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the Ratitæ, Podicipes, several Steganopodes, Alca, Otis, Turnix, Megapodiidæ, some Old-World Psittaci, Merops, Buceros, Upupa, Trogonidæ, Cypselidæ, Colius, all the Pici and Passeres.

4. One carotis conjuncta, but the right root alone is present, the left being obliterated. “This carotis primaria dextra " is likewise deeply lodged, as in the 2nd and 3rd cases, and has hitherto been observed only in Eupodotis.

In the following three cases, one or two collateral and superficially-placed arteries take the place of one or both deep carotids.

5. A carotis primaria s. profunda dextra coexists with a carotis superficialis s. collateralis sinistra. All the American and a few Old-World Parrots are such “ Aves bicarotidina abnormales(Garrod).

6. Two superficial carotids, a right and left, are present, the deep or primary vessels being entirely obliterated. Hitherto only

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10. Aorta ; su.d. A. subclavia extra ; su.8. A. subclavia sinistra; c.p.d. A. carotis profunda dextra ; c.p.8. A. carotis profunda sinistra ; c.p.c. A. carotis profunda conjuncta; c.3.. A. carotis superficialis sinistra.

A. normal condition, two separate deep carotids; B. the two deep carotids fused into one, e.q. Ardea; C, the same as B, but the root of the left carotid is reduced, e.g. Phoenicopterus; D. the left deep carotid is lost, but supplanted by a superficial vessel, e.g. certain Psittaci.

observed by Ottley (P.Z.S. 1879, p. 461), as an individual variation of Bucorvus abyssinicus.

7. The only carotis is a c. superficialis sinistra, all the other vessels being lost, observed by Forbes in Orthonyx spinicauda (not in O. ochrocephala), this being the only exceptional case of all the Passeres hitherto examined.

It is clear that the 2nd case is directly referable to the 1st, that the 3rd and 4th are each independently developed from the 2nd, and that the 5th, 6th, and 7th cases are recent and very qualified modifications. The undoubtedly independent acquisition of these carotid characters renders them valueless for taxonomic purposes, except within smaller and well-defined groups, e.g. the Parrots (see also VASCULAR SYSTEM).

CARPUS (adj. carpal), kaprós; the wrist or articulating region between the forearm, or ulna and radius, and the hand. In adult


birds there are only two separate carpal bones, one radial, on the convex or anterior bend of the wrist, and one ulnar, on the posterior or inner angle. Originally the carpus is composed, as in Reptiles and Mammals, of a greater number of bones, which are also present in the embryos of Birds, but most of them fuse either with each other or with the adjoining metacarpal bones (see SKELETON).

CARR-CROW or CARR-SWALLOW, the name used in Lincolnshire and perhaps other parts of England for the Black TERN in the days when it inhabited this country. The former was written by Willughby—on the authority of his correspondent Johnson—“Scare-crow."

CARR-GOOSE, an old name for the Great Crested GREBE (Policipes cristatus).

CASHEW or CUSHEW-BIRD, SO called, according to Edwards (Gleanings, ii. p. 181, pl. 295), from the likeness of the blue knob on its forehead to the cushew or cashew-nut, which is an appendage to the fruit of Anacardium occidentale, Linn.

The bird is the Pauzis galeata of modern (After Swainson.)

ornithology, one of the CURASSOWS. CASSOWARY, a corrupted form of the Malayan Suwari (Crawfurd, Gramm. and Dict. Malay Language, ii. pp. 178 and 25), apparently first printed as Casoaris by Bontius in 1658 (Hist. nat. et med. Ind. Orient. p. 71).

The Cassowaries (Casuariida) and EMEUS (Dromaida)—as the latter name is now used—have much structural resemblance, and form the Order Megistanes,' which is peculiar to the Australian Region. Prof. Huxley has shewn (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, pp. 422, 423) that they agree in differing from the other RATITÆ in many important characters, into the details of which it is now impossible to enter ; but one of the most obvious of them is that each contourfeather appears to be double, its hyporhachis, or AFTERSHAFT, being as long as the main shaft—a feature noticed in the case of either form so soon as examples were brought to Europe. The external distinctions of the two families are, however, equally plain. The Cassowaries, when adult, bear a horny helmet on their head, they have some part of the neck bare, generally more or less ornamented with caruncles, and the claw of the inner toe is remarkably elongated. The Emeus have no helmet, their head is feathered, their neck has no caruncles, and their inner toes bear a claw of no singular character.

| Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, xx. p. 500.

The type of the Casuariida is the species named by Linnæus Struthio casuarius and by Latham Casuarius emeu. Vieillot subsequently called it C. galeatus, and his epithet has been very commonly adopted by writers, to the exclusion of the older specific appellation. It seems to be peculiar to the island of Ceram, and was made known to naturalists, as we learn from Clusius, in 1597,


CERAM Cassowary.1 by the first Dutch expedition to the East Indies, when an example was brought from Banda, whither it had doubtless been conveyed from its native island. It was said to have been called by the inhabitants “Emeu,” or “Ema,” but this name they must have had from the earlier Portuguese navigators. Since that time examples

The figure is taken, by permission, from Messrs. Mosenthal and Harting's Ostriches and Ostrich Farming (London : 1877).

