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134, 223. Objects of, 138; how to
be attained, 138. Difficulty in fixing
basis of, 139. Mr. Baldwin's model
of, 139. Fortunately not founded
on relative wealth of States, 140.
Votes of States respecting, 141; rep-
resentation in, 165. Advantages of
present constitution of, 166. Mem-
bers of, to be two from each State,
186; to vote per capita, 186; must
have been citizens nine years, 211.
Slight analogy of, to House of Lords,
215. Equality of votes in, by what
States resisted, 217. Choice of Presi-
dent by, in certain events, proposed,
221, 390. Scheme of, tending to
oligarchy, 222. May amend revenue
bills, 222. Powers of, as at first
proposed, 223. Number of members
of, origin of, 224. Method of voting
in, origin of, 224. Present mode of
voting in, advantages of, 228. Va-
cancies in, how filled, 229. Primary
purpose of, 229. Disposition to ac-
cumulate power in, 230. Constitu-
tion of, great embarrassments respect-
ing, 233. Separate action of, difficult
to determine, 234. Consent of, to
certain acts of President, necessary,
235. Proposed choice of President
by, objections to, 236. Only body
fit to have revisionary control over
appointments, 239. Ratification of
treaties by, 240. Ultimate choice of
President taken from, 240. Length
of term in, 240. Biennial change in,
241. To try impeachments, 261.
Quorum of, 262. President of, 263.
May choose president pro tempore,
264. Choice of President by, quorum
for, 401; majority necessary to, 401.
President pro tempore of, when to act
as President of the United States,
403. Proposed appointment of am-
bassadors and judges by, 410. For-
eign relations committed to, 410.
Treaty-making power of, 415. May
propose treaty to President, 417.
Certain controversies between States,
proposed to be tried by, 424. Equal-
ity of States in, guaranteed by Con-
stitution, 478.
Shays's Rebellion, causes of, I. 266.
Progress of, 266, 269. How arrested,
270. How acted upon in Congress,
271. Effect of, upon the political
state of the country, 273. Abettors
of, opposed to Constitution, II.

SHERMAN, ROGER, one of the com-
mittee to prepare Declaration of In-
dependence, I. 50. Opposed to tax
on exports, II. 294. Views of, re-
specting tax on slaves, 304. Motion
of, respecting payment of old debts,



Slavery, British government responsi-
ble for the existence of, I. 87.
plex relations of, II. 22. Regarded
by Southern statesmen as an evil,
155. When and how abolished in
States now free, 289. Existed in
what States at formation of Constitu-
tion, 313. Facts respecting, as influ-
encing judgment on Constitution,
313. A matter of local concern, 313.
State laws respecting abolition of,
313. In Northwestern Territory,
proposals for excluding, 343. State
of, in 1787, 451. Probable dura-
tion of, 451. Principle of common
law and law of nations respecting,
451, 455. Exclusively a matter of
State jurisdiction, 451. Existed in
Colonies at very early period, 453.
In Massachusetts, Dr. Belknap's
article on, 454. Depends wholly on
municipal law, 457. Fortunately left
to State control, 459. Existence of,
unjustly made a reproach on United
States, 465.

Slaves, as affecting ratio of repre-
sentation, II. 19. Control of States
over, never meant to be surrendered,
20. Necessarily regarded in forming
Constitution, 20. As affecting basis
of representation, 46. In fixing ratio
of representation, included as inhabit-
ants, 47. Three-fifths rule respecting,
whence derived, 48. In fixing ra
tio of representation, how comput-
ed, 147; admission of, proper, 147.
Propriety of counting, as inhabitants,
in adjusting representation, 150.
Rule respecting, under Confedera-
tion, 150. As affecting representa-
tion, votes respecting, 153. Social
and political condition of, anomalous,
155. Number and distribution of,
155. An important element in de-
termining rank of States, 155. As
affecting representation and taxation,
157. As subjects of taxation, views
of statesmen respecting, 159. Com-
promise respecting, how to be effect-
ed, 163. Extradition of, Pinckney's
proposition concerning, 189. Manu-
mission of, a matter of State con-

