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Land as the basis of a rule for contri-
bution, I. 210. Adopted as measure
of wealth by Congress of 1776, II.
160. Of United States unappropri-
ated, Madison's motion respecting,


Lands, right of aliens to hold, pro-
posed in certain treaties, I. 280. See
Western Lands and Territory.
Law of Nations, offences against, II.
330; power of Congress to define
and punish, 331. Respecting extra-
dition of fugitives, 456.
Laws of United States, how enacted,
II. 264; supreme, 372, 374; to be
in pursuance of Constitution, 374;
cases arising under, jurisdiction over,
430. Of States, constitutionality of,
Constitutionality of, how de-
termined, 434.


LAW, RICHARD, influence of, in con-
vention of Connecticut, II. 529.
LEE, CHARLES, General, expedition
of, against the Tories of New York,
I. 66.

resolution of independency, I. 49.
Account of, 49. On the navigation
of the Mississippi, 315. Proposition
of, in Congress, to amend Constitu-
tion, II. 500. Opposed to Constitu-
tion, 506.
Legislative Department, division of, into
two chambers, I. 119. Omnipotent
in England, 72. Powers of, limited
in America by constitutions, 72.
Hamilton's views respecting, II. 100,
103, 105. Great struggle respecting,
in Constitutional Convention, 130.
Objections to one chamber in, 130.
How far may safely be influenced by
executive, 244. Action of, requires
discretion, 246. Close relation of,
to executive, 247.
Letters of Marque and Reprisal issued
by Massachusetts in 1775, I. 75.
Power of Congress to grant, II.

Lexington, battle of, I. 27.
committee to prepare Declaration of
Independence, I. 50. Remarks of, in
convention of New York, II. 574.
Efforts of, to procure adoption of
Constitution by New York, 585.
Long Island, battle of, I. 91.
LOWNDES, RAWLINS, opposed to

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Constitution, II. 510. Arguments
of, against Constitution, 511.
Loyalists, scheme of, respecting Bishop
of Osnaburg, II. 492. Numbers of,
small, 493. Alarm occasioned by
supposed scheme of, 493. See Tories.


MADISON, JAMES, enters the Revolu-
tionary Congress, I. 126. Exertions
of, respecting revenue system, 176.
Writes the address in favor of rev-
enue system, 177. Answers Mas-
sachusetts on the half-pay, 193.
Birth of, 420. Public services of,
to the close of the war, 420. Ini-
tiates the Virginia measures leading
to a general Convention, 423. At-
tends the convention at Annapolis,
427. Attends the general Conven-
tion, 427. Labors of, in the Conven-
tion, 427. Opinions and character
of, 428. Described by Jefferson, 430.
Letter of, to Philip Mazzei, 431. Ac-
tion of, respecting change in rule of
suffrage, II. 36. Views of, respecting
national government, 40; Senate, 41;
revision by Congress of State legis-
lation, 54; revisionary check on leg-
islation by executive, 58; use of force
against States, 62; Constitution, 106;
rule of suffrage for House of Repre-
sentatives, 135; dissolution of Union,
136; Western States, 152. How far
in favor of executive during "good
behavior," 173. Views of, respecting
difference between Constitution and
league, 184; naturalization, 205. In
favor of larger House of Representa-
tives, 213. Views of, respecting eligi-
bility of members of Congress to of-
fice, 250; seat of government, 275. In
favor of tax on exports, 284. Views
of, respecting slave-trade, 304. Prop-
osition of, respecting Indian affairs,
327. Views of, respecting legislation
of Congress of Confederation over
Northwestern Territory, 345, 348,
351. Views and votes of, concern-
ing Northwestern Territory, 348.
Holds regulation of commerce to be
indivisible, 371. Views of, respecting
treason, 386. Motion of, respecting
election of President, 403. Views of,
respecting amendment of Constitn-
tion, 477; consequences of rejec
tion of Constitution, 487. Proposed

