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are in general extremely judicious, and they are executed with all the care and skill which might be expected from his extensive and acurate knowledge. The present convenient manual is framed precisely on the same model as his similar work on the Latin Terminations, and will be found equally useful in the business of education. To that very numerous class of individuals who, from imperfect grammatical institution, or from long interruption of their classical studies, have grown rather inexpert in their terminal references, this little volume will be a valuable companion.

As far as our inspection has gone, we have found it comprehensive and correct; and we have quite sufficient reliance on the judgement and precision of Dr. Carey, to trust him in these respects without that extremely minute examination which might in some cases be expedient.

Art. VIII. Memoirs of the Mexican Revolution ; including a Narrative

of the Expedition of General Xavier Mina. To which are annexed some Observations on the Practicability of opening a Commerce between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, through the Mexican Isthmus. By William Davis Robinson. In 2 Vols. 8vo. pp. 768. Price 11. 45. London. 1821. Fever the history of the Spanish settlements in South

America for the last fifteen years shall be fully and fairly given to the world, it will unfold a tale of the deepest interest, full of fierce and treacherous deeds, of undiscriminating massacre and sanguinary reprisal. It will however be long before such a narrative can be completed. The transactions in question extend over so large a surface of country, the actors in these appalling scenes have so many motives for concealment and misrepresentation, and so much of passion and partiality must be mingled with the feelings of those who have had the best means of information, that for the present it were idle to expect any thing in the way of candid and comprehensive detail. All the publications on the subject that we have seen, are little more than records of the prejudices and disappointments of the writers; nor can we altogether exempt from this censure the interesting volumes before us.

Mr. Robinson is an American merchant, and from the various statements of these volumes, he appears to be a man of ability and enterprise. In 1799, during the war between England and Spain, he visited the city of Caraccas in quest of mercantile speculation, and entered into engagements with the agents of the Spanish government, which were attended with ruinous consequences to himself. He complains that contracts fairly made and completed on his part, were scandalously violated by the Venezuelan authorities, and that his efforts to obtain redress were rendered ineffectual by gross injustice, and ultimately by forcible expulsion.

In 1816, he accepted an agency from certain merchants of the United States, and landed on the coast of Vera Cruz, for the purpose of communicating with the Revolutionary chiefs, on whom his employers had pecuniary claims to a large amount. After an unsuccessful application to Don Guadalupe Victoria, then commanding the patriots in that quarter, he ventured into the interior in search of general Teran, who, he had been given to understand, was just then in cash. Teran paid a part of his demand, and accepted his bills. Satisfied with this result of his application, Mr. Robinson was anxious to return; but the Royalists had regained possession of Vera Cruz, and the communication with the coast was no longer open. Thus circumstanced, he determined to accompany Teran, simply as a matter of necessity, on an expedition against Guasacualco, a port at the bottom of the Mexican Gulf. Teran met with no opposition during the early part of the march, and anticipating nothing more than he had hítherto encountered, entered, at the head of only fifteen men, a village which was in possession of the Royalists, where he was instantly attacked and only escaped by swimming a river amid a shower of balls. Mr. Robinson, who, though, as he affirms, a non-combatant, had very imprudently joined this advanced guard, was unable to effect his retreat, and concealed himself in the

woods, whence, after five days' hunger and privation, he was compelled to come forth and surrender himself to the Spanish Commander. By that officer he was forwarded to the city of Oaxaca, whence he was conveyed to the fortress of St. Juan de Ulua, and after a confinement of eleven months in an unwholesome dungeon, he was sent to Spain. At Cadiz he was suffered to remain at large on his parole, but, receiving information that it was intended to confine him in the citadel of Ceuta, he took refuge on board an American vessel.

On this narrative it is only necessary to observe, that, admiting the whole of it to be strictly accurate, and supposing that the Writer's feelings have not been permitted to interfere with the most strict impartiality, it will still be sufficiently evident that the Spanish Government was perfectly justifiable in considering Mr. Robinson as a combatant; the proof of the contrary resting only on his own evidence, which, in such a case, was perfectly worthless.

With these opportunities of personal observation, and with the advantages of information derived from native Creoles,


age, he

from the surviving officers of Mina's army, and from Mr. Brush, who accompanied that enterprising individual from England to Mexico, Mr. Robinson has compiled these memoirs, which, after making every deduction on the score of ex parte statement, will be read with gratification.

· Don Xavier Mina was born in the month of December, 1789. He was the eldest son of a well-born and respected proprietary, whose domains lay near the town of Monreal, in the kingdom of Navarre. Brought up among the mountains of his native province, he was accustomed to wander through their rich valleys, and to pursue the chase amidst the grandeur of the Pyrenees. His faculties, thus nurtured and exercised, expanded themselves at an early period, while his mind imbibed all the energy of an unconquerable boldness.

* The early studies of Mina were pursued at Pampelona and at Zaragoza. In 1808, at the commencement of the resistance of the Spaniards to the French invasion, he was a student in the university of Zaragoza. At that period, between eighteen and nineteen years felt the strong enthusiasm of the times. When the massacre at Madrid, of the 2d of May, shook all Spain, and the cry of vengeance was heard from the Ebro to the Guadiana, be abandoned his studies, joined the army of the north of Spain as a volunteer, and was present at the battles of Alcornes, Maria, and Belchite.'

