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II. 425. Jurisdiction under Consti-
tion important, 425.
Europe, politics of, as affecting Amer-
ica, II. 80.
Excises, power of Congress to collect,
II. 322. To be uniform throughout
United States, 325.
Executive, methods proposed for
choice of, II. 59, 171. Duration of
office of, under Hamilton's plan, 100.
Duration of office of, 171; proposed
to be during "good behavior," 173.
Re-eligibility of, different views re-
specting, 172, 175. Choice of, directly
by people, difficulties attending, 174.
Whether should be subject to im-
peachment, 175. Choice of, conflict
of opinions respecting, 220; proposed
to be by Congress for seven years,
220; by electors, 220; by Senate, in
certain events, 221; by House of Rep-
resentatives, 222; by concurrent vote
of Senate and House of Representa-
tives, 223, 230; proposed negative
of Senate in, 232. Jealousy of,
232. See President and Vice-Presi-
Executive Department, proposed consti-
tution and powers of, II. 56, 170.
Relation of, to legislature, 57, 247.
Unknown to Confederation, 60. Pow-
ers of, defined by constitutions in
America, 72. Influence to be al-
lowed to, over legislative, 244. Ac-
tion of, requires discretion, 246.
"Executive Power" vested in Presi-
dent, meaning of, 412.
Exports, taxation of, Pinckney's prop-
osition concerning, II. 189; refusal
of South Carolina to submit to, 281,
285; an undoubted function of gov-
ernment, 282; consequences of denial
of, 282; when only beneficial, 282;
question of, as affected by variety,
283; members of Convention in fa-
vor of, 284; report of committee of
detail respecting, 290; great embar-
rassments respecting, 294; arguments
for and against, 294, 297; opposition
to, not confined to South, 294; by
States, an oppressive power, 295;
finally prohibited, 295; for what rea-
sons opposed in Convention, 297;
by States, arguments for and against,
Er Post Facto Laws, definition of, II.
360, 367. Passage of, prohibited to
Congress, 360; to States, 368.
Faith and Credit, to be given to certain
acts, &c., I. 143.
Falmouth (now Portland), burnt, I. 38,
Faneuil Hall, meeting at, respecting a
national regulation of commerce, I.
Federal Census, origin of its rule of
three fifths, I. 213.
Federal Government, how distinguished
from "national," II. 33. By what
States preferred, 117. Arguments in
favor of, 124; theoretically sound,
126. Had proved a failure, 127.
Federal Town. See Congress and Seat
Federalist, original meaning of, II. 496.
Changes in meaning of term, 497.
Miniature ship so called, 543.
Federalists of Massachusetts, enthusi-
asm kindled by, II. 541. Of New
Hampshire, action of, 541. Of New
York, justified by Washington, 590;
complaints against, 591.
Federalist, The, published, I. 409.
Character and influence of, 417. His-
tory of the editions of, 418. Remark
of, respecting Confederation, II. 61.
Purpose of publication of, 503.
When first issued, 503. Authors
Felony, various meanings of, II. 331.
Power of Congress to define and pun-
Finances, must rest on some source of
compulsory revenue, I. 183. See
Debts, Revenue, and Duties.
Fisheries, great value of, II. 310.
Foreigners, cases affecting, jurisdiction
in, II. 443. Cannot demand sanc-
tuary as matter of right, 457.
Foreign Influence, jealousy of, II. 196,
204, 223. Necessity of counteract-
Forts, authority of Congress over, II.
Framers of the Constitution, difficulties
and perplexities of their task, I. 380.
Their qualifications, &c., 386. Their
France, debts of the United States to,
I. 172. Contracts with the king of,
177. Relations of the United States
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN, his plan of
union in 1754, I. 8. Advises a Con-
gress in 1773, 10. Appointed Post-
master-General by Continental Con-
gress, 35. One of the committee to
prepare Declaration of Independence,
50. One of the commissioners to
procure commercial treaties, 287.
Returns from Europe, 433. Public
services of, 433. Character of, 435.
Influence in the Convention, 436.
Speech of, at the close of the Con-
vention, 437. Witnesses the success
of Washington's administration, 439.
Proposition of, respecting represen-
tation in Congress, II. 146. Views
of, respecting money bills, 218. Op-
posed to paying President, 405. În
favor of plural executive, 405. Views
of, respecting executive, quite unlike
Hamilton's, 405; respecting conse-
quences of rejection of Constitution,
487. Unbounded confidence of peo-
ple in, 498.
Free Inhabitants, privileges of, I. 143.
French Loans. See France.
French Revolution, early writers of the,
I. 378. Begun when Constitution
went into operation, II. 80. Interest
felt in, in America, 80.
French Troops, arrive at Newport, I.
