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acid alcohol Alexandria alizarine ammonia amount angle anthraflavine appears Arabia Petraea atacamite aurin axis boiling bronchitis calorimeter carbonic acid cause cent colour colouring-matter compound cone contain copper crystalline crystals cubic integral cupric cuprous chloride cuprous oxide curve death-rate decomposed Delile deposit diseases dissolved equal equation evenly distant experiments face-joint Forsk glass hailstones heat hydrochloric acid inches increase indican indigo-blue instrument Isatis tinctoria isoanthraflavine James Cockle leaves marks matter means metal mortality niobium nitric acid number of deaths observed obtained oddly distant ordinates origin Owens College pair obv pair of mediates pair of obverses particles plane plant Polygonum tinctorium position Professor proper group proximate pure quantity raindrops sanitary sodium chloride Sodium Dithionate soluble solution specimen stones substance gave surface tangent temperature thermometer triad tube types vertex vertical whilst yields
Page 269 - ... but especially to all found within human habitations, and we might also add, with equal certainty, the habitations of all animals. If you pick up a stone in a city, and wash off the matter on the surface, you will find the water to contain ammonia. If you wash a chair or a table or anything in a room, you will find ammonia in the washing ; and if you wash your hands you will find the same : and your paper, your pen, your table-cloth, and clothes, all show ammonia, and even the glass cover to...
Page 270 - If, then, ammonia was everywhere, the conclusion seemed to be that it was not at all necessary to do as I had been doing — namely, wash the air so laboriously; it would be quite sufficient to suspend a piece of glass and allow the ammonia to settle upon it. For this purpose small flasks were hung in various parts of the laboratory, and examined daily.
Page 161 - ... combine so as to form still larger particles, which will move with greater velocity and more quickly overtaking the particles in front of them will add to their size at an increasing rate. Under such circumstances therefore the cloud would be converted into rain or hail according as the particles were water or ice. The size of the drops from such a cloud would depend simply on the quantity of water suspended in the space swept through by the drop in its descent, that is to say...
Page 4 - There can be no doubt, the author believes, that this chasm has been formed by the chemical action of carbonic acid in water, and that it has attacked this particular spot either from the unusual softness of the rock originally situated here, or because there was here a joint or shrinkage in the strata. There is nothing, however, in the position of Elden Hole to lead one to suppose that any stream has ever flowed through it ; no signs of such a state of things appear anywhere around. It is not related...
Page 49 - ... started. My object in this paper is to suggest that this is the actual way in which raindrops and hailstones are formed. I was first led to this conclusion from observing closely the structure of ordinary hailstones. Although to the casual observer hailstones may appear to have no particular shape except that of more or less imperfect spheres, on closer inspection they are seen all to partake more or less of a conical form with a rounded base like a sector of a sphere.
Page 161 - To the contents of this paper I shall have to refer continually ; hence, in order to render what I have to say intelligible, it may be well for me to recapitulate some of the leading points in my former paper. The chief purpose of the paper was to explain the manner in which the minute cloudparticles aggregated so as to form raindrops and hailstones. Aggregation resulting from the more rapid Descent of the larger Particles. I commenced by pointing out that, as the suspended particles of water or...
Page 53 - ... blast of air against a small object ; and in this way I obtained masses closely resembling hailstones : but these also were too fragile to bear moving. At ordinary temperatures the powdered naphthaline does not adhere like ice when pressed into a lump. No doubt at very low temperatures ice would behave in the same way ; that is to say, the particles would not adhere from the force of impact. Hence it would seem probable that for hailstones to be formed the temperature of the cloud must not be...
Page 166 - ... lowering the bottles or by means of the cocks in the pipes. The tube is fixed in an ordinary retort-stand so that the blast is vertical. If, then, a small splinter of wood is held downwards pointing into the spray, a lump of ice forms on the end of the splinter ; and this lump has all the appearance of the hailstone.
Page 270 - It is probable that the chief cause of the presence of ammonia on surfaces in houses and near habitations is the direct decomposition of organic matter on the spot. If so, being more readily observed than organic matter itself, it may be taken as a test, and the amount will be a measure of the impurity. A room that has a smell indicating recent residence will, in a certain time, have its objects covered with organic matter; and this will be indicated by ammonia on the surface of objects.
Page 270 - Stones that not twenty hours before had been washed by rain showed ammonia. It is true that the rain of Manchester contains it also ; but, considering that only a thin layer would be evaporated from these stones, it was remarkable that they indicated the existence of any. The surface of wood was examined ; palings, railings, branches of trees, grass (not very green at the time), all showed ammonia in no very small quantities. It seemed as if the whole visible surface around had ammonia. I went into...