When the guerrilla system was adopted as the only efficient mode of opposition to the arms of Napoleon, Mina was the foremost in that species of harassing warfare; but after having distinguished himself by a series of spirited enterprises, he was taken prisoner in the winter of 1810-11. He was succeeded in his command by his uncle, the celebrated Espoz y Mina. When the return of. Ferdinand, and the downfal of Napoleon, had restored the old tyrannical regime in Spain, Xavier was released, and the two relatives, dissatisfied with the existing order of things, made an attempt to seize Pampeluna as the point d'appui of insurrectionary movements intended to secure for the Spanish nation the blessings of a free government. The scheme failed, and the Minas became exiles. The nephew visiting England, is affirmed to have received a pension of £2000 from the British Government; a statement to which we do not give the smallest credit. It is far more probable that, as asserted in the present work, he met with considerable encouragement in his meditated enterprise against the colonies on the Spanish main. The conduct of the Old Spaniards in America had been such as to excite a spirit of disaffection both among the Indians and the half-casts. Supercilious and oppressive, the European treated the Creole as a being of inferior order, and claimed from him, and still more from the swarthy native, homage and obedience. Conduct so absurdly impolitic as this could not fail to excite and to keep alive a spirit of disaffection; and this antipathy was openly manifested when the Spanish dominions in Europe were transferred to a new master, and the exhausting struggles of civil commotion prevented the supply of troops in aid of the existing authorities in the provinces of America. The first decided insurrection in Mexico took place under the command of Hidalgo, the Rector of the town of Dolores : he committed the fatal error of neglecting the Creoles, and of committing his cause to the support of the Indians who joined him in immense numbers. Dreadful excesses were committed by his undisciplined foliowers, though he is said to have been himself a man of humane feelings. After obtaining important advantages which were by no means adequately improved, he was defeated by Calleja at the bridge of Calderon, and having been delivered up by the treachery of one of his confidential officers, he was shot on the 27th of July, 1811. Calleja is described as a monster of cruelty, and is said to have disgraced himself by the most atrocious massacres.

Large bodies of insurgents, Creoles and Indians, still kept the field under different officers; and several of them united under the command of Morelos. This chief was, like Hidalgo, an ecclesiastic, of excellent private character, but altogether ignorant of the science of war. His army was far inferior in numbers to the mob of his predecessor, but it was of much better quality and composition. He obtained partial successes, and convened a congress, but, after sustaining repeated reverses, he was taken and shot on the 22d of December, 1815.. The legislative body which had been established by Morelos, was dissolved by Don Manuel Mier y Teran, the officer whom we have before mentioned as the chief to whom Mr. Robinson had introduced himself, and in whose suite he was when taken prisoner.

It was during this disastrous state of affairs, when there was no point of union for the patriots, and no distinguished leader to whom they could look with implicit confidence, that Xavier Mina made his appearance on the scene of action. After visiting Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, and having been joined by a number of enterprising citizens of the United States, he sailed for Galvezton, where he communicated with Commodore Aury. At length the arrangements were completed, and the expedition got under weigh for its ultimate destination. The town of Soto la Marina, at the mouth of the river Santander, was the point of debarkation. The small force which Mina commanded, and the distance at which he found himself from any effective co-operation, rendered it necessary that he should enter on a series of rapid and daring

movements, as substitutes for regular military calculations and manæuvres. Previously, however, to his adoption of this course, he sustained a heavy blow in the desertion of fifty-one of his best soldiers, natives of the United States, under the orders of Colonel Perry. The transports which conveyed the expedition, had been destroyed by some Spanish armed vessels; and Perry, despairing of Mina's success, determined on forcing his way along the coast, to a point where he expected to have found the means of embarkation. Mr. Robinson affects to consider his conduct as 'very mysterious ;' to us it seems quite the reverse : we have not the smallest doubt that he felt extreme disgust at the want of conduct displayed by Mina in a camisade which had failed a few days before, and which, had Perry been properly supported, would in all probability have terminated differently.

• It was subsequently ascertained from the best Mexican authorities, that the colonel did actually penetrate to within a short distance of his destined point, after several skirmishes with the royal troops, in wbich success attended him. Flushed with these victories, he determined on attacking a fortified position near Matagorda, which might have been left in his rear, as the garrison did not evince the least disposition to annoy him. He bad summoned the commandant to surrender, who was deliberating on the propriety of so doing, at the moment when party of two hundred cavalry made its appearance. A refusal to the summops was the consequence. The garrison sallied out, and a severe action commenced, in which Perry and his men displayed the most determined valour. They continued combating against this superiority of force till every man was killed, except Perry. Finding himself the only survivor, and determined not to be made a prisoner, he presented a pistol to bis head, and terminated his existence. Thus perished a brave but rash man; and with him fell some valuable officers and men.'

Mina, however, had no option with respect to the line of conduct which it became necessary to pursue. His ships were destroyed, and his only prospect of success, or even of safety, lay in forcing his way through the enemy's posts, till he could unite his force with some of the insurgents of the interior. After gaining the battle of Peotillos against tremendous odds, he pushed on to Pinos, which he carried by storm, and at length formed a junction with a body of patriots under Don Christoval Naba, whose costume and equipments are thus described.

• The grotesque figure of the colonel surprised the division. He wore a threadbare roundabout brown jacket, decorated with a quantity of tarnished silver lace, and a red waistcoat; his shirt collar, fancitully cut and embroidered, was Aying open, and a black silk handkerchief was hangiug loosely round his neck. He also wore a pair of short, loose,

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