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tion to State legislatures, 184; each
State having one vote in Senate, 186,
227. Vote of, respecting citizenship,
as qualification for office, 209; money
bills, 216, 218. Opposed to nine
years' citizenship as qualification of
senator, 224; taxing exports, 296.
Vote of, respecting slave-trade, 305;
admission of States, 354. Action
of legislature of, respecting Constitu-
tion, 511. Convention of, to vote
on Constitution, 514; importance of
action of, 542; efforts made in, to
amend Constitution, defeated, 543.
MASON, GEORGE, views of, respecting
Constitution, II. 123. Objections of,
to compound ratio of representation,
Views of, respecting money
bills, 218. Opposed to tax on ex-
ports, 294. Proposition of, to re-
strain grants of perpetual revenue,
319. Views of, respecting militia,
337. Refused to sign Constitution,
why, 485, 509. Great ability of, 505.
Opposed to Constitution, 505. In
favor of submitting Constitution to
people of Virginia, 509. Arguments
of, against Constitution, in Virginia
convention, 557.
Massachusetts, a charter government,
I. 5. Provincial governor of, ap-
pointed by the crown, 5. Council of,
chosen by Assembly, 5. Represen-
tatives of, chosen by the people, 5.
Appoints delegates to first Continen-
tal Congress, 12. Colonial govern-
ment of, how ended, 25. Provincial
Congress of, how formed, 26. Au-
thority assumed by Provincial Con-
gress, 26. Applies to the Continen-
tal Congress, for direction and assist-
ance, 31; about government, 32.
Army raised by, in 1775, 31. Issues
letters of marque and reprisal, 75.
Establishes prize court, 75. Money
borrowed of, by General Washington,
80. Constitution of, formed, 121.
Objections of, to the half-pay, 191;
answered by Madison, 193. Act of,
concerning British debts, 253. Con-
stitution of, dangers to which it was
exposed, 263. Insurrection in, 266,
II. 83. Disaffection in, extensive, I.
273. Cedes claims to Western Ter-
ritory, 300. Proceedings of, respect-
ing a general Convention, 334. Con-
dition of the trade of, in 1785 - 86,
335. Legislature of, proposes
general Convention, 336; resolutions


MARTIN, LUTHER, views of, respect-
ing Constitution, II. 92, 121; rule of
suffrage for House of Representatives,
135; manner of voting in Senate,
186. Motion of, respecting admis-
sion of States, 354. Supremacy of
Constitution, &c. proposed by, 374.
Great opposition of, to Constitution,
484, 512. Communication of, to
legislature of Maryland, 512; chief
ground of, 513.
MARTINDALE, captain in the Revolu-
tionary naval force, I. 74.
Maryland, a proprietary government,
I. 5. Constitution of, formed, 122.
Remonstrates against the claims to
Western lands, 131, 421. Ratifies
the Constitution, 136. Action of,
commended, 138. Appoints and
instructs delegates to the Conven-
tion, 369. Action of, upon the
Articles of Confederation, 501. Del-
egates from, divided in opinion,
II. 121. Divided on question of
national legislature, 133; equality
of suffrage in House of Representa-
tives, 138. In favor of equal repre-
sentation of States in Senate, 141,
165. Had six representatives in first
House, 149. Opposed to census of
free inhabitants, 153; executive hold-
ing office during "good behavior,"
173. In favor of referring Constitu-

of, not presented to Congress, 337.
Resolution of, for a general Conven-
tion, 361. Appoints and instructs
delegates to the Convention, 369.
Opposed to equality of suffrage in
House of Representatives, II. 138;
equal representation of States in Sen-
ate, 141, 217. Divided on question of
equal vote of States in Senate, 148,
165. Had eight representatives in
first House, 149. In favor of census
of free inhabitants, 153. Opposed to
executive holding office during "good
behavior," 173. Qualifications of
voter in, 188. In favor of property
qualification for national officers, 204.
Vote of, respecting citizenship as
qualification for office, 209; money
bills, 216, 218. Opposed to nine
years' citizenship as qualification of
Senator, 224; each State having one
vote in Senate, 227. Sentiments of,
respecting holding of office by mem-
bers of Congress, 249. In favor of
States paying members of Congress,
259. Opposed to taxing exports,
296. Vote of, respecting slave-trade,
305. Slavery in, as early as 1630,
454. Parties in, for and against
Constitution, 501. Reception of
Constitution in, 501. Convention
in, to vote on Constitution, 502,
530. Formidable opposition to Con-
stitution in convention of, 529. High
rank of, 530. Vacillation of, 530.
Revolutionary history of, 530. Anx-
iety respecting action of, on Consti-
tution, 531. Insurrection in, effect
of, 531. Constitution exposed to
peculiar hazard in, 531; ratified in,
by compromise, 531. Constitution
of, excellence of, 531. Parties in
convention of, 532. Convention in,
amendments to Constitution recom-
mended by, 532, 538, 539; oppo-
nents of Constitution in, 533, 534;
eminent men in, 534. Probable dis-
astrous effects of rejection of Con-
stitution by, 535. Convention of,
proceedings in, 536; discussion in,
respecting Hancock's amendments to
Constitution, 538; patriotic conduct
of, 539. Enthusiasm kindled by ac-
tion of, 541.
MAZZEI, PHILIP, letter to, by Madi-
son, I. 431.

MCKEAN, THOMAS, views of, respect-
ing Constitution, II. 523. Public
services of, 524.

