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1614 Sir Hugh Middleton brings the New River to London from Ware. 1516 The first permanent settlement in Virginia. 1619 Dr. W. Harvey, an Englishman, discovers the doctrine of the circulation

of the blood. 1620 The broad filk manufactory from raw silk introduced into England. 1621 New England planted by the Puritans. 1625 King James dies, and is succeeded by his son, Charles I.

The island of Barbadoes, the first English settlement in the West Indies, is

planted. 1632 The battle of Lutzen, in which Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, and

head of the Protestants in Germany, is killed. 1635 Province of Maryland planted by lord Baltimore.

Regular posts established from London to Scotland, Ireland, &c. 1640 King Charles disobliges his Scottish fubjects, on which their army, under

general Lesley, enters England, and takes Newcastle, being encouraged

by the malcontents in England.

The massacre in Ireland, when 40,000 English Protestants were killed. 1642 King Charles impeaches five members, who had opposed his arbitrary mea.

sures, which begins the civil war in England. 1643 Excise on beer, ale, &c. first imposed by parliament. 1649 Charles I. beheaded at Whitehall, January 30, aged 49. 1654 Cromwell assumes the protectorship. 1655 The English, under admiral Penn, take Jamaica from the Spaniards. 1658 Cromwell dies, and is succeeded in the Protectorship by his son Richard. 1660 King Charles II. is restored by Monk, commander of the army, after an exile

of twelve years in France and Holland. Episcopacy restored in England and Scotland. The people of Denmark, being oppreffed by the nobles, surrender their pris

vileges to Frederic III. who becomes absolute. 1662 The Royal Society established at London, by Charles II. 1663 Carolina planted; 1728, divided into two separate governments. 1664 The New Netherlands, in North America, conquered from the Swedes and

Dutch, by the English. 1665 The plague rages in London, and carries off 68,000 persons. 1666 The great fire of London began Sept. 2, and continued three days, in which

were destroyed 13,000 houses, and 400 streets.

Tea first used in England. 1667 The peace of Breda, which confirms to the English the New Netherlands,

now known by the names of Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. 1668 ditto, Aix-la-Chapelle.

St. James's Park planted, and made a thoroughfare for public use by Charles

11. 1670 The Englit Hudson's Bay company incorporated. 1672 Lewis XIV. over-runs great part of Holland, when the Dutch open their

sluices, being determined to drown their country, and retire to their fetele

ments in the East Indies.

African company established. 1678 The peace of Nimeguen.

The habeas corpus act passed. 1630 A great comet appeared, and, from its nearness to our earth, alarmed the

inhabitants. It continued visible from Nov. 3 to March 9. - William Penn, a Quaker, receives a charter for planting Pennfylvania. 1683 Ind a lock fold from 360 to 500 per cent. 1685 Charles II. dies, aged 55, and is fucceeded by his brother, James I!.

The duke of Moninouth, natural son to Charles Il. raises a rebellion, but

is ccfeated at the battle of Sedgwoor, and beheaded.

1.85 The

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1685 The edict of Nantes infamously revoked by Lewis XIV. and the Protestants

cruelly persecuted. 1687 The palace of Versailles, near Paris, finished by Lewis XIV. 1688 The Revolution in Great Britain begins, Nov.5. King James abdicates,

and retires to France, December 3. King William and queen Mary, daughter and son-in-law to James, are

proclaimed February 16. Viscount Dundee stands out for James in Scotland, but is killed by general

Mackey, at the battle of Killycrankie, upon which the Highlanders,

wearied with repeated misfortunes, disperse. 1689 The land-tax pafled in England.

The toleration act passed in Ditto.
Several bishops are deprived for not taking the oath to king William,
William Fuller, who pretended to prove the prince of Wales fpurious, was

voted by the commons to be a notorious cheat, impostor, and falle ac

cuser. 1690 The battle of the Boyne, gained hy William against James in Treland, 1691 The war in Ireland finished, by the surrender of Limerick to William. 1692 The Englih and Dutch Aleets, commanded by admiral Ruffel, defeat the

French fleet off La Hogue. 1693 Bayonets at the end of loaded muskets first used by the French against the

Confederates in the battle of Turin.

The duchy of Hanover made the ninth electorate.
Bank of England established by king William.
The first public lottery was drawn this year.

Massacre of Highlanders at Glencoe, by king William's troops. 169+ Queen Mary dies at the age of 33, and William reigns alone.

' Stamp duties instituted in England. 1696 The peace of Ryswick. 1699 The Scots settled a colony at the illhmus of Darien, in America, and called

it Caledonia.
1700 Charles XII. of Sweden begins his reign.
King James II. dies at St. Germains, in the 68th

of his

age. 1701 Pruffia erected into a kingdom.

Society for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts established. 1702 King Williaın dies, aged 50, and is succeeded by queen Anne, daughter to

James II. who, with the emperor and States General, renews the war

against France and Spain. 1704 Gibraltar taken from the Spaniards, by admiral Rooke.