156. Join the army at New York,
Fugitives, from justice, provision for
surrender of, under the Confedera-
tion, I. 143, II. 449. From service,
clause in Constitution respecting,
history of, 450. See Slaves.
General Convention. See Constitutional
Georgia, a provincial government, I. 4.
Constitution of, formed, 122. Ap-
points and instructs delegates to the
Convention, 369. Had but one cham-
ber in legislature, II. 132. Opposed
to equality of suffrage in House of
Representatives, 138. Divided on
question of equal vote of States in
Senate, 141, 148. Had three repre-
sentatives in first House, 149. Op-
posed to census of free inhabitants,
153; to equality of States in Senate,
165; to executive holding office dur-
ing "good behavior," 173. In favor
of property qualification for national
officers, 204. Vote of, respecting citi-
zenship as qualification for office 209;
respecting money bills, 216, 218. Di-
vided on question of each State hav-
ing one vote in Senate, 227. Op-
posed to taxing exports, 296. Po-
sition of, in Convention, respecting
slave-trade, 297, 301. Vote of, re-
specting slave-trade, 305. Cession
by, in 1802, 357. Vote of, on sus-
pension of habeas corpus, 360; re-
specting citizenship clause in Consti-
tution, 453. Ratification of Consti-
tution by, 515, 526. Remoteness of,
526. Situation of, at close of Revo-
lution, 526. Motives of, to embrace
Constitution, 526. Address by legis-
lature of, to President Washington,
527. Exposure of, to ravages of In-
dians, 527. Escape of slaves from,
to Florida, 527.
GERRY, ELBRIDGE, opposed to nu-
merical representation in Congress,
II. 49; to tax on exports, 294. Re-
fused to sign Constitution, why, 485.
Censured for refusing to sign Con-
GILLON, Commodore, arguments of,
in convention of South Carolina, II.
GORHAM, NATHANIEL, views of, re-
specting rule of suffrage for House
of Representatives, II. 135. A mem-
ber of committee to apportion repre-
Government, disobedience to, how pun-
ished, II. 61. Essentials to suprema-
cy of, 62. Different departments in,
advantages of, 245. Approximation
to perfect theory of, only attainable,
247. Distribution of powers of, when
easy, 421; when difficult, 421.
Governor, part of the provincial gov-
ernments, I. 4.
GRAYSON, WILLIAM, opposed to Con-
stitution, II. 506.
Great Britain, re-union with, desired
by some, II. 493; letter of Colonel
Humphreys respecting, 493; Hamil-
ton's views respecting, 494.
Green Dragon Tavern, meeting at, re-
specting a national regulation of
commerce, I. 336.
Grievances. See Colonies and Revolu
Guardoqui, Spanish minister, arrival
of, I. 313. Negotiations with, re-
specting the Mississippi, 313.
Habeas Corpus, privilege of, when sus-
pended, II. 359; under common law
of England, 359.
Half-pay, resisted by Connecticut and
Massachusetts, I. 190. History of,
194. Commutation of, 194. See
Officers of the Revolution.
HALLAM, HENRY, Constitutional His-
tory of England by, great value of,
on the mode of proceeding, 364.
Confidence of, in the experiment of
a Convention, 373. History and
character of, 406. Birth of, 408.
Various public services of, 409, II.
593. Talleyrand's opinion of, I. 410.
Death of, 410. Views of, respecting
the English Constitution, 411. Re-
lation of, to the Constitution, 412.
Compared with the younger Pitt,
413, 416. Eminent fitness of, for the
times, 414. Advocates the Constitu-
tion in the Federalist, 417. Com-
pared with Webster, 418. Anxiety
of, about the Constitution, 419. Un-
justly charged with monarchical ten-
dencies, II. 11, 94, 110. Views of,
respecting Constitution, 94. Princi-
ples of civil obedience, as propound-
ed by, 96. Views of, respecting rule
of suffrage for House of Representa-
tives, 135; dissolution of Union, 136;
choice of President, 174, 240, 392;
naturalization, 205; larger House
of Representatives, 213. Measures
of, respecting summoning of Consti-
tutional Convention, 273. Views of,
respecting executive, quite unlike
Franklin's, 405; President's power
to adjourn Congress, 420. Explana-
tion of, respecting appellate power
of Supreme Court, 428. Views of,
respecting amendment of Constitu-
tion, 477. Objections of, to Consti-
tution, 487. Views of, respecting
consequences of rejection of Consti-
tution, 487, 570; possible reunion
with Great Britain, 494. Essays of,
in Federalist, 503. Believed people
predisposed in favor of Constitution,
516. Arrangements of, for transmis-
sion of news of action of States on
Constitution, 551. Leading spirit in
convention of New York, 568. Anx-
iety of, respecting action of States
on Constitution, 569. Had great
cause for solicitude, 569. Prospects
of usefulness of, 569. Foresight of,
respecting operation of Constitution,
570. Had profound understanding of
Constitution, 570. Ambition of, 570.