? It is known that the Portuguese preceded the Dutch in their voyages to the East, and it is almost certain that the latter were assisted by pilots of the have been continually imported into Europe, so that it has become one of the best-known members of the subclass Ratita, and a description of it seems hardly necessary. For a long time its glossy, but coarse and hair-like, black plumage, its lofty helmet, the gaudily-coloured caruncles of its neck, and the four or five barbless quills which represent its wing-feathers, made it appear unique among birds. But in 1857 Dr. George Bennett certified the existence of a second and perfectly distinct species of Cassowary, an inhabitant of New Britain, where it was known to the natives as the Mooruk, and in his honour it was named by Gould C. bennetti. Several examples were soon after received in this country, and these confirmed the view of it already taken. Nine good species, with the possibility of a tenth, are recognized by Prof. Salvadori in his great work, Ornithologia della Papuasia e delle Molucche (iii. pp. 473-503), the heads of all of them having been previously figured by him in an excellent monograph of the genus (Mem. Accad. Sc. Torino, 1882), from various localities in the same Subregion. Conspicuous among them from its large size and lofty helmet is the C. australis, from the northern parts of Queensland. Its existence indeed had been ascertained, by the late Mr. T. S. Wall, in 1854, but the specimen obtained by that unfortunate explorer was lost, and it was not until 1866 that an example was submitted to competent naturalists (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 241).

Not much seems to be known of the habits of any of the Cassowaries in a state of nature; but Prof. Salvadori (ut suprà) has collected, with his usual assiduity, almost everything that can be said on the subject. Though the old species occurs rather plentifully over the whole of the interior of Ceram, Mr. Wallace was unable to obtain or even to see an example. They all appear to bear captivity well, and the hens in confinement frequently lay their dark green and rough-shelled eggs, which, according to the custom of the Ratitæ, are incubated by the cocks. The nestling plumage is mottled (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1863, pl. xlii.), and when about half-grown they are clothed in dishevelled feathers of a deep tawny colour.

CAT-BIRD in North America is the name of a common and familiar summer-visitant, Mlimus carolinensis, one of the MOCKING-BIRDS, which in addition to the mewing and harsh cry for which it is notorious, is also a remarkably good songster; in Australia the birds of the genus Ailurodus (BOWER-BIRD), and especially A. crassirostris, or smithi of some authors, are so called for the same reason.

CECOMORPHÆ, the third group of Prof. Huxley's Suborder SCHIZOGNATHÆ (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, pp. 457, 458), composed of former nation, whose names for places and various natural objects would be imparted to their employers (see ALBATROS, Booby, and Dodo).

or a long whihich it much resen bat the tip of

the Families Larida (GULL), Procellariida (PETREL), Colymbidæ (DIVER), and Alcidæ (AUK).

CEDAR-BIRD, a name given in North America to a delicatelycoloured and rather common bird Ampelis cedrorum, or carolinensis of some authors, for a long while confounded with its larger congener A. garrulus (WAXWING), which it much resembles in appearance and characters — among them the dilatation at the tip of the secondary wing-quills looking like red sealing-wax; but it is much smaller and plainer in plumage.

CELEOMORPHÆ, Prof. Huxley's name (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 467) for the group containing the Picidæ (WOODPECKER) and Iyngidæ (WRYNECK), to which he found it difficult to assign a place. Parker subsequently (Trans. R. Microsc. Soc. 1872, p. 219) raised them to a higher rank as SAUROGNATHÆ.

CERE or CEROMA (from cera, wax), the soft, generally somewhat swollen skin which covers the base of the upper bill, especially well defined in Parrots and Diurnal Birds-of-Prey (see BILL).

CEREOPSIS, a genus founded by Latham in 1801 (Suppl. Ind. Orn. p. Ixvii.) on a single specimen of a bird received from Australia apparently in poor condition, and placed by him in the Order GRALLÆ. A truer view of its position was, however, taken by those who had observed it in its own country, where it became known as the “Cape- Barren Goose” from its occurring at that spot.1 However abnormal in appearance this bird may be with its short bill thickened at the base, its rather long legs and semipalmated feet, and its grey plumage spotted with black on the wing-coverts CEREOPSIS. (After Swainson.) and scapulars ; in its internal structure, as described by Yarrell (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, pp. 25, 26), it does not differ in the least important character from other Geese, and in its habits, whether at large or in confinement, is a thorough GOOSE. It has been introduced into England for more than 60 years, examples having been transferred from Windsor, where it had bred freely in the menagerie of King

1 According to Sonnini, who calls it “Le Cygne cendré” (N. Dict. d'hist. nat. vii. p. 68), it was first noticed by Labillardière in Espérance Bay on the south coast of New Holland, during the search by D'Entrecasteaux for La Pérouse in 1792. Collins in 1802 (New South Wales, ii. p. 94) ascribes its discovery by the English settlers to one of the company of the 'Sydney Cove,' who took it for a Swan ; and Flinders, who was there in February 1798, accordingly named from it two islands on the north coast of Van Dieman's Land. Bass gave the first intelligible description, stating that it “was either a Brent or a Barnacle Goose or between the two."

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