before Constitution, 314. Refusal of
certain States to grant power to sup-
press, immediately, 315. Indefinite
continuance of, had Constitution not
been formed, 315. First extinguished
by America, 317.
South Carolina, a provincial govern-
ment, I. 4. Constitution of, formed,
120. Tender-law of, 253. Appoints
and instructs delegates to the Con-
vention, 369. Opposed to equality
of suffrage in House of Representa-
tives, II. 138; equal vote of States in
Senate, 141, 148, 165, 217. Had five
representatives in first House, 149.
Opposed to census of free inhabitants,
153; executive holding office during
"good behavior," 173. Vote of, re-
specting citizenship as qualification
for office, 209; money bills, 216, 218.
Opposed to each State having one
vote in Senate, 227. In favor of
States paying members of Congress,
259. Refusal of, to submit to tax on
exports, 280, 285. Exports of, in
one year, 285. Position of, in Con-
vention, respecting slave-trade, 297,
301. Vote of, respecting slave-trade,
305. Vote on Jefferson's resolve
concerning Northwestern Territory,
346. Cession by, in 1787, 356.
Vote of, on suspension of habeas cor-
pus, 360. Condition of acceptance
of Constitution by, 452. Motion for
surrender of fugitive slaves made by,
in Constitutional Convention, 453.
Vote of, respecting citizenship clause
in Constitution, 453. Debate in
legislature of, on Constitution, 510.
Convention in, to vote on Constitu-
tion, 511; importance of action of,
542. Ratification of Constitution
by, 544; rejoicings at, 544; impor-
tance of, 544. Delegates of, respon-
sibility assumed by, 544. A great
exporting State, 546. Hesitation of,
to concede power to regulate com-
merce, 546. Amendments to Con-
stitution proposed by, 548. Eighth
State to ratify Constitution, 549.
Southern States, views of, respecting
regulation of commerce, II. 290.
Sovereignty, of the people, established
by the Revolution, I. 379; necessary
consequences of declaration of, II.
8. Resides in the people, 38. Pow-
ers of, may be exercised by different
agents, 377.
Spain, claims the exclusive navigation

trol, 286. Representation of, a con-
cession by North, why made, 292;
Morris's motion respecting, 293; vote
of New Jersey respecting, 293. Spe-
cific tax on importation of, 304.
Word not used in Constitution by
design, 305. Ratio of increase of,
from 1790 to 1850, 308. Condition
of, ameliorated by Constitution, 316.
Advancing public sentiment concern-
ing, 316. Colonization of, in Africa,
317. Representation of, an unimpor-
tant anomaly, 317. Emancipation
of, a local question, 317. Extra-
dition of, under Constitution, history
of clause respecting, 450; a neces-
sary provision of Constitution, 451;
under New England Confederation
of 1643, 453; under Ordinance of
1787, 454; importance of proper
understanding of clause respecting,
456; necessity and propriety of clause,
459. Condition of, much better un-
der State control, 462. Increase of,
since adoption of Constitution, 465.
See Federal Census.
Slave-Trade, discountenanced by first
Continental Congress, I. 24. How
dealt with by the Constitution, 456.
Abolished in England, 457, 461.
French abolition of, 457. Danish
abolition of, 459. Compromise re-
specting, 460. Legislation against,
460. Discussions respecting, in Eng-
land, 460. Probable encouragement
of, II. 153; embarrassments respect-
ing, 281. State action respecting,
285. Necessity of definite provision
respecting, 285. Duty of framers of
Constitution respecting, 286. Had
been abolished by no nation in 1787,
286. A proper subject for national
action, 286. Aspect of, political, 287;
moral, 287. Economical importance
of, to Southern States, 288. Report
of committee of detail respecting,
290. Grave questions concerning, 296.
Right to continue, insisted on by
what States, 297, 301. Prospective
prohibition of, provided for, 304.
Concessions respecting, timely, 305.
Vote of States respecting, 305. Pa-
triotic course of both sections re-
specting, 306. Effect of discontinu-
ance of, on Southern States, 308.
State rights respecting, before Con-
stitution, 314. Tolerated by Euro-
pean nations at formation of Consti-
tution, 314. Interdicted by ten States

