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tions. As the republican force in Scepeaux, Chatillon, d'Audigne, that quarter was but weak, and and Turpin, commanded in Anjou the spirit of discontent and revolt, and Britanny, as far as Morbihan ; general and ardent, the insurrection generals Georges and de Sol, the ipread so rapidly, that, in a short Lower Britanny ; le Mercier, the space of time, no less than twenty districts lying towards St Brieux. departments were, more or less, The count d'Autichamp was at the in a ftate of insurrection.
head of the army of PoiClou, and Their principle place of strength of ihe country on the left bank was, at first, Meins. This how. of the Loire to the confines of ever, on the appearance of the Aunis; and under him were the republican troops, they were forced generals Suzannet, Sapineau, Soto evacuate, after pillaging it, and yer, and Berlier. Of all the great taking hostages. But, by this time, towns throughout these pro: inces the flames of insurrection had spread the royalists were in polieslion, and far and wide. The insurgents they were all of them stored with were, for a while, in poffeffion of aminunition and provisions : fup.. Nantes, the capital of the depart. plies of which, had, from time to ment of the Nether Loire, and time, been landed, on such parts Port-Brieux, that of the depart. of the coast, as were under ment of the northern coasts. From their influence and fway by the this last place they did not retreat Englis. On the whole, the French without carrying off all the public nation was in a flate of dilcontent, money, and allo the principal in- alarm, and anxious expectation, habitants as hostages. A regular The noble families and clergy were chain of posts was formed from profcribed and persecuted; the the Bay of Biscay almost to the men of property were haralled with walls of Paris. The insurgents requisitions; the jacobins were published manifestoes, demanded excluded from the public councils, fupplies of men, money, and pro- and ready to attempt any entervifions, and, in a word, aliuming prize that might throw all things the title of the royal and catholic into confusion, however desperate army, exercised within the sphere and dangerous. of their influence and power all the Some measures had indeed been functions of government. This taken for modifying, not repealing, army, which covered so great an the law of Hostages, and for deextent of country and amounted stroying one dreadful engine of deli in all, to about a hundred thousand potism, in tlie hands of the late men, was formed into five grand directory, by clofing the list of divisions. The province of Nor- emigrants : other measures too, had mandy (for we presume that the old been taken for alleviating the pub. divifions of France will yet be more lic distretes, but the whole were intelligible to most of our readers feeble, and in their operation tardy than the new) was under the orders and incficccious. The nation was of count Lewis Frotté : the pro- in a state of distraction ; the govince of Mayne was occupied by a vernment, if not altogether in a formidable army, under the count state of languor, indecifion, and de Bourmont. The marquisics of it:pefaction, rather - watched and
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sought for an opportunity of firength- come the inftrument of political inening their own hands by some new trigue, accepted the command of change, than of composing the peo- the army of Italy. The abbé, it ple, and saving the country, by the was generally fuppofed, was enexercise of any powers or principles couraged and fortified in bis designs, inherent in the aclual constitution by the countenance and good wishes
The abbé Sieyes had early fore- of the court of Berlin, where he secn, or apprehended the discord. had resided a considerable time, and ant and fluctuating nature of the which was equally jealous of devarious forms of government that mocratical doctrines, and all con. had been adopted since the over. nection with governments founded throw of the monarchy. He had on such principles.' attempted, in vain, the introduc- . The parties which divided and tion of a constiliition, which, though agitated France, at this time, were still retaining the name, and in some reduced to two classes : the one condegree the form of a republic, should fisting of the jacobins or fierce rebe consolidated and stayed by one publicans, who made but little ac. chief magistrale, and a conftitu. count of either the property or lives tional jury, or coplervative senate; of their countrymen, whenever they and, in the various changes that judged that a sacrifice of these might took place, from time to time, he be rendered subservient to the inwas a friend, as we have seen, to terests of their own faction: the other an increase of power in the hands comprehending all who had takeni of the executive government. The a' share in the revolution, without great enemies that abbé Sieyes, who participating in its principal enor: had gained an ascendancy in the mities, and who arranged themselves public' councils, had to contend around Sieyes and the council of. with, was, of courle, the democra: elders, in the hope and expectation tical party. To overthrow the of some approaching change. principles and plans of this party, Though this man had voted for the by an opposite fyflem, in which his death of the king, and that in a very own project of a single chief, and a unfeeling and inhuinan inanner,* he constitutional jury, should be adopt. affected great regard for the conftia ed, was the leading principle in his tutionalists of 1791, who had forconduct, and the great object of his merly been the objects of his averincelant contrivance.
