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cate of Constitution in Virginia, II.

Nobility, title of, cannot be granted by
Congress, II. 362.
Non-Intercourse, when and why adopt-
ed by Colonies, I. 23. Association
for, recommended and adopted, 24.
North Carolina, a provincial govern-
ment, I. 4. Constitution of, formed,
122. Appoints and instructs dele-
gates to the Convention, 369. Op-
posed to equality of suffrage in House
of Representatives, II. 138; to equal-
ity of votes in Senate, 141, 217. Vote
of, respecting equal vote of States in
Senate, 141, 148, 165; respecting
census of free inhabitants, 153. Had
five representatives in first House,
149. Opposed to executive holding
office during "good behavior," 173.
Vote of, respecting citizenship as
qualification for office, 209; respect-
ing money bills, 216, 218. Divided
on question of nine years' citizenship
as qualification of Senator, 224. Op-
posed to each State having one vote
in Senate, 227; to taxing exports,
296. Position of, in Convention, re-
specting slave-trade, 297, 301. Vote
of, respecting slave-trade, 305; on
suspension of habeas corpus, 360.
Cession by, in 1790, 357. Opposed
to restricting President to stated sal-
ary, 407. Convention of, Anti-Fed-
eral majority in, 596; debate in, 596;
amendments to Constitution pro-
posed by, 597; peculiar action of,
597. Attitude of, placed Union in
new crisis, 603.
Northern States, in favor of granting to
government full revenue and com-
mercial powers, II. 292. Chief mo-
tive of, for forming Constitution a
commercial one, 298. Cut off from
British West India trade, 298. Sep-
arate interests of, different, 300.
Northwestern Territory ceded by Vir-
ginia, I. 137, 295. Cession modi-
fied, 300. Ordinance respecting, why
framed, 301; provisions of, 302;
character of, 306. Ordinance for,
reported, 452. Cession of, II. 15.
Origin and relations of, &c., 341.
Jefferson's resolve for organization
of States in, 343. Slavery in, pro-
posals for prohibiting, 343. Ceded
on what trusts, 347,349. Admission
of new States under, see New




Oath, of office, proposed by New Jer-
sey in 1778, I. 130.

Oath of Allegiance, to the King, re-
ceived by Sir William Howe in New
Jersey, I. 106. To the United States
required by Washington in New Jer-
sey, 107; dissatisfaction occasioned
by, 107. Propriety of, defended by
Washington, 108. Prescribed in
Congress in 1778, 109.
Obligation of Contracts, clause respect-
ing, taken from the Ordinance of
1787, I. 452.

Officers of United States, appoint-
ment of, II. 417.
Officers of the Revolution, treatment of,
by Congress, and the country, I. 159.
Pay of, 159. Proceedings in Con-
gress respecting half-pay for, 160.
Pennsylvania line, 163. Proceed-
ings of, respecting their pay, 165.
See Army of the Revolution, Half-
pay, and Newburgh Addresses.
Oligarchy, detested by people of Unit-
ed States, II. 237.
Orders in Council, respecting trade
with the United States, I. 283. Ef-
forts of Congress to counteract, 285.
Effect of, on Northern States, II. 298.
Ordinance of 1787, framing of, I. 452.
Admission of new States provided
for by, II. 77. Fixed no mode of ad-
mitting new States, 79. Provisions
of, 344. Slavery excluded by, 344.
Author of, 344, 365. Passed, 365.
Character of, 366. Provision in, re-
specting contracts, occasion of, 366.
Extradition of slaves under, 454.
Osnaburg, Bishop of, rumored purpose
of loyalists respecting, II. 492. Af-
terwards Duke of York, 493.


