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in what manner the French, without just offence, have treated the small independent state of Geneva, and how many
an awful counterpart to CLAUDE's Complaints of the Protestants of France. The French Philosophers have scarcely been more cruel to the Clergy of France, during the Revolution, than the Clergy of France, at different periods, have been to the Protestants of France. We are all crying out against the wickedness and cruelty of the present governours of that great kingdom, but we forget that the Kings, Bishops, Clergy, Nobles, and Gentry of the land played the same game, and acted the same tragedy, not very many years ago.-It is the LORD's controwersy for the blood of his servants. The above two millions is the number of persons murdered, besides those who have fallen in battle.
"Let the mal-contents in every nation of Europe look at Holland and at Belgium. Holland was a hive of bees; her sons flew on the wings of the wind to every corner of the globe, and returned laden with the sweets of every climate. Belgium was a garden of herbs, the oxen were strong to labour, the fields were thickly covered with the abundance of the harvest. Unhappy Dutchmen! you will still toil, but not for your own comfort; you will still collect honey, but not for yourselves; France will seize the hive as often as your industry shall have filled it. Ill. judging Belgians! you will no longer cat in security the fruits of your own grounds; France will find occasion, or will make occasion, to participate largely in your riches; it will be more truly said of yourselves than of your oxen, you plough the fields, but not for your own profit.”
See Bishop WATSON's well-timed Address to the People of Great Britain, for the above extract. I exceedingly approve of the spirit of the whole, but I much question whether Mr. WAKEFIELD's objections to two particulars may not be just, viz. the comparison between 200l. a year and the 2000l.; and the similitude concerning the gradual sinking of the several parts of a large structure. Most of the other parts of Mr. WAKEFIELD'S pamphlet are extremely unworthy of his talents.
We may now also call the attention of the mal-contents of every nation of Europe to the situation of Italy, Rome, Malta, Napies, but, above all, to the brave, yet unoffending Swiss.
The learned Bishop, however, forgets in his Address to take into his estimation the state of religion in this country. In my judgment, the corrupt state of the Established religion is the grand and original cause of much of our immorality; and these two together are the only true and genuine sources of our national distress. Let us remove out of the way every unevangelical stumbling block, and turn unto God in good earnest, and he will soon make our enemies to be at peace with us. Could this be done, the throne of King GEORGE should be as the days of heaven!
The French revolution is a most amazing and tremendous event, and will probably be a means of new-modelling the face of Europe, if not of the whole world. The efforts that extraordinary people are making in the arts and sciences, are as vigorous as those they are making in war. The GOVERNOUR of the universe has formed them for great purposes,
many of its most wealthy inhabitants fell a sacrifice to sa tisfy the rapacity of the deputies from the Convention; we shall obtain a pretty clear idea of what we may expect, if they should succeed in their designs against us. We should not only see Bibles and Priests removed out of the way, an event, as some affect to think, devoutly to be wished, but the country must undergo every possible calamity. Great Britain and Ireland would become either a province of France, or be divided into two or three small contending republics, like Holland, dependent upon them. Our
* would be conveyed into their ports. London, and
both of judgment and mercy; of judgment to the present race of men; of mercy to the generations which follow. This, however, we know, in every event of things, it shall be well with them that fear the LORD.
* In the year 1693, the royal navy of England consisted of 111 ships 40 guns and upwards. In the year 1793 it consisted of upwards of 300 ships of war, from the first to the sixth rate, besides near 200 sloops, &c.
London is now what Tyre was in ancient times. One cannot help entertaining strong apprehensions of its sharing the same fate. The trade and riches of it are immensely large, and the corruption and iniquity of the place are in like proportion. See the account of Tyre in the Prophets.
This metropolis is unparalleled, in extent and opulence, in the whole habitable globe, except, perhaps, Pekin, in China, Jeddo, in Japan, and Houssa, in Africa, which are all said to be larger.
