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«« I have much marvelled at these strange pageantries, and they do bring to my remembrance what passed of this sort in our queen's days; of which I was sometimes an humble presenter and assistant ; but I did ne'er see such lack of good order, discretion and sobriety, as I have now done.

I have passed much time in seeing the royal sports of hunting and hawking, where the manners were such as made me devise the beasts were pursuing the sober creation, and not man in quest of exercise or food. I will now in good sooth declare to you, who will not blab, that the gunpowder fright is got out of all our heads, and we are going on hereabouts as if the devil was contriving every man should blow up himself, by wild riot, excess, and devastation of time and temperance.

• " The great ladies go well masked, and indeed it be the only show of their modesty to conceal their countenance; but, alack, they meet with such countenance to uphold their strange doings, that I marvel not at ought that happens. The lord of the mansion is overwhelmed in preparations at Theobalds, and doth marvellously please both kings with good meat, good drink, and good speeches. I do often say, but not aloud, that the Danes have again conquered the Britons; for I see no man, or woman either, that

can now command himself or herself. I wish I was at home: O rus, quando te aspiciam?"-And I will before prince Vaudemont cometh.

& “ I hear the uniting the kingdoms is now at hand; when the parliament is held, more will be done in this matter.

Bacon is to manage all this affair, as who can better do these state jobs..... If you

would wish to see how folly doth grow, come up quickly; otherwise stay where you are, and meditate on the future mischiefs of those our posterity, who shall learn the good lessons and examples held forth in these days." ' Vol. I. pp. 278—282.

It was about the year 1606, that Robert Carr (or Ker) had the good fortune to break his leg in the presence of James. In the act of dismounting his horse, to present to the monarch the shield and device of the nobleman who had selected him as his page, the animal started and threw him. James, who had already been ' captivated by his graces,' was filled with grief at the accident; he ordered his own surgeons to attend to him, and after the tilting, visited the sufferer in


He descended afterwards to become not only his patron but his schoolmaster. On Christmas eve 1607, the young Scotchman

, was knighted and sworn a gentleman of the bedchamber. The • royal frenzy' was at its height when Lord Thomas Howard wrote to Sir John Harrington in the following terms.

€“ Robert Carr is now most likely to win the prince's affection, and doth it wonderously in a little time. The prince leaneth on his arm, pinches his cheek, smoothes his ruffled garment, and, when he looketh at Carr, directeth discourse to divers others. This young man doth much study all art and device; he hath changed his tailors and tire


men many times, and all to please the prince, who laugheth at the long-grown fashion of our young courtiers, and wisheth for change every day.

"You have lived to see the trim of old times, and what passed in the queen's days. These things are no more the same. Your queen did talk of her subjects' love and good affections, and in good truth she aimed well; our king talketh of his subjects' fear and subjection, and herein I think he doth well too, as long as it holdeth good. Carr hath all the favors, as I told you before; the king teacheth him Latin every morning, and I think some one should teach him English too; for as he is a Scotish lad, he hath much need of better language. The king doth much covet his presence; the ladies too are not behind hand in their admiration; for I tell you, good knight, this fellow is straight-limbed, well-favored, strong-shouldered and smooth-faced, with some sort of cunning and show of modesty ; though, G-wot, he well knoweth when to show his impudence. You are not young, you are not handsome, you are not finely; and yet will you come to court and think to be well favored? Why, I say again, good knight, that your learning may somewhat prove worthy hereunto; your Latin and your Greek, your Italian and your Spanish tongues, your wit and discretion, may be well looked unto for a time, as strangers at such a place; but these are not the things men live by now-a-days. Will you say, the moon shineth all the summer? that the stars are bright jewels fit for Carr's ears? that the roan jennet surpasseth Bucephalus, and is worthy to be bestridden by Alexander? that his eyes are fire, his tale is Berenice's locks, and a few more such fancies worthy your noticing? Your lady is virtuous, and somewhat of a good housewife; has lived in a court in her time, and I believe you may venture her forth again; but I know those would not so quietly rest were Carr to leer on their wives, as some do perceive, yea, and like it well too they should be so noticed. If any mischance be to be wished, 'tis breaking a leg in the king's presence,. for this fellow owes all his favor to that bout; I think he hath better reason to speak well of his own horse than the king's roan jennet. We are almost worn out in our endeavours to keep pace with this fellow in his duty and labor to gain favor, but all in vain; where it endeth I cannot guess, but honors are talked of speedily for him."" Vol. I. pp. 327-30.