PAINE, ROBERT TREAT, delegate to
first Continental Congress, I. 13.
PALFREY, Colonel, sent to New
Hampshire to arrest Tories, I. 65.
Paper Money, first issued by the Con-
tinental Congress, I. 78. Signing of,
78. State systems of, under Confed-
eration, II. 310. See Rhode Island.
Pardon, President's power of, II. 413.
See Treason.
Parliament, British, authority of, over
trade, how recognized by first Conti-

nental Congress, I. 20. Two houses
in, origin of, II. 0; mutual rela-
tions of, 130. Corruption in, origin
and extent of, 242; effect of knowl-
edge of, on framers of Constitution,
243. Necessity of officers of state,
&c. sitting in, 254. Analogy of Con-
gress to, 254.

PARSONS, THEOPHILUS, motion of, in
Massachusetts Convention, to ratify
Constitution, II. 537. Form of rati-
fication and proposed amendments
drawn by, 541.

Patents for useful inventions, subject
of, brought forward by Pinckney, II.
339. State legislation concerning,
339. Power over, surrendered to
Congress, 339.
New Jersey plan of government, II.
Arguments of, in Convention,



Peace, effect of, upon the country, I.
179. See Treaty of Peace.
Peace Establishment. See Washington
and Hamilton.

PENDLETON, Chancellor, a leading
advocate of Constitution in Virginia,
II. 506.
Pennsylvania, a proprietary govern-
ment, I. 5. Constitution of, formed,
122. Stop-law of, 253. Appoints
and instructs delegates to the Con-
vention, 368. Had but one chamber
in legislature, II. 132. Opposed to
election of Senators by State legisla-
tures, 135; to equality of suffrage in
House of Representatives, 138; to
equal representation of States in
Senate, 141, 148, 165, 217. Had
eight representatives in first House,
149. In favor of census of free in-
habitants, 153; of executive holding
office during good behavior, 173.
Opposed to property qualification for
office, 189. Constitution of, citizen-
ship under, 206. Vote of, respecting
citizenship as qualification for office,
209; respecting money bills, 218.
Opposed to nine years' citizenship as
qualification of Senator, 224; to each
State having one vote in Senate, 227;
to impeachments being tried by Sen-
ate, 262. In favor of taxing exports,
296. Vote of, respecting slave-trade,
305. Ratification of Constitution by,
515. Convention of, first to meet,
519. Second State in population, in
1787, 519. Western counties of, in-

surrection in, 521; opposition of, to
Constitution, 524.

People of America, when not associated
as such, I. 16. Sole original source
of political power, II. 38, 471, 482.
Will of, how to be exercised, 471;
on a new exigency, how to be ascer-
tained, 483.

Petition, right of assembling for, as-
serted, I. 23. Of Continental Con-
gress to the King, 23, 38.
Philadelphia, threatened loss of, to the
enemy, I. 99. Falls into the hands
of the enemy, 113. Fought for, at
the battle of the Brandywine, 113.
The scene of many great events, II.
519. Demonstration at, in honor of
adoption of Constitution, 582.
PICKERING, TIMOTHY, suggests acad-
emy at West Point, I. 218.
Revolutionary services of, I. 454.
Views of, respecting the requisite re-
form, 455; on the slave-trade, 456,
459, 460; respecting consequences
of rejection of Constitution, 487.
Proposition of, respecting taxes on
exports, II. 189; respecting extradi-
tion of slaves, 189, 452. Notifies Con-
vention of position of South Carolina
concerning tax on exports, 280. In
favor of Constitution, 510. Writes
to Washington of adoption of Consti-
tution by South Carolina, 544. Fi-
delity of, to South Carolina, 545.
Arguments of, in South Carolina
convention, 548.
PINCKNEY, CHARLES, plan of gov
ernment submitted by, II. 32. Propo-
sition of, respecting House of Repre-
sentatives, negatived, 40. Suggestions
of, respecting public debt, revenue,
&c., 319. In favor of Constitution,


Piracy, nature of, II. 331. Power of

Congress to define and punish, 331.
PITT, WILLIAM, designs commercial
relations with the United States, I.
282. His bill to effect them, 283.
His extraordinary opportunities, 413.
Estimate of, 414.

Political Science, among the ancients,
I. 374. In the Middle Ages of Eu-
rope, 375; in England, 376; in
France, 377.
Popular Governments, American theory
of, I. 261.
Population of States in 1790, table of,
II. 55.

