, criminal, II.
330. Of courts of United States,
445. Under Confederation, 445.
Adoption of Constitution, mode of,
recommended, II. 372.
Albany, convention of Colonies at, in
1753-54, I. 8.
Alexandria, meeting of commissioners
at, from Virginia and Maryland, I.
Alexandria Commissioners, visit Gen-
eral Washington, I. 425. Report
of, received in Virginia legislature,


Aliens, rights to be conceded to, in
certain treaties, I. 280. See For-

Allegiance of people of the Colonies,
transferred, I. 52.
Alliance. See Treaty of Alliance.
Ambassadors, proposed appointment
of, by Senate, II. 223, 410; by Pres-
ident, 234. Received by President,
415. To be nominated by President,
418. Jurisdiction of cases affecting,


Amendment of Constitution, II. 84.
Provision for, adopted without debate,
177. And revolution, distinction be-
tween, 473.

Amendments of Constitution, when to
be proposed by Congress, II. 268.
How to be proposed and adopted,
473. How ratified, 477. Power to
make, limited, 477. States at liberty
to propose, 486. Proposed by Han-
cock, 537; by Massachusetts, classi-
fied, 539; by South Carolina, 548;
by Patrick Henry, 580; by Virginia,
581; by New York, 587, 588; by
North Carolina, 597. Refused in
Maryland convention, 543. Proposed,
not made conditions of adoption, 551.
Amendments of Articles of Confedera-
tion, how made, II. 84, 473, 481.
America, natural advantages of, for
commercial pursuits, II. 309. Vari-
ety of climate and products of, 309.
American Constitutions, character of, I.


American Feeling, Washington's efforts
to create, I. 110.
American People perceive the insuffi-
ciency of State governments, I. 114.
Early familiarity of, with the princi-
ples of government, 117. Perceive
the necessity of a union, 121. See
People of America.
American Revolution, commencement

of, I. 3. Attempt to alter charter
governments, a principal cause of, 6.
Found local legislatures in all the
Colonies, 7. Fundamental principle
established by, 379. Object and ef-
fects of, II. 196. Policy which led
to, real cause of, 238. Effect of, on
views of people of United States,
relating to government, 238.
Annapolis, general commercial con-
vention at, I. 326, 340, 350. Recom-
mends general convention to revise
the federal system, 349.
mendation, how received, 351. See
Annapolis Commissioners, report of,
acted upon in Congress, I. 355.
Anti-Federalists, plan of, to postpone
action of Virginia on Constitution,
II. 568. See Federalists.
Appropriation Bills, provision concern-
ing, objected to, II. 147. See Money
Bills and Revenue Bills.

Arms of the United States, when adopt-
ed, I. 151.

ARMSTRONG, JOHN, wrote the New-
burgh Addresses, I. 168.
Army, power of Congress to raise and
support, II. 333. Appropriation of
money for support of, 333. Power
of Congress to make rules for, 334.
Standing, repugnant to American
feelings, 336. Not to be kept by
States in time of peace, 371. Presi-
dent commander-in-chief of, 413.
Power of President to employ, 413.
Army of the Revolution, first suggested,
I. 31. How first raised, 32. State
of, when Washington arrived at
Cambridge, 55. How constituted,
58. Short enlistments in, how ac-
counted for, 60. Committee of Con-
gress sent to examine, 60. Discon-
tents in, 79, 158, 186. History of,
after the evacuation of Boston, 91.
Reorganized, 91, 92. Defects in or-
ganization of, 93. Officers of, how
appointed, 93; how treated in 1776,
Bad construction of, 94, 96.
Third effort of Washington to reor-
ganize, 109. Embarrassments and
difficulties attending, 110. State of,
in April, 1777, 111; in May, 1782,

Arrest, privilege from, II. 263.
Arsenals, authority of Congress over,
II. 340.

Articles of Confederation, I. 509. Re-
ported in Congress, and recommend-


ed to the States, 53, 104, 113. Adop-
tion of, by the States, 124. Amend-
ments to, proposed by the States,
128; by New Jersey, for regula-
tion of commerce, 129. Chief obsta-
cle to the completion of, 131. States
urged to accede to, 134. Ratified by
New Jersey, 135; by Delaware, 135;
by Maryland, 136. Completion of,
announced, 137. Established by pa-
tatriotic sacrifices, 139. Outline of,
142. Construction of third article of,
265. Circular letter of Congress, rec-
ommending adoption of, 491. Rep-
resentation of New Jersey respecting,
Act of New Jersey accepting,
497. Resolves of Delaware respect-
ing, 498. Action of Maryland on,
501; of New York on, 505. Amend-
ment of, at first contemplated, II. 16.
How altered, 84, 180, 481. Citizen-
ship under, 206. Effort to include
in, power over Western Territory,
341. Admission of new States under,
345. On what terms ratified by small-
er States, 346. Restraints imposed
on States by, 363. Inter-state privi-
leges under, 447.
Assemblies in Provincial governments,
how constituted, I. 4.
Assembling, one of the common law
rights, I. 23.