The open and notorious animosity which subsisted between this minion of the doating monarch and the heir apparent, gave strength to the prevailing supposition, that the death of Prince Henry was occasioned by poison. Colonel Titus told Bishop Burnet, that he had it from King Charles I.'s own mouth, that he was well assured he was poisoned by the Earl of Somer'set's means.' Miss Aikin, however, cites, from her father's (Dr. Aikiu) memoirs of the physician who attended him, the evidence of direct and authentic testimony, to prove that the disease was a putrid fever. From the whole course of the 'symptoms, as well as the appearances on dissection, there

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cannot,' says Dr. Aikin, be the least doubt that his death was the consequence of a natural disease, and not induced by any iniquitous means, as some of the enemies of that un

happy family have affected to believe.' That the belief was at least unaffected, although it might be unfounded, is certain ; nor would an official statement from the physician, nor even á certificate from the king, be sufficient to lay suspicion asleep. The examination of his body, and the pains taken to refute the opinion of his having been unfairly dealed with, prove that the suspicion had gained no slight hold on the public mind. Hume says : · The bold and criminal malignity of men's

tongues and pens spared not even the king on the occasion. . But that prince's character seems rather to have failed in the ' extreme of facility and humanity, than in that of cruelty and ! violence. Such a charge against a father, and that father a monarch, may well be styled bold and criminal; and it were far better that the crime should be judged incredible. Hume's argument drawn from King James's character, is, however, singularly weak. Not to speak of the murder of the Earl of Murray and the Gowry affair, the King's protection of the murderer of Sir Thomas Overbury, has left an indelible stain on his character; and it is not a little remarkable, that his equivocal conduct should in no fewer than four instances have laid him open to such dark. suspicions. The burning of Bare tholemew Legate on March 18, 1612, in pursuance of the royal writ, as a contumacious heretic, followed by that of Edward Wightman, both Arians, forms an emphatic comment on the Monarch's humanity. 'King James was the last sovereign of this country by whom Smithfield fires were lighted.'

James was at Theobalds when the news of his son's death was brought to him.

• He received the melancholy intelligence with great insensibility. After a very short interval, all persons were prohibited from approaching the royal presence in the garb of mourning, and special orders were given that the preparations for the Christmas festivities should proceed without interruption. Three days only after the prince's death, viscount Rochester, who was now regarded as minister as well as favourite, wrote to Sir Thomas Edmonds, the ambassador to France, to recommence in the name of Prince Charles, the marriage treaty begun for his brother ; but a sense of decency withheld Edmonds from im. mediate compliance with these strange directions. Richard, earl of Dorset, writing to the same ambassador on Nov. 23., has the following strong passage relative to the behaviour which he witnessed on this

“ That our rising sun is set ere scarcely he had shone, and that with him all our glory lies buried, you know and do lament as well as we; and better than some do, and more truly, or else you are not a man, and sensible of this kingdom's loss." ;


The welfare of the nation depends so much less on the personal character of the monarch than on his counsellors, that all speculation as to the probable consequences of Prince Henry's accession to the throne, can be no better than unauthorized conjecture. Next to the death of Edward VI., however, the loss of this noble-minded young man, would seem to rank as a national calamity.