It comprehends, besides London, Westminster, and Southwark, no less than forty-five villages, of considerable extent, independent of a vast accession of buildings upon the open fields in the vicinity. Its length is nearly eight miles, its breadth three, and its circumference twenty-six. It contains above 8000 streets, lanes, alleys, and courts, and more than 65 different squares. Its houses, warehouses, and other buildings, make 162,000, besides 246 churches and chapels, 207 meeting-houses for Dissenters, 43 chapels for Foreigners, and six synagogues for the Jews; which in all make 502 places of public worship. The number of inhabitants during the sitting of parliament is estimated at 1,250,000. Among these are found about 50,000 common prostitutes, and no less than 60,000 thieves, coiners, and other bad persons of all descriptions. The annual depredations on the public, by this numerous body of pilferers, are esti. mated at the sum of 2,100,000l. sterling. In this vast city there are, moreover, upwards of 4000 seminaries for education-8 institutions for promoting morality-10 institutions for promoting the arts—122 asylums for the indigent-17 for the sick and lame-1 3 dispensaries-704 charitable institutions-58 courts of justice-7040 professional men connected with the various departments of the law.-There are 13,500 vessels trad
all our great mercantile towns would be exhausted of their riches. Our foreign possessions would fall into their hands.
ing to the river Thames in the course of a year; and 40,000 waggons going and returning to the metropolis in the same period, including their repeated voyages.-The amount of exports and imports to and from the Thames is estimated at 66,811,9321. sterling annually; and the property floating in this vast city every year, is 170,000,000 pounds sterling. These circumstances may be sufficient to convince us of the amazing extent and importance of the capital of the British empire. See these things detailed more at large in an excellent Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis.
And is all this national opulence and grandeur to be buried in one general ruin through the transgression and growing depravity of the people?
* About the year 1700, the town of Manchester contained only one church, and in 1717 the inhabitants were 8,000. The number of churches and chapels of the establishment in Manchester and Salford is now, twelve, and about the same number of dissenting chapels of various descriptions. The inhabitants are between 60 and 70,000.
In 1700, Liverpool had only 5,145 inhabitants. In 1790, it had 70,000. In 1709, it had 84 ships; in 1792, it had 584.
Several other towns in this country are increased nearly in the same proportion. O happy England, if thou didst but know thy happiness! The ingratitude and rebellion of the country, however, against the laws of the DIVINE BEING must terminate in our severe chastisement. The wickedness of the inhabitants is inconceivably great. Compare the lives of the Clergy-the Lawyers and Attornies--the Medical class-the Soldiery-the Sailors—the Common people-with the Gospel of JESUS CHRIST, and how alarming the contrast! The Nobles and Gentry of the land, with some few exceptions, are become incurably immoral, as well as irreligious. The trading part of the nation are all set upon their gain. Serious, uniform, and conscientious godliness, is only found among a few solitary individuals. The sabbath-day is fashionably, and very generally, prostituted to secular purposes. The public worship of ALMIGHTY GOD is grievously neglected by all ranks of men. The Sacrament of the LORD's Supper is very thinly attended, and this only Occasionally, and not as a serious duty and privilege. In short, the signs of the times are such as to give the most serious apprehension to every well-wisher to his King and Country. In London there are, I believe, near a million of souls, including children, who seldom or never attend public worship under any denomination!-Manchester contains near seventy thousand inhabitants; and between forty and fifty thousand of them absent themselves totally from every place of public worship on the sabbath-day!
Birmingham is said to contain about 70,000 inhabitants. There are five churches, and fourteen meeting-houses of different descriptions. It is not supposed that more than 5,000 persons attend any place of public worship on any one day; not more than 10,000 attend any public
hands. Our trade* would be annihilated; our real estates + change masters; our personal property be swept into France: our poor would languish and die in the streets for want of bread, none having it in their power to relieve them. We should be involved in all the miseries that
worship at all; so that there are 60,000 souls in that town, who may be said not to have any religion at all; that is, about one in seven, or seven to one. This is a very affecting consideration.
Macclesfield and its environs contain 9 or 10,000 people. We have two churches and five meeting houses. Not more, however, than 3000 of the nine attend public worship, in all the places put together. So that here are 6000 souls, including children, who may be considered as Infidels in principle, or practice, or both, the same children being exempted from the charge.