The battle of Blenheim won by the duke of Marlborough and allies, against

the French.

The court of Exchequer instituted in England. 1706 The treaty of Union betwixt England and Scotland, figned July 22.

The battle of Ramillies won by Marlborough and the allies. 1707 The first British parliament. 1708 Minorca taken from the Spaniards by general Stanhope.

The battle of Oudenarde won by Marlborough and the allies.

Sardinia erected into a kingdom, and given to the duke of Savoy. 1703 Peter the Great, czar of Muscovy, defeats Charles XII. at Pultowa, who

flies to Turkey.

The battle of Malplaquet won by Marlborough and the allies. 1710 Queen Anne changes the Whig ministry for others more favourable to the

interest of her brother, the late Pretender. The cathedral church of St. Paul, London, rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren,

in 37 years, at one million expence, by a duty on coals. The Englith South-Sea company began.

3 N +

1712 Duke

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1712 Duke of Hamilton and lord Mohun killed in a duel in Hyde-Park. 1713 The peace of Utrecht, whereby Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Britain,

and Hudson's Bay, in North America, were yielded to Great Britain ; Gibraltar and Minorca, in Europe, were also confirmed to the said crown

by this treaty. 1714 Queen Ann dies, at the age of fifty, and is succeeded by George I.

Interest reduced to five per cent. 1715 Lewis XIV. dies, and is succeeded by his great-grandson, Lewis XV. the

late king of France. The rebellion in Scotland begins in September, under the earl of Mar, in

favour of the Pretender. The action of Sheriff-muir, and the surrender

of Preston, both in November, when the rebels disperse. 1716 The Pretender married to the princess Sobieki, grand-daughter of John

Sobieki, late king of Poland.

An act passed for feptennial parliaments. 1719 The Milli lipi scheme at its height in France.

Lombe's fille-throwing machine, containing 26,586 wheels, erected at Derby;

takes up one-eighth of a mile; one water-wheel moves the ret; and in

24 hours it works 318,504,960 yards of organzine filk thread. The South-Sea scheme in England begun April 7 ; was at its height at the

end of June ; and quite sunk about September 29. 1727 King George 1. dies, in the 68th year of his age; and is succeeded by his only

fon, George II.
Inoculation first tried on criminals with success.

Russia, formerly a dukedom, is now established as an empire. 1732 Kouli Khan ulurps the Persian throne, conquers the Mogul empire, and re

turns with two hundred and thirty-one millions sterling: Several public-spirited gentlemen begin the settlement of Georgia, in North

America. 1736 Capt. Porteus, having ordered his foldiers to fire upon the populace at the

execution of a smuggler, is himself hanged by the mob at Edinburgh. 1738 Westminster-Bridge, consisting of fifteen arches, begun; finished in 1750,

at the expence of 389,000 l. defrayed by parliament. 1739 Letters of marque issued out in Britain against Spain, July 21, and war de

clared October 23. 3743 The battle of Dettingen won by the English and allies, in favour of the

queen of Hungary. 1744 War declared againit France. Commodore Anson returns from his voyage

round the world. 1745 The allies lose the battle of Fontenoy.

The rebeilion breaks out in Scotland, and the Pretender's army defeated by

the duke of Cumberland, at Culloden, April 16, 1746. 1746 British Linen Company erected. 1748 The peace of Aix la-Chapelle, by which a reltitution of all places, taken

during the war, was to be made on all sides. 1749 The intereit of the British funds reduced to three per cent.

British herring fishery incorporated. 1751 Frederic, prince of Wales, father to his present majesty, died.

Antiquarian society at London incorporated. 1752 The new style introduced into Great Britain; the third of September being

counted the fourteenth. 1753 The British Museum erected at Montagu-house.

Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, instituted in London. 1755 Lisbon destroyed by an earthquake. 1756 146 English men are confined in the black hole at Calcutta, in the East Indies, by order of the Nabob, and 123 found dead next morning.

3756 Marine

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1756 Marine society eftablished at London. 1757 Damien attempted to assassinate the French king. 1759 General Wolfe is killed in the battle of Quebec, which is gained by the

English. 1760 King George II. dies, O&ober 25, in the 77th year of his age, and is fuca ?

ceeded by his present majesty, who, on the 22d of September, 1761, married the princess Charlotte of Mecklenburgh Strelitz. Black-Friars bridge, consisting of nine arches, begun; finished' 1770, at the

expence of 52,840 1. to be discharged by a toll. Toll,taken off 1785. 1762 War declared against Spain.

Peter III. emperor of Ruflia, is deposed, imprisoned, and murdered.
American Philofophical Society established in Philadelphia.