sion.' He gained over the leading It has been said, that he imparted men in the council of five hundred, his design of establithing a Itronger and established his interest still more government, by a fresh revolution, firmly in that of the elders. The to general Joubert, whom he wish: extension of his plan, howerer, ed to associate with himself in this was still retarded, by various obsta : project, and whose unsullied cha: cles, when the eyes, the thoughts, racer, blooming virtues and talents, and the hopes of all men were sudand popularity rendered a very de- denly turned on Buonaparte. - .' firable associate in such an enter. No less than ihree days elapsed, prise, Joubert, unwilling to be- after the unexpected return of this
celebrated commander and politi- together, for the first time in their cian, before he had a personal inter- lives, at the house of Gohier, preview with abbé Sieyes: a circum- fident of the directory. “ General," fance, which, undoubtedly, seems said Buonaparte, “ I had several of to strengthen the opinion of those your lieutenants in Egypt, and they who affirm that no lecret correspon. are very diftinguiled officers.” The dence had taken place between these bright luftre of Moreau's reputation inportant personages; though this was yet inferior to the dazzling apparent fiynels, in a question rela- (plendour of Buonaparte's fame and ting to political dexterity, "mighi character. In' the judgement of poffibly be accounted for otherwise; many military critics he was not inbat all this is of little moment. ferior, but in the public eye he was C'errain it is, that Buonaparte was secondary; and being a man of a Currffed, flattered, and courted by natural eatinels, as well as probity both parties, but that he himself of difpofition, and less ambitious did not court any. With politic and daring, he was content to be ciais, though sivil and polite, he among the first in the train of the was distant and reserved: close favourite of fortune. himsell, while he listened to the It was for some time questioned reports, and put many queftions whether the genius of Buonaparte to others. But while he was thus would, în like manner, gain an algrave and guarded in his intercendancy over that of ahbé Sieyes, courles with both the moderate and and which of these men would take jacobinical party, he was open, the lead in settling a new govern. frank, and ftudious above all things, ment, and in its administration when by all means to maintain his intereft settled. Both were men of deep and popularity in the army. Every reflection and combination of ideas; officer of diftinction he treated with both remarkable for taciturnity, the fodied respect; every private that natural concomitant of profound and came in his way, as has been above incessant meditation; both poslesed noticed, with affability and conde- many partisans, and great authority scension. The directory and the of the state: 'yet, on the whole, councils determined to do honour to their character and condition were Buonaparte by a tplendid seast, in not marked by so many circumstanthe church of St. Sulpice, trans, ces of resemblance as of dilcriminaformed into the Temple of Victory. tion. Sieyes was a metaphysician, This intention, being intimated to melancholy, irascible, fulpicious, the general, he requested that ge- and cautious, He was endowed neral Moreau might also be invited, with a quick discernment of men, and corioined with himself in every things, and circumstances, and ca. sentiment intended to be expressed pable of turning conjunctures to difo by that entertainment: it is need- ferent purposes, provided that he less to a id, that his request was had time to overcome rising obstacomplied with. He was anxious cles to his plans, not by force, but to prevent any sentiments of rivally by intrigue, or, as he himself al. and opposition, on the part of Mu. leged, by operating on the minds, jeau, and to gain his confidence and and convincing the understandings favour. These commanders met of men, and to weave his complicated
web in the dark, and without difhands of the man who had con turbance. He seemed to entertain quered Italy and Egypt, and made a just regard and reverence for what peace with Austria, on terins lo he deemed right and just, and con- advantageous and lionourable to the ducive to the public welfare: though republic, while, at the fame time, he seemed also to be of opinion that it was the more likely to be lasting, tew, if any, good laws were to be that it was neither so dishonourable expecied from any other head ihan nor disadvantageous to that great his own. Nor, though silent and re- power, as it might have been, if cluse, did he want firmness to avow the pride of victti had not been and defend his own sentiments, in tempered by political prudence. the midst of popular clamour and The wisdom of the treaty of Campo paflion. He stood up for the de. Formio was illuftrated bi the loftes, terce of property in opposition to diafters, and fifierings that resulted Jaws in favour of bankruptcy, and from its violation. The nation for the suppression of thes. A fighed for peace, and this blefling saying of his was long, and is now was not lo likely to be procured by renembered to his credit. Speak- any one as by Buonaparte. As the ing of his