In 1700, England had 2181 trading vessels, carrying 261,222 tons burden. In 1792, England had 10,423 do. carrying 1,168,468 tons. In 1692, Scotland had 8618 tons of shipping. In 1792, Scotland had 2143 ships, carrying 162,274 tons.
In 1793, the trading vessels of the British dominions were 16,329, manned with 118,952 sailors, and carrying 1,564,520 tons.
History furnishes us with nothing equal to this account.
The quantity of land cultivated in England and Wales is about 32 millions of acres. The gross produce of the same is about 75 millions of pounds sterling annually; and the neat rental about 24 millions.
The average annual gross produce of the kingdom, arising from land and animals, stands nearly according to the following estimate:
Ten millions of acres of wheat, rye, &c. at 41. per acre
400,000 1,500,000 1,950,000
Ten millions of lambs, when weaned at 5s. per lamb
Two millions of calves at 20s. per calf
Four millions of pigs at 5s. per pig
Fruits and vegetables for 8,000,000 of people
·40,000,000 do. 10,000,000
The public and private charities of London amount to 750,000 pounds annually and the poor-rates of England and Wales altogether, make the enormous sum of 2,200,000 pound a year, besides all private charities and sunday schools. ARTHUR YOUNG, Esq. tells us, in his Letter to Mr. WILBERFORCE, that the amount of what is paid for Labour of all sorts in England is not less than one hundred millions sterling-poor-rates and charities of every sort cannot amount to less than seven millions.
human nature, in a civilized state, is capable of undergoing. And from being one of the first, most powerful, and happy nations upon the face of the earth, we should become one of the lowest, weakest, and most wretched kingdoms in Europe. And could any man, for the sake of ridding the country of these bugbears, the Bible and the Priests, wish to see all this evil come upon us? If
It is a melancholy reflection, that among all the clergy in this country, there were not quite 200 who sacrificed their interest to principle in the reign of Queen ELIZABETH. See GRAY's Sermons at the Bampton Lecture, p. 238.---In CHARLES the Second's time, however, there were upwards of 2000 clergymen, who sacrificed their interests to principle, besides a considerable number of conscientious men, it is to be presumed, who continued in their places.
Bigotry and persecution generally defeat their own purposes! What a consequence did not this mad measure give to the dissenting interest in England? The same foolish game was played by the Bishops and Clergy in the present century. Instead of encouraging, moderating, and regulating the pious zeal of a few young men, in Oxford, by gentle and lenient measures, they shut their churches against them, and compelled them to go out into the highways and hedges to preach to those who were inclined to hear them; and though they were then but a small band, they are now become a goodly company, and have already overspread England, Scotland, Ireland, America, and the West Indies. All this weight too is thrown into the dissenting scale! A few more such imprudent measures, and down goes Mother Church!
We have spoken on a former page on pluralities and non-residence. The former, indeed, in all ordinary, cases, implies the latter. We scarce ever read an account of deaths in the periodical publications, but we find an account of one or more instances of this nature. The poet MASON is a point in hand. Though a worthy man, and a character highly respectable, he had, it appears, accumulated several preferments in the church at the same time. And it is well known to be the custom of great numbers of the Clergy in the Establishment to procure as many as their interest will reach. This we call good management, prudent foresight, taking care for a family, and the like. If there is no GoD, it is all very well. But if we are accountable creatures, and are to exist in a future state, our present trading in Livings and Souls will not yield us satisfaction another day. It is popery, rank popery, the worst part of popers, under the highest pretensions to being the most pure and reformed. part of CHRIST's holy catholic church. I remember an anecdote appo site to the subject in hand. Bishop BURNET, in his Charges to the Clergy of his Diocese, shewed a great deal of disinterested integrity, by vehemently exclaiming against pluralities, as a most sacrilegious robbery. And, in his first visitation at Salisbury, he urged the authority of St. BERNARD, who, being consulted by one of his followers, whether he might accept of two beneficés, replied-And how will you be able to