Association, drawn up by House of
Burgesses in Virginia, I. 12. For
non-importation, &c., how carried
out by colonists, 24.
Attainder, Bills of, defined, II, 360.
Congress prohibited to pass, 360.
States prohibited to pass, 368.
Attestation to Constitution, form of, II.



BALDWIN, ABRAHAM, model of Sen-
ate suggested by, II. 139. Vote and
views of, respecting representation in
Senate, 142.

Baltimore, public rejoicings in, in hon-
or of Constitution, II. 543.
BARNWELL, ROBERT, in favor of
Constitution, II. 510. Arguments
of, in convention of South Carolina,

BELKNAP, Dr., on slavery in Massa-
chusetts, II. 454.

Bill of Rights, want of, a strong argu-
ment with some against Constitution,
II. 498. James Wilson's views re-

specting, 522. States equally divid-
ed on question of, in Convention,
523. Considered essential by Patrick
Henry, 554. Proposed by Virginia,


Bills of Credit, power to emit, prohib-
ited to States, II. 328, 364. Mean-
ing of, 329.

Boston, occupied by royal troops in
1774-75, I. 27. Invested by army
under General Ward, in 1775, 32.
Reception of Constitution by people
of, II. 501. Rejoicings in, in honor
of Constitution, 540.
Boundary, Southern, fixed by the
Treaty of Peace, I. 312. Questions
of, proposed to be determined by
Senate, II. 223, 231; plan respect-
ing, 235. Determination of, a judi-
cial question, 232. See Western Ter-
ritory, Lands, and Northwestern Ter-

Bounties offered for enlistment in 1776,
I. 93. Additional, offered by States,
95; effect of, 110.
BOWDOIN, JAMES, delegate to first
Continental Congress, I. 13. Gov-
ernor of Massachusetts, 270. Sup-
presses Shays's rebellion, 270. Mes-
sage of, suggesting a general conven-
tion, 336.

Brandywine, battle of the, force en-
gaged in, Í. 113.

Bribery, by executive, dangers of, II.


British Colonies, legislatures of, divided
into two branches, II. 132.
of the Hannah, I. 74.
BUTLER, PIERCE, in favor of the
Constitution, II. 510.


Cabinet, functions of, II. 407. Views
respecting, in Convention, 408. Presi-
dent may require opinions of, 408.
Constitutional character of, 409.
Practice of first three Presidents re-
specting, 409.
Captures, power of Congress to regu-
late, II. 330.

Cases arising under Constitution, &c.,
meaning of, II. 430.

Census, periodical, proposed by Wil-
liamson of North Carolina, II. 153.
Vote respecting, 153. See Federal

Capitation Tax, report of committee of
detail respecting, II. 290. Provision
respecting, adopted, 304.
CARROLL, CHARLES, proposition of,
for asserting right of United States
to vacant lands, II. 353, 355.


Cessions of Northwestern Territory, II.
342 Of land by States to United
States, 356. See Western and North-
western Territory.

Charleston, rejoicings in, on adoption
of Constitution, II. 548.
Charter, of William and Mary to Mas-
sachusetts, I. 5; attempt to alter, 6.
Inviolability of, 23. How distin-
guished from constitution, II. 7.
Charter Governments, form and charac-
ter of, I. 5.

CHASE, SAMUEL, views of, respecting
taxation of slaves, II. 159.
Checks of one department on another,
II. 301.

Citizenship, as qualification of national
officers, II. 186, 188, 204; of sena-
tors, 223. State rules respecting,
unlike, 199. General privileges of,
under Confederation, 206, 448; un-
der Constitution, 448. See Naturali-


proceedings of, in Kentucky, I. 322.
CLINTON, GEORGE, message of, as
Governor of New York, on revenue
system of 1783, I. 359. Head of
party in New York opposed to Con-
stitution, II. 502.

Coinage of the United States, origin
of, I. 443.

Corr, captain in the Revolutionary
naval force, I. 74.

Colonies, thirteen English, I. 3. Ante-
Revolutionary governments of, 3.
Form a union, 3. No union of, be-
fore the Revolution, 7. Common
grievances of, 9. People of, how
descended, 9. Rights of, how to
be determined, 16; when and how
stated, 20; declaration of, 22; what
included in, 22; how to be enforced,
23. Trade of, how far right to regu-
late in Parliament, 20. Reduction
of, to submission, great preparations
for, 38. Trade with, prohibited by
Parliament, December, 1775, 38.
Change of, into States, 116. Consti-
tutional power of, II. 179.
Commerce, of the United States, I.
276; capacity of, at the close of the
war, 284. Regulation of, a leading

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