colleagues in the national nation confilied in Buonaparte, so allembly, he laici, “ They wish to be neither was he d ffident in himself; free, and they know not what it is though it would be rery unjust, and to be jaft.” On the whole, the is by no means interded to infiabbé Sieges was not an aminlle, nuate, that he carried a confidence but noflefied a very general repu- in his own powers beyond the tation of being both a wile ard juft bounds of a juli felf-esteem. He man: and that, if he was not with had impro ed an understanding, naout a tincture of vavity and anbi- turally excellere, by a very close and tion, it was not the common an- fucceful application to literature bition of power and splendour, but and the sciences. By the former, that of gaining over the French his mird was humanized as well as nation and the world to his polienlarged, and lis ruluig paffion, the tical doctrines. His ambition, there- love of slort, confirmed and exaltfore, was of the fame nature with that ed: from the latter, bis understand. of the heads of religious sectaries. ing derived additional rigour, pre
Buona parte, to the advantage of cition, and promputade. He iras military renown, added that of mo- defcended of an ancient family in deration, prudence, and a regard Cortica, an island protected by its not only for civil rights, but also for poverty and rountainous alpeet from religion. The fage coupsels he gare the çrerration incidentio the chamto the Genoele on leaving them to pirn and luxuriant regions, lying themselves, the letter which he in the same de reesot latitude; and wrote to the Pope in a tone of re- ly the fingple fate of inunners from fpect and veneration, the whole of that hindrets and moretiny of gehis conduct in Italy, not more in- nius, i ch is commonly produced trepid than temperate anduite, wirelor an imitation of establithed arirecollected with prisoft. There there and rides of thinking, in svas nothing that the French people the more ad reed fiag -s of leciety. was not difpofe I to "port at the He was born, and recrired his first
impressions, too, in times, when the position to the jacobins, and on the spirit of liberty in his native land lide of the moderate party. It was excited every latent spark of genius almost as soon perceived that he and adventure. Though the supe. considered the destinies of France rior and irrefiftible power of France as in his own hands, and that he damped and crushed all hopes of would not brook either any superior maintaining the independence of or equal. He spoke in a tone of laCortica, the tone and temper of conic decision, which sufficiently inmind to which the unequal struggle dicated the opinion he entertained gave birth, the ardent spirit of ex. of his talents, power, and importertion remained in the youthful ance. hosom of Buonaparte, who, by a It was a fingular spectacle to see feries of incidental circumstances, so many generals, and these of the was led into the famous école mili- first rate, in the midst of a war in laire of France, where he added the Paris. Buonaparte was supported accompliments to be acquired by by the presence, countenance, and the most refined, to the benefits authority of Moreau, Bertbier, Lederived from one of the fimpleft and febre, Serrurier, Macdonald, Murat, moft virtuous nations in Europe. Berryer, and several other general To personal courage, carried to the officers. In other circuinitances, verge of temerity, and military art. such a congress of generals, in the and fratagem, he united blameless, seat of the government and legislaand, with his inferiors in station, ture, would probably have occaaffable manners. Of a firm and un- fioned lome murmurs of jealousy and daunted spirit, and a genius pene- dissatisfaction; but every passion was trating, fublime, and inventive, he hushed, and every head bowed down distinguished difficulties from im- before the man, who was not only pollibilities, discerned the nature the idol of France, but the admi. and dispositions of men, and bodies ration of the world. of men, and not only improved, but, The day fixed on by the direcin some degree, created conjunc. tory and legislative councils for the tures. He had taken a wide range feast in honour of the two generals, over the ancient as well as modern Buonaparte and Moreau, was the world, and cholen the greatest and seventh of November. There was most heroic models for his imita- nothing extraordinary, in such an tion. His letters, his speeches, his entertainment; on the arrival of acions, all proclaimed a fublimity Buonaparte from Egypt, or what of courage, imagination, and defign, was not to have been expected.beyond the limits of vulgar concep But neither is it unnatural to suption.
pose that the politics of the day In such times, it was certainly to might in fome shape and degree, be expected, that the genius of the infinuate themlelves into this design warlike thonid prevail over that of after it was formed, although it the metaphy@cal politician. Not would not be realonable to alcribe more than a week had elapsed, af- its original formation to any other ter the general's arrival in Paris, cause than what is most natural and when it was clearly perceived that obvious. It served to lolemnize the liis fentiments were wholly in op- union and friendship between the