George Augustus Frederic, prince of Wales, born August 12. 1763 The definitive treaty of peace between Great Britain, France, Spain, and

Portugal, concluded at Paris, February 10, which confirms to Great Bri- . tain the extensive provinces of Canada, Eait and Weit Florida, and part of Louisiana, in North America; also the islands of Granada, St. Vin

cent, Dominica, and Tobago, in the West Indies. 1764 The parliament granted 10,000 1. to Mr. Harrison, for his discovery of the

longitude by his time-piece. 1765 His majesty's royal charter passed for incorporating the Society of Artists:

An act passed annexing the sovereignty of the island of Man to the crowa

of Great Britain. 1766 April 21, a spot or macula of the sun, more than thrice the bigness of our

earth, passed the sun's centre. 1768 Academy of painting established in London.

The Turks imprison the Russian ambassador, and declare war against that

empire. 1771 Dr. Solander and Mr. Banks, in his majesty's ship the Endeavour, lieut.!

Cook, return from a voyage round the world, having made feveral im

portant discoveries in the South Seas. 1772 The king of Sweden changes the constitution of that kingdom.

The Pretender marries a princess of Germany, grand-daughter of Thomas,

late earl of Aylesbury, The emperor of Germany, empress of Rusia, and the king of Pruffia, ftrip

the king of Poland of great part of his dominions, which they divide

among themselves, in violation of the most folemn treaties. 1773 Captain Phipps is sent to explore the North Pole, but having made eighty

one degrees, is in danger of being locked up by the ice, and his attempt

to discover a passage in that quarter proves fruitless. The Jesuits expelled from the pope's dominions. The English East India company having, by conquest or treaty, acquired the

extentive provinces of Bengal, Orixa, and Bahar, containing fifteen millions of inhabitants, great irregularities are committed by their servants abroad, upon which government interferes, and sends out judges, &c. for

the better administration of justice. The war between the Rullians and Turks proves disgraceful to the latter,

who lose the islands in the Archipelago, and by sea are every where un

successful. 1774 Peace is proclaimed between the Russians and Turks.

The British parliament having passed an act, laying a duty of three pence

per pound upon all teas imported into America, the Colonills, considering this as a grievance, deny the right of the British parliament to tax

them. Deputies from the several American colonies meet at Philadelphia, as the

first General Congress, Sept. 5.

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1774 Fire

1774 Firl petition of Congress to the King, Nov. 1775 April 19, The first action happens in America between the king's troops

and the provincials at Lexington. May 20, Articles of confederation and perpetual union between the Ame

rican provinces. June 17, A bloody action at Bunker's Hill, between the royal troops and

the Americans. 1776 March 17, The town of Boston evacuated by the King's troops.

An unsuccessful attempt, in July, made by commodore Sir Peter Parker,

and lieutenant general Clinton, upon Charles Town, in South Caro

The Congress declare the American colonies Free and Independent States,

July 4.
The Americans are driven from Long Isand, New York, in August, with

great loss, and great numbers of them taken prisoners; and the city of

New York is afterwards taken possession of by the king's troops. December 25, General Wathington takes goo of the Helsians prisoners at


Torture abolished in Poland. 1777 General Howe takes poffeffion of Philadelphia.

Lieutenant-general Burgoyne is obliged to surrender his army, at Saratoga,

in Canada, by convention, to the American army under the command

of the generals Gates and Arnold, October 17, 1778 A treaty of alliance concluded at Paris between the French king and the

thirteen united American colonies, in which their independence is ac

knowledged by the court of France, February 6. The remains of the earl of Chatham interred at the public expence in Wella

minster-Abbey, June 9, in consequence of a vote of parliament. The earl of Carline, William Eden, Esq; and George Johnstone, Efq; ar.

rive at Philadelphia, the beginning of June, as commiflioners for restor

ing peace between Great Britain and America. Philadelphia evacuated by the king's troops, June 18. The Congress refuse to treat with the British commiflioners, unless the inde

pendence of the American colonies were first acknowledged, or the king's

fieets and armies withdrawn from America. An engagement fought off Brest between the English fleet under the com

mand of admiral Keppel, and the French feet under the command of

the count d'Orvilliers, July 27.
Dominica taken by the French, Sept. 7.
Pondicherry surrenders to the arms of Great Britain, QA. 17.

St. Lucia taken from the French, Dec. 28. 1779 St. Vincent's taken by the French.

Grenada taken by the French, July 3:
1780 Torture in courts of justice abolished in France.

The Inquisition abolished in the duke of Modena's dominions.
Admiral Rodney takes twenty-two sail of Spanish ships, Jan. 8.'
The same admiral also engages a Spanish feet under the command of Don

Juan de Langara, near Cape St. Vincent, and takes five ships of the line,

one more being driven on shore, and another blown up, Jan, 16. Three actions between admiral Rodney and the count de Guichen, in the

West Indies, in the months of April and May; but none of them de

cisive. Charles Town, South Carolina, surrenders to Sir Henry Clinton, May 4. Pensacola, and the whole province of West Florida, surrender to the arms of

the king of Spain, May 9. The Proteitant Affociation, to the number of 50,000, go up to the House


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