Ports, no preference to be given to,
II. 324.

Post-Office department, Continental,
first established, I. 35; colonial, 433.
Power to establish, extended to post-
roads, II. 328.

of Union, 419. To recommend meas-
ures to Congress, 419. May call ex-
tra sessions of Congress, 419. When
may adjourn Congress, 419.
Constitution, II. 510.

Prize-Courts, want of, under the Revolu-
tionary government, I. 73. Establish-
ment of, urged by Washington, 75.
Of Massachusetts, trials in, 75. Co-
lonial, appeals from, to Congress, 76.
Under Constitution, II. 330.
Property, urged as basis of representa
tion, II. 148. As a qualification of
elector, 148; for office, 187, 202.
Proprietary Governments, form and
character of, I. 5.
Protections, issued by Sir William
Howe in New Jersey, I. 106. Sur-
render of, required by Washington,


Preamble of Constitution, as reported
and adopted, II. 372; language of,
important, 373.
President, making of treaties by,
with consent of Senate, II. 234.
Officers proposed to be appoint-
ed by, with consent of Senate, 234.
Re-eligibility of, arguments in favor
of, 235. Choice of, proposed meth-
od of, 235; by Senate, objections
to, 236, 392; ultimate, by House of
Representatives, 240, 394. Revision-
ary control over, where to be lodged,
239. Extensive patronage of, 252.
Subject to impeachment, 261; for
what causes, 397. Veto power of,
264. Objections of, to law, to be en-
tered on journal of Congress, 264.
Choice of, direct, by people, nega-
tived, 388; by electors, objections to,
388; advantages of, 389; method
of, 390. Term of office of, proposed
to be seven years, 392. Choice
of, by majority of electors, objec-
tions to, 393. Vacancy in office
of, 397; when Congress to provide
for, 401. "Inability" of, to discharge
duties, meaning of, 397; how ascer-
tained, 397. Insanity of, 397. Death
of, and of Vice-President, 398. Choice
of, changes in mode of, 400; if not
made before 4th of March, 400; by
House of Representatives, to be from
three highest candidates, 400. Qual-
ifications of, 404. Pay of, arguments
in favor of, 404; not to be increased
nor diminished during term of office,
406. Forbidden to receive more than
stated salary, 407. Council for, ques-
tion concerning, 407. May require
opinions of cabinet officers, 408.
Alone responsible for conduct of ex-
ecutive department, 409. Powers of,
409; to make war and peace, 411;
over State militia, 413; to pardon
offences, 413; to appoint officers, 417.
"Executive power" vested in, mean-
ing of, 412. Oath of, to execute laws,
412. Commander-in-chief, 413. To
prosecute war, 413. Treaty-making
power of, 414. To receive ambassa-
dors, &c., 415. Cannot create offices,
To inform Congress of state


Provincial Governments, form and char-
acter of, I. 4.

Public Lands. See Western Territory,
Northwestern Territory, and Ordinance
of 1787.


Qualifications, of national officers, pro-
posals respecting, II. 186; landed, re-
jected, 187; property, an embarrass-
ing subject, 202. Of electors, 187,
194, 200. Of voter in Massachusetts,
188. Of members of Congress, 194.
Of citizenship, embarrassments re-
specting, 205; attempt to exempt
certain persons from rule respecting,
205. Of Senators, 223. Of Vice-
President, 401. Of President, 404.
Of religious test, never to be required,
Queen's County, Long Island, inhabit-
ants of, to be disarmed, I. 68.
Quorum, discussions in Convention
respecting, II. 262.
Quotas, first apportionment of, among
the Colonies, I. 34. Of troops in
1776, 92. See Requisitions.


RAMSAY, DAVID, Dr., in favor of
Constitution, II. 510.
ington to attend the Convention, I.
365. Revolutionary services of, 480.