MIFFLIX, General, sent by Washing-
ton to the Congress, I. 98.
Military Posts, retained by the British
after the treaty, I. 256, 259.
Militia, relation of, to the Conti-
nental Congress, I. 35. Committee
on, II. 319. Of States, power of
general government over, 334; in-
efficient as troops in Revolution, 334;
lack of uniformity among, 335;
power of general government over,
necessary, 336; how to be disciplined,
337; when Congress may call forth,
338; President commander-in-chief
of, 413; cannot call out without
authority of Congress, 413.
Ministers. See Ambassadors.
Mint, establishment of, I. 444.
Mississippi River, controversy and ne-
gotiations respecting navigation of,
I. 310; referred to the new govern-
ment, 327. Navigation of, a topic of
opponents of Constitution in Vir-
ginia convention, II. 565; Madi-
son's views respecting, 567.
Mississippi Valley, people of, spirit of
the, I. 319; retaliate upon the Span-
ish authorities, 322; form commit-
tees, &c., 323.
Monarchical Government, dangers of
attempting to establish, I. 370.
Monarchy, detested by people of United
States, II. 237, 492. Proposed, ru-
mors of, 492. Attempt to introduce,
averted by Constitution, 494.
Money, power to coin, given to Con-
gress, II. 328; borrow, and emit
bills, 328.

Money Bills, Originated by House of
Representatives, II. 146. Provision
concerning, objected to, 147; origin
of, 214. Originated by House of
Commons, 216. Hallam's discus-
sion respecting, 216. Vote of States
respecting, 216. Different proposi-
tions in Convention repecting, 219.
May be amended in Senate, 222.
MONTESQUIEU, political discussions
of, alluded to, I. 377.
Revolutionary Congress, I. 127. Birth
of, 440. Public services of, 440.
Chosen Assistant Financier, 443.
Author of the decimal notation, 443.
Prepares the text of the Constitution,
444. Character of, 444. First Min-
ister to France, 447. Senator from
New York, 447. Invited to write in
The Federalist, 447. Death of, 447.

Action of, respecting change in rule
of suffrage, II. 36. A member of
committee to apportion representa-
tives, 148. Views of, respecting At-
lantic and Western States, 152; re-
specting compound ratio of repre-
sentation, 152. Proviso of, respect-
ing taxation and representation, 158.
Views of, respecting choice of exec-
utive, 174. Remarks of, respecting
slave-trade, 281. In favor of tax on
exports, 284. Views of, on concession
to Southern States, 293. Committee
of compromise proposed by, 301.
Proposition of, respecting
lands, 355.
MORRIS, ROBERT, on a committee to
inform Washington of extraordinary
powers, I. 101. Laments the ab-
sence of some great revolutionary
characters, 104. Appointed Super-
intendent of Finances, 174. Resig-
nation of, 198.

Mutiny, at Philadelphia, of federal
troops, I. 220.


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ton and Madison respecting, 205.
Embarrassments of subject, 205.
Uniform rule of, power to establish,
given to Congress, 328.
Naval Force, employment of, in Mas-
sachusetts Bay, I. 73.
Navigation Act, report of committee of
detail respecting, II. 290, 301. Posi-
tion of Southern States respecting,
297. Two-thirds vote proposed by
them to be required for, 299. In-
terest of different States respecting,
301. Passage of, by majority, agreed
to, 304.

Navy, origin of the Revolutionary, I.
73. Want of, II. 298. Power of
Congress to provide and maintain,
334; to make rules for, 334. Power
of President to employ, 413. Presi-
dent commander-in-chief of, 413.
Newark, Washington's evacuation of,
I. 98.

Naturalization, a subject of solicitude,
II. 196. Formerly a State power,
198, 199. A proper subject of con-
stitutional provision, 200. Power of,
transferred from State to national
government, 201. Views of Hamil-

Newburgh Addresses, authorship and
style of, I. 168. Copy of, sent to the
States, 177. Note on, 194.
New England, confederation of, in
1643, II. 453.

New Hampshire, a provincial govern-
ment, I. 4. Ante-Revolutionary gov
ernment of, 4. Constitution of, form
ed, 119. Appoints and instructs del-
egates to the Convention, 369. Late
attendance of, in Convention, II. 24
Had three representatives in first
House, 149. In favor of property
qualification for national officers, 204.
Vote of, respecting citizenship, as qual-
ification for office, 209; respecting
money bills, 218; respecting slave-
trade, 305. In favor of taxing ex-
ports, 296. Vote on Constitution in,
postponed, why, 510; effect of, on
parties in Virginia, 510. Population
of, easily led to oppose Constitution,
514. Convention of, to vote on Con-
stitution, 514; members of, instruct-
ed to reject Constitution, 529; amend-
ments presented to, 541; majority
of, at first opposed to Constitution,
541; adjournment of, effect of, 541.
Action of Federalists of, 541. Con-
vention of, meets, on adjournment,
549; anxiety respecting action of,
549. Ratification of Constitution by,
573. Ninth State to ratify Constitu-
tion, 578.