Importance of public character and
conduct of, 570. Contest of, with
opponents of Constitution in New
York, 571. Critical position of, as
citizen of New York, 571. Reply of,
to opponents of Constitution in New
York, 572. News received by, of
ratification of Constitution by New
HAMILTON, ALEXANDER, laments the
changes in Congress in 1778, I. 127.
Exertions of, respecting revenue sys-
Reasons of, for voting
against revenue system, 177. An-
swers the objections of Rhode Island,
177, 206, 207. On the commercial
advantages of a revenue power, 184.
On the discontents of the army, and
the public credit, 197. Opinions of,
concerning the reorganization, &c., in
1780, 202. Maintains that Congress
should have greatly enlarged powers,
204. Suggests a convention of all
the States in 1780, 205. Enters Con-
gress, 206. On a revenue, and the
mode of collecting it, 207. On the
compatibility of federal and State
powers, 207. On the appointment
of revenue officers, 208. Extent of
views of, 209. On the rule of con-
tribution, 210. On the necessity for
power of taxation, 211. Seeks to
introduce new principles, 211. On
a peace establishment, 214. Opin-
ions on the powers that should be
given to Congress, 219. Exertions
of, to suppress the mutiny at Phila-
delphia, 220. Views of, respecting
defects of the Confederation, 221.
Opinions of, too far in advance of
the time, 224. Answers New York
objections to revenue system, 247.
Opinions of, concerning the Con-
federation, 263. Views of, respect-
ing the regulation of commerce, 277;
the statesmanship of America, 278.
Induces New York to send delegates
to Annapolis, 345. Reports at An-
napolis in favor of a general Con-
vention to revise the federal system,
347. Relation of, the plan of a
general Convention, and a national
Constitution, 350. Contemplates a
new government, 350. Induces the
legislature of New York to urge a
general Convention, 359. Views of,
Hampshire, 573. Letter of, to Madi-
son, respecting chances of ratification
by New York, 575. Would have
been led by personal ambition to
remove from New York, 575. Policy
of, national, 577. Reason of, for em-
bracing Constitution, 577. Efforts
of, to procure adoption of Constitu-
tion by New York, 577, 584. Sends
news of ratification by New Hamp-
shire to Madison, 578. Great speech
of, in New York convention, in favor
of Constitution, 586. Writes to Madi-
son, asking advice respecting New
York, 587. Honors paid to, by city
of New York, 592.
HANCOCK, JOHN, retires from Con-
gress, I. 125. Returns to Congress,
126. President of Massachusetts
convention, II. 537. Proposes a-
mendments to Constitution, 537.
Great influence of, 537.
HARRISON, BENJAMIN, opposed to
Constitution, II. 506.
Hartford Convention, met in 1779, I.
Heights of Haerlem, occupied by Wash-
ington, I. 92.
HENRY, PATRICK, Governor of Vir-
ginia, I. 126. Declined to attend
Convention, II. 173. Opposed to
Constitution, 505. Characteristics
of, 505, 561. In favor of submitting
Constitution to people of Virginia,
510. Leader of opponents of Con-
stitution in Virginia, 552. Jeffer-
son's estimate of, 552. Great popu-
larity of, 552. Wisdom of, lacked
comprehensiveness, 553. Great pow-
ers of, employed against Constitu-
tion, 553. Views of, respecting
American spirit of liberty, 553. Con-
sidered Bill of Rights essential, 554.
Arguments of, against Constitution,
555, 557. Modern scepticism con-
cerning abilities of, 561. Quotes Jef-
ferson's views of Constitution, 561.
Opposed to Constitution to the last,
in Virginia Convention, 579. Project
of, for amending Constitution, 580.
Patriotic conduct of, on adoption of
Constitution by Virginia, 581. Be-
came earnest defender of Constitu-
House of Burgesses, of Virginia, dis-
solved, I. 11.
House of Commons, ministerial majori-
ty of, during Revolution, II. 237.
House of Representatives, Constitution
of, discussion respecting, II. 36. Mem-
bers of, chosen for two years, 134;
qualifications of, 134. Rule of suf-
frage for, great debate on, 135. Ex-
clusive power of, over money bills,
146, 214. Power of, to fix salaries
of government officers, 146. Ratio
of representation in, 147, 212. First,
apportionment of members for, 148,
151. Basis of, agreed to, 165. Mem-
bers of, must be twenty-five years old,
203; have been citizens three years,
203; be inhabitants of States from
which chosen, 212. Larger, favored
by Wilson, Madison, and Hamilton,
213. Ultimate choice of executive
by, 222. To present impeachments,
262. Quorum of, 262. To choose
its own presiding officer, 263. To
vote for President by States, 394.