Governor of Virginia, 481. Course
of, in the Convention, 481. Reasons
of, for supporting the Constitution,
481. Genealogy of, 485. Plan of
government proposed by, II. 32, 410.
A member of committee to appor-
tion representatives, 148. Objections
of, to compound ratio of representa-
tion, 151. Proposition of, respecting
census, 162; to strike out "wealth'
from rule of representation, 164. In
favor of confining equality of States
in Senate to certain cases, 165.
Views of, respecting money bills,
218. Resolution of, respecting ad-
mission of new States, 349. Clause
introduced by, respecting death of
President, &c., 403. Refused to sign
Constitution, why, 485, 555. Posi-
tion of, respecting Constitution, 506.
Advocated adoption of Constitution
in Virginia convention, 556.
RANDOLPH, PEYTON, President of
first Continental Congress, I. 13;
of second Continental Congress, 28.
Death and character of, 28.
Ratification of Constitution, as mark-
ing character of government, II. 85.
Different theories respecting, 177.
Mode of, 375; resolutions respecting,
375; purpose of, 375; an embarrass-
ing question, 479. Vote of States
respecting, 483, 515. By only part
of States, effect of, 484. Unanimous,
could not be required, 484. By nine
States sufficient, 485. Pageants in
honor of, 540. Public rejoicings in Bal-
timore at, 543. By New Hampshire,
573, 578. By Virginia, 578; how
finally effected, 579; form of, 581.
Vitiated by condition, in Madison's
opinion, 588. Great struggle over,
in New York, 588. See the different

Records and Judicial Proceedings of
States, full faith to be given to, in
other States, II. 449. Proof and
effect of, 449.

READ, GEORGE, views of, respecting
rule of suffrage for House of Repre-
sentatives, II. 135.
Regulation of Commerce proposed by
New Jersey in 1778, I. 129. Not
provided for by the Confederation,
148. Advantages of, not perceived,
179. Origin of, as a national power,
276. Washington's views respect-
ing, 334. Popular meetings in Bos-
ton in favor of, 336. Policy of

Congress respecting, in 1785 - 86,



Representation, views of members of
Convention respecting, II. 18.
Congress, different views respecting,
36; difficulty in fixing ratio of, 44. As
affected by State interests, 43. Origi.
nal division between States respect-
ing, 50. Under Virginia and New
Jersey plans, 105. Great difficulty
in adjusting, 108. Difficulty of fix-
ing different basis of, for two houses
of Congress, 133. Committee to ad-
just whole system of, 145. Dr. Frank-
lin's proposal in Congress concern-
ing, 146. Ratio of, in House of
Representatives, 147. Of slaves, 149.
Compound ratio of, depending on
numbers and wealth, proposed, 149;
objections to, 151; how to be applied,
156. By numbers, as affected by
slaves, 153, 291. And taxation to
go together, 156. System of, pro-
posed by Constitution, discussion on
in New York, 573.
Representatives, part of the Provincial
government, I. 4. In the charter gov-
ernments, how chosen, 5. Appor-
tionment of, objections to, II. 148;
in first House, how made, 148.
Representative Government familiar to
the American people, I. 117.
Reprisals authorized by the Continen-
tal Congress, I. 34.
Republican Government involved in the
effort to make the Constitution, I.
391. Guaranteed to States, II. 177;
by Constitution, 458. Guaranty of,
to States, object of, 468; meaning
of, in America, 469.
Republican Liberty, nature of, II. 8.
How to be preserved, 9.
Resolutions as referred to committee of
detail, II. 190.

Requisitions, provision for, under the
Confederation, I. 147. Of 1781, 156.
Made and not complied with, 174.
From 1782 to 1786, how treated,
180. In 1784, 240. In 1785, 242.
In 1786, 242. Supply received from,
in 1781 1786, 243; inadequacy of,
declared by Congress, 245. Effect
of, on the proposed revenue system,


Revenue, report of committee of detail
respecting, II. 289. Power over, gen-
erally conceded to new government,
290. Different systems of, under
Confederation, 310. Powers of gov-

ernment, influence of, 311. Power,
qualifications of, proposed, 320.
From imports, easiest mode of pay-
ing expenses of government, 528.
Revenues, of the Confederation, I. 147.
Want of power in Confederation to
obtain, II. 280. Numerous questions
respecting, 280. Collection of, by
Congress, 323.