of the Mississippi, I. 312. See Mis-

Speaker, of House of Representatives,
II. 264; when to act as President, 403.
Standing Armies, jealousy of, I. 81, 90.
States, interests and relations of, before
Constitution, II. 5. Devotion of,
to republican liberty, 6. Union of,
essential to republican liberty, 9.
Weakness of, without union, 9.
General purposes of, in calling Con-
stitutional Convention, 16. Position
of, in Convention, 27. Powers sur-
rendered by, to Confederation, 27.
Why represented in Congress, 40.
Diverse interests of, as affecting rep-
resentation, 43. Tendency of, to en-
croach on federal authority, 51. Pro-
posed control over legislation of, by
Congress, 52. Population of, in 1790,
table of, 55. Legislation of, control
of judicial department over, 66. Ad-
mission of, 75, 79, 109, 176, 340,
344, 350, 354. Cessions by, to
Union, 76. Republican government
guaranteed to, 79, 83, 177, 458.
Jealous of general government, 91.
Sovereignty of, how reconciled with
national sovereignty, 91. Plan to
abolish, 92. To make partial sur-
render of power under Virginia
plan, 95. Sovereignty of, preserved
under New Jersey plan, 95. Con-
flicts of, with nation, probable, un-
der Virginia plan, 102, 103. Strug-
gle between large and smaller, re-
specting representation, 104. Pro-
posed equalization of, 108. Popu-
lations of, at formation of Constitu-
tion, 116. Relative rank of, at for-
mation of Constitution, 117. Con-
flict among, as to national and fed-
eral systems, 117. Danger of anni-
hilation of sovereignty of, by national
government, 128, 377. Danger of
alliances of, with foreign powers, 136.
Preservation of, in Congress, conced-
ed to be necessary, 139. Divided re-
specting constitution of Senate, 145.
Jealousy among, 150. Western,
views of members respecting, 150.
Slave and free, index of wealth of,
157. Wealth of, not measured by
land, 160. Position of, in Conven-
tion, respecting slaves, 161, 162.
Wealth of, for purpose of taxa-
tion, determined by inhabitants, 163.
Smaller, concession to, in constitu-
tion of Senate, 166. Free and slave,

populations of, compared, 168. Re-
lation of, to Confederation, 179.
Whether Constitution could be rati-
fied by government of, 180. Voting
by, history of practice of, 227. Equal
representation of, in Senate, just, 233.
Union desired by, from different mo-
tives, 303. Commercial legislation
of, under Confederation, various, 310.
Revenue and paper-money systems
of, under Confederation, various, 310.
Rights guaranteed to, by Constitu-
tion, 314. Power of, over slave-
trade, anterior to Constitution, 314.
Ports of one, not to be preferred to
those of another, 324. Compacts
between, outside of Articles of Con-
federation, 347. New, temporary
governments for, Madison's motion
respecting, 351. Admission of, num-
ber of votes requisite for, 352; by
dismemberment of State, 352; by
junction, 354; difference in cases of,
357; provisions for, general, 358.
Restraints on political power of, 362.
Issuing of bills of credit prohibited
to, 364. Laying of duties and im-
posts by, 368. Cannot lay duty on
tonnage, 370. Keeping of troops or
ships of war by, 371. Agreements
by, with another State or foreign
power, 371. When may engage in
war, 371. Governments of, how far
supreme, 377. May be multiplied
indefinitely under Constitution, 383.
Levying war against, not treason
against United States, 385. Certain
controversies between, proposed to
be tried by Senate, 424. Constitu-
tional restrictions on, 432. Laws of,
constitutionality of, how determined,
439. Courts of, not likely to admin-
ister justice to foreigners, &c., 442.
Different, controversies between citi-
zens of, 442; grants of lands by,
jurisdiction of cases respecting, 444.
A party to a suit, jurisdiction in cases
of, 444. Foreign, jurisdiction in
cases of, 444. Full faith given to
acts, &c. of, 449. Have exclusive
regulation of domestic institutions,
451. May exclude foreigners, 457.
Republican government guaranteed
to, object of, 468. Domestic violence
in, application to general govern-
ment in case of, 469. Competency
of, to abolish constitutions, 469.
Must have executive and legislature,
470. Protection of, against domestic

violence, 472. Equality of, in Senate,
for ever guaranteed by Constitution,
478. Refusal of, to comply with
requisitions of Congress, 572. See
New States.

State Constitutions, formation of, I. 116.
State Governments, how formed, I. 36.
State Sovereignty, early assertion of, I.


Stop Laws. See Debts.

STORY, JOSEPH, views of, respecting
President's power to adjourn Con-
gress, II. 420.


Suffrage, Rule of, Governor Randolph's
resolution respecting, II. 35. Change
in, opposed by Delaware, 36.
Continental Congress, 42. In Con-
federation, 42. In Senate, 48. For
House of Representatives, great de-
bate on, 135. According to Virginia
plan, 145. Different in different
States, 174, 198. Not universal in
any State, 471.