Choice of President by, quorum for,
394; majority of States requisite to,
Howe, SIR WILLIAM, proclamation
by, respecting oath of allegiance, I.
106. Takes possession of Philadel-
phia, 113. Estimate of, concerning
the American force at the Brandy-
HUMPHREYS, Colonel, one of Wash-
ington's aids, II. 493. Letter of, re-
specting hopes of loyalists, 493.
HUNTINGTON, Governor, influence of,
in convention of Connecticut, II.
Impeachment, executive proposed to be
removable on, II. 171. Whether
executive should be subject to, 176.
How to be decided, 232. To be pre-
sented by House of Representatives,
262. Of President, causes of, 397.
King's pardon cannot be pleaded in
bar of, 414. President cannot par-
don, 414. King may pardon, 414.
Impeachments, proposed plan respect-
ing, II. 235. Nature of, and consti-
tutional provisions respecting, 260.
To be tried by Senate, 261.
Imposts, power of Congress to collect,
II. 322. To be uniform throughout
United States, 325. What may be
laid by States, 368. Laid by States,
net produce of, how applied, 368;
subject to the revision of Congress,
368. Revenue from, easiest mode of
paying expenses of government, 528.
Judges, tenure of office of, II. 67; in
England, 67. Removal of, 68. Pow-
er of removal of, in England, 69; in
Massachusetts, 70. "Good behavior"
JAY, JOHN, report of, on the infrac-
tions of the Treaty of Peace, I. 254,
257. Projected mission of, to Spain,
313. Proceedings of, as Secretary
for Foreign Affairs, respecting the
Mississippi, 313. Essays of, in Fed-
eralist, II. 503, Efforts of, to pro-
cure adoption of Constitution by
New York, 585.
JEFFERSON, THOMAS, one of the com-
mittee to prepare Declaration of In-
dependence, I. 50. Account by, con-
cerning the Congress of 1776, 64.
Account by, of Declaration of Inde-
pendence, 82. In the legislature of
Virginia, 126. One of the commis-
sioners to procure commercial trea-
ties, 287. On the surrender of the
Mississippi, 321. Suggests the deci-
mal coinage, 443. Views of, respect-
ing admission of States, II. 76. Re-
solve of, for organization of States
from Northwestern Territory, 343.
Practice of, respecting cabinet, 409.
Views of, respecting government,
506; modifications of Constitution,
506. At Paris when Constitution
was adopted, 506. Did not counsel
rejection of Constitution, 508. Per-
severed in certain objections to Con-
stitution, 509. Letters of, respecting
Constitution, 562, 564.
JOHNSON, Dr., of Connecticut, views
of, respecting Constitution, II. 128.
First suggested present constitution
of Congress, 138.
Journal, to be kept by each house of
Congress, II. 263.
Judicial Power of United States, to set-
tle disputes between State and nation,
II. 54. Unknown to Confederation,
60. Necessity and office of, 61. In-
tent evinced by introduction of, 63.
Made supreme, 64. Coextensive with
legislative, 65. Control of, over State
legislation, 66. Formation of, 421.
Great embarrassments respecting,
422. Admirable structure of, 422. Ju-
risdiction of, cases embraced by, 423.
Great importance of clearly defining,
425. Embraces cases under Constitu-
tion, laws, and treaties, 429. Changes
and improvements in original plan
of, 431. Constitutional functions of,
431. Leading purposes of, 431. May
declare laws unconstitutional, 434.
Simplicity, &c. given by, to opera-
tion of government, 437.
Judiciary, functions of, II. 63, 432.
Question concerning number of tri-
bunals in, 65. Proposed powers of,
66. Restriction respecting salary of,
176. Jurisdiction of, respecting im-
peachment of national officers, 176;
over cases arising under national
laws, 176; over questions involving
national peace, 176. Action of, not
to be influenced by other depart-
Judiciary of Massachusetts, attempt to
alter the charter in respect to, I. 6.
Kentucky, inhabitants of, resist the sur-
render of the Mississippi, I. 322.
KING, RUFUS, birth and education
of, I. 448. Public services of, 448.
Proposes the clause respecting the
obligation of contracts, 452; II. 365.
Senator in Congress, I. 453. Min-
ister to England, 453. A member
of committee to apportion represent-
atives, II. 148. Views of, respecting
Senate, 225; seat of government, 275.
Remarks of, respecting slave-trade,
281. Views of, respecting represen-
tation of slaves, 292. Effort of, to
exclude slavery from Northwestern