Revenue Bills, privilege of originating,
views of members of Convention re-
specting, II. 221; restricted to House
of Representatives, 221.
Revenue System of 1783, origin and
purpose of, I. 175. Modified by
Congress, 180. Defeated by New
York, 180. Design of, 185. Effect
of its proposal, 186. Character of,
Under consideration in 1784,
240. How acted on in 1786, 244.
New appeal of Congress on the sub-
ject of, 245. Every State assents to,
but New York, 246. Act of New
York concerning, 246. Hamilton's
answer to the New York objections
to, 247. New York again appealed
to respecting, 247; refuses to ac-
cede, 248. Action of New York re-
specting, 343. Final appeal of Con-
gress for, 344. Rejected by New
York, 345, 359. Address on, writ-
ten by Madison, 422.
Revolution, right of, II. 473.
Revolutionary Congress, take up the
Articles of Confederation, I. 113.
Government of, breaking down, 115.
Change in the members of, after
1777, 125. Leading members of, in
1777 and 1778, 126; in 1776, 127.
Weakness of, II. 14. See Congress.
Revolutionary Government, defects of,

I. 55.

in formation of Constitution, 484.
Opposition to Constitution in, pecu-
liarly intense, 598; causes of, 598.
Jealous of other States, 598. Prin-
ciples of founders of, falsely ap-
plied, 598. Paper money party in,
great power of, 599. Great antago-
nism in, between town and country,
600. Opponents of Constitution in,
ridiculed and scorned, 600. Great
want of enlightenment in, 601. Ac-
tion of General Assembly of, on Con-
stitution, 602. People of, apparently
nearly unanimous against Constitu-
tion, 602. Final prevalence of bet-
ter counsels in, 603. Present pros-
perity of, 603. Attitude of, placed
Union in new crisis, 603.
Rights. See Colonies.

Rhode Island, a charter government, I.
5. Resists the claim of the great
States to Western lands, 131. Refuses
to grant imposts to Congress, 174.
Hamilton's answer to, 177. Attempts
to pay its quotas in paper money,
242. Refusal of, to grant duties on
imposts, 422. Not represented in Con-
stitutional Convention, II. 23, 181.
Did not assent to revenue system of
1783, 24. Admitted to Union in
1790, 25. Interests of, attended to
by Convention, 26. Had one repre-
sentative in first House, 149. Rati-
fication of Constitution by, improb-
able, 181. Reason of, for not attend-
ing Convention, 329. Took no part

ROBINSON, Mr., Speaker of Virginia
House of Burgesses, I. 48. Cele-
brated compliment of, to Washing-
ton, 48.
ROUSSEAU, J. J., political discussions
of, alluded to, I. 377.
Rule of Apportionment, proposal to
change from land to numbers, I. 241.
RUTLEDGE, EDWARD, in favor of
Constitution, II. 510. Arguments
of, in convention of South Carolina,


RUTLEDGE, JOHN, a member of com-
mittee to apportion representatives,
II. 148. Motion of, for assumption
of State debts, 319. In favor of
Constitution, 510.



Seat of Government, action respecting,
II. 189. None under Confederation,
268. History of establishment of,
Grave questions concerning
location of, 274. Impolicy of estab-
lishing at New York, or Philadel-
phia, 591. Embarrassments attend-
ing selection of, 604.
Sectional Jealousy, causes and opera-
tion of, I. 371.
SELMAN, captain in the Revolutionary
naval force, I. 74.
Senate, reasons for present constitu-
tion of, II. 41. Rule of suffrage in, 48.
Numerical representation in, favored
at first, 49. To hold office during
"good behavior" under Hamilton's
plan, 100, 105. Members of, chosen
for six years, 134; qualifications of,

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