SULLIVAN, General, president of New
Hampshire Convention, II. 541.
SULLIVAN, JAMES, Governor of Mas-
sachusetts, II. 541.
Superintendent of the Finances, ap-
pointed, I. 174. See ROBERT MOR-


Supremacy of United States, meaning
and scope of, II. 376. Of States,
extent of, 377. Of Constitution, as
affecting national growth, 383.
Supreme Court, tenure of office of, II.
67. Judges of, not removable by
address, 68, 73; compensation of, 68;
by whom appointed, 68. To deter-
mine constitutional questions, 74.
Functions of, compared with those of
State courts, 74. Judges of, propos-
ed appointment of, by Senate, 223,
230, 410. Appointment of, propo-
sals concerning, 234. Sole interpre-
ters of Constitution, 380. Judges of,
to be nominated by President, 418;
tenure of office and salaries of, 423.
One, under Constitution, 423. Origi-
nal and appellate jurisdiction of, 424.
Appellate jurisdiction of, ambiguity
concerning, 428. Doubts about con-
ferring power upon, to declare law
unconstitutional, 434.

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Taxation, right of, denied to Parlia-
ment, I. 20. How distinguished from
regulation of trade, 20. Inseparable
from representation, 20, II. 157.
Difficulty of applying combined rule
of wealth and numbers to, 158. Re-
port of committee of detail respect-
ing, 290. By general government,
Mason's objections to, 557. See

Taxes, odious to the people of United
States, I. 180. Power of Congress
to collect, II. 322.
Tender, State laws respecting, restraint
on, II. 365.

Tender Law of Massachusetts, I. 268.
See Debts.

Territory, power of Congress over, un-
der the Confederation, I. 141. Au-
thority of Congress over, under Con-
stitution, II. 340; purpose of provis-
ion respecting, 355; diverse views
concerning, 358. See Western Ter-
ritory and Northwestern Territory.
Territorial Governments, power
frame, in Ordinance of 1787, II. 345.
Theory, danger of adhering too firmly
to, II. 129.


first Continental Congress, I. 14.
TICKNOR, GEORGE, cited for a saying
of Jefferson concerning the Revolu-
tionary Congress, L. 64; for a saying
of Talleyrand about Hamilton, 410.
Tonnage, duty on, States prohibited to
lay, II. 370; proposed exception re-
specting, 370.

Tories, how dealt with by Continental
Congress, I. 36; in New Hampshire,
65. Washington's opinion respecting,
65. Movements of, in the neighbor-
hood of New York, 66; how met by
Washington, 66. Steps taken by
Congress to disarm, 68. Misunder-
standing respecting, between Wash-
ington and Congress, 69. Subject
referred to local authorities, 72. Re-
lations of persons and property of, to
the Union, 251.

Trade, inter-colonial, before the Revo-
lution, I. 9. Regulation of, by Par-
liament, distinguished from taxation,
20. With Colonies prohibited by
Parliament, December, 1775, 38. Sec
Colonies, Commerce, Continental Con-
gress, and Parliament.
Treason, definition of, in Constitution,
origin and purpose of, II. 384. Na-
ture of evidence of, 386. Punish-

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II. 12. As established by the Con-
federation, I. 142. Saved by the
proposal of the revenue scheme, 188.
Necessary to preserve the good faith
of the country, 189. Of the people,
idea of, 373. Change in character
of, II. 4. Necessarily republican, 10.
Preservation of, essential to indepen-
dence of States, 10. Purposes of, at
first indefinite, 12. Previous history
of, important, 13. "6 Exigencies of,"
13; how only to be provided for, 19.
Objects of, embraced in two classes,
13; how ascertained, 13; different
views respecting, 39. Proposed pow-
er in, to protect and uphold govern-
ments of States, 79. Dissolution of,
Madison's views respecting, 136;
Hamilton's views respecting, 136;
at one time probable, 140. General
interests of, power to legislate for,
170. Success of, to what attributa-
ble, 380. Sovereignty of, and of
States, no conflict between, 380. Ca-
pacity of, for territorial expansion,
cause of, 381. Theory of, respecting
domestic institutions of States, 451.
"United Colonies," term of, first adopt-
ed, I. 33.

United States of America, title of,
adopted, I. 52, 142.
United States, character of, at stake, I.
179. Laws and treaties of, supreme
law of States, II. 170, 372. Guar-
anty by, of State institutions, 177.
Became proprietor of crown lands,
352. Title of, to vacant lands, 357.
Officer of, not to accept present, &c.
from foreign king, &c., 362. Reso-
lutions respecting supremacy of gov-
ernment of, 372, 373. Supremacy of,
meaning and scope of, 376. Gov-
ernment of, unlike any other, 379;
determines its own powers, 379; safe-
guard of, 379; success of, to what
attributable, 379. Constitution, no
impediment to growth of, 383. Trea-
son against, definition of, 385. Im-
portance of preserving federal char-
acter of government of, 392. Rela-
tion of government to citizens of,
432. A party to a suit, jurisdiction
of cases of, 444.


Valuation. See Land and Contribution.
Vermont, provision for admission of,

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