New Jersey, a provincial government,
I. 4. Washington's retreat through,
97. Constitution of, formed, 122.

Proposal of, in 1778, for the regula
tion of commerce, 129. Resists the
claim of great States to Western
lands, 131. Ratifies the Confedera-
tion, 135. Action of, commended,
138. Attempts to pay its quotas in
paper money, 242. Recommends the
regulation of commerce, 277. Ap-
points and instructs delegates to the
Convention, 368. Representation of,
concerning the Articles of Confedera-
tion, 493. Act of, accepting them,
497. Purely "federal government
proposed by, II. 92. Hamilton's plan
of, radical objections to, 99; con-
demned by Madison, 106. Opposed
to division of legislature, 133. In
favor of equality of suffrage in House
of Representatives, 138; of equal
representation of States in Senate,
141, 148, 165. Had four representa-
tives in first House, 149. In favor of
census of free inhabitants, 153; of
executive holding office during "good
behavior," 173. Vote of, respecting
citizenship as qualification for office,
209; respecting money bills, 216, 218.
In favor of each State having one
vote in Senate, 227. Vote of, re-
specting eligibility of members of
Congress to office, 251; respecting
representation of slaves, 293; re-
specting slave-trade, 305; respecting
admission of States, 354. In favor
of taxing exports, 296. Opposed to
restricting President to stated salary,
407. Ratification of Constitution by,
515. Convention of, 524. Position
of, respecting Constitution, 524. Al-
ways in favor of vesting regulation
of commerce in general government,
525. Action of, in Constitutional
Convention, respecting representa-
tion, 525.

New States, admission of, under the
Confederation, I. 292; under the Or-
dinance of 1787, 308. See Western
Territory and Northwestern Terri-

New York, Constitution of, formed, I.
122. Magnanimity of, commended,
137. Action of, upon the revenue
system of 1783, 246. Act of, respect-
ing British debts, 253. Trespass act
of, 256. Proceedings of, respecting
a general commercial convention,
343, 358. Resolution of, for a gen-
eral Convention, 360; how received
in Congress, 360. Appoints and in-

structs delegates to the Convention,
369. Act of, respecting boundaries,
&c., 505. Rank of, at formation of
Constitution, II. 118. Commerce of,
at formation of Constitution, 118.
Views of public men of, 118. Op-
posed to division of legislature, 133.
In favor of equality of suffrage in
House of Representatives, 138; in
Senate, 141, 148. Had six representa-
tives in first House, 149. Withdrawal
of delegates of, from Convention, 165,
182, 484, 502. Rejection of Constitu-
tion by, probable, 182. Vote of, re-
specting money bills, 216. In favor
of each State having one vote in Sen-
ate, 227. Reception of Constitution
in, 502. Executive government of,
opposed to Constitution, 502. Jeal-
ousy of Union existing in, 502. Let-
ter of delegates of, against Constitu-
tion, 502. Proceedings of legislature
of, respecting Constitution, 503; of
parties in, respecting Constitution,
503. Convention of, to vote on Con-
stitution, 504. Formidable opposi-
tion to Constitution in convention of,
529. Legislature of, divided on ques-
tion of submitting Constitution to
people, 536. Convention of, impor-
tance of action of, 542; time of meet-
ing of, 549; anxiety respecting ac-
tion of, 549; met at Poughkeepsie,
549; Hamilton leading spirit in, 568;
discussion in, respecting system of
representation proposed by Constitu-
tion, 573. Opponents of Constitu-
tion in, arguments and plan of, 572;
Hamilton's reply to, 572. Effect on,
of ratification by New Hampshire,
574. Opponents of Constitution in,
schemes of, 584. Numerous amend-
ments to Constitution proposed by,
587. Plan of, to adopt Constitution
conditionally, 587. Great struggle in,
over ratification of Constitution, 588.
Circular letter from, to all other
States, 588. Federalists of, justified
by Washington, 590; complaints
against, 591.

New York City, applies to the Conti-
nental Congress respecting British
troops, I. 31. Occupied by the Brit-
ish, 91. Temporary establishment
of seat of government at, effect of,
591. Celebration in, of adoption of
Constitution, 592. Honors paid by,
to Hamilton, 592.
NICHOLAS, GEORGE, a leading advo-

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