A strong sense of religion appears to have been early impressed on the mind of Henry; partly, it is probable, by his able and upright governor, Sir Thomas Chaloner, who lay under some suspicion of puritanism. Not content with exhibiting a pattern of perfect regularity and strict religious observance in his own conduct, his youthful zeal displayed itself by his ordering boxes to be kept at his three houses, to receive the penalties on profane swearing, which he ordered to be strictly levied on his household. The notorious culpability of the king his father in this point, rendered the contrast striking and per. haps invidious. To the same effect we have the following fine anecdote. Once when the prince was hunting the stag, it chanced the stag, being spent, crossed the road where a butcher and his dog were travelling; the dog killed the stag, which was so great that the butcher could not carry him off. When the huntsmen and the company, came up, they fell at odds with the butcher, and endeavoured to incense the prince against him ; to whom the prince soberly answered, “ What if the butcher's dog killed the stag, what could the butcher help it ?” They replied, if his father had been served so, he would have sworn so as no man could have endured it. " Away,” replied the prince, “ all the pleasure in the world is not worth an oath !");

The year 1616 witnessed the fall of the insolent and rapacious Somerset, and the rise of George Villiers. To the undisguised hostilities which agitated the court between the rival factions of the rising and the sinking favourite, a contemporary writer ascribes the bringing to light of the murder of Overbury. The King is said to have expressed great indignation against Somerset and his wife, for having made him an agent • in their adultery and murder ;' and to have imprecated a

solemn curse upon Coke and his posterity if he spared any,

and upon himself and his if he pardoned any of them.' The subordinate accomplices in this infernal crime, suffered at Tyburn; but the earl and his equally infamous countess, being declared guilty by the unanimous verdict of the peers, were simply remanded to the Tower, where the countess soon after received the King's pardon. Somerset was reprieved from time to time, till at length, in 1621, both were liberated, and sent to live in banishment at a country seat; the King allowing no • less a sum than 40001. a year out of Somerset's forfeited es• tate for their maintenance. He ordered also, that the arms of the earl, notwithstanding his being condemned of felony,

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should not be removed out of the chapel at Windsor, and that ⚫ felony should not be reckoned among the disgraces for those who were to be excluded from the order of St. George; which,' adds Camden, was without precedent.' Burnet tells us, that, wearied and exasperated with the insolent contempt of the Duke of Buckingham, the King had resolved, just before his death, to bring the Earl of Somerset again into favour. As that lord reported it to some from whom he had it,' the King met him in the night in the gardens at Theobalds. Two bed-chamber men only were in the secret. The King embraced him tenderly and with many tears. Earl of Somerset believed the secret was not well kept; for soon after the King was taken ill with some fits of an ague, and died of it.'My father,' adds the Bishop, was then in London, and did very much suspect an ill practice in the matter. But perhaps Dr. Craig, my mother's uncle, who was one of the King's physicians, possessed him with these apprehensions, for he was disgraced for saying he believed the King was poisoned.'



The year 1617 is distinguished by a royal visit to Scotland, which was followed by the publication of the Book of Sports. The circumstances which led to this obnoxious measure, are thus detailed by the Author.

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During the king's journey back from Scotland, which he converted into a hunting progress of several weeks, the observations which he had occasion to make on the temper of the people in the north of England, and particularly in Lancashire, seconded by, a petition from the inhabitants of that county, suggested to him a measure pregnant with future mischiefs to the house of Stuart. This was the publication of a " declaration to encourage recreations and sports on the Lord's Day;" commonly called the Book of Sports. The indulgence was a large one, comprehending dancing, archery, leaping, vaulting, May-games, Whitsunales, morrice dances, and setting up of Maypoles; bull and bear baiting, interludes and bowls being alone prohibited of the diversions permitted on other days. It was however provided, that these recreations should be held at such hours as not to interfere with divine service, and that they should, be allowed to such persons only as had performed the religious duties of the day at their own parish churches.

The people of Lancashire, mostly catholics, embraced with joy the permission to return to their ancient recreations, some of which were closely connected with the observances of the old religion; and the declaration seems to have been read without scruple in the parish churches of that county. On the other hand, it was regarded with horror by the puritanical clergy, and indeed by all but a high-church party, throughout the rest of the kingdom; and Wilson states, that the king's design of causing it to be published in all the parish churches of the kingdom, was quashed by the primate's positive refusal to read it in his own church of Croydon.' Vol. II. pp. 76, 77

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