« EelmineJätka »
centre, under the orders of the gene- wing of the army of Switzerland oca rals Sommoriva, Ott, Gottesheim, cupied the valley of the Rhone, and and Bellegarde, extended in a waving had its advanced posts in the disa line by the roots of the maritime ferent sinall passages of the Valais and . Alps to Oneglia, Albinga, and the Great St. Bernard, The left Finale, and held several posts on of the united armies of the Alps the very borders of France. The left and of Italy, possessed the Little St. wing of the Austrian army, under Bernard, Mount Cenis, and the the command of general Kray, oc- extremities of the other pallages of cupied the vallies of the Bormida, the Tarentaile and of the MauriErno, the Orba, and the Scrivia. enne. It lupported, with some de: It was in pofleffion of Sasello, Ovada, tachments of infantry, the VanNovi, and Serravalle, and masked dois, who were armed in favour of Gavi. A small body of troups, the republic, and opposed the implaced in the imperial fiefs, held perial posts placed near to Chenale the roads leading from Genoa to and to Argentiere, in the vallies of Pavia and Plaentia. Another was the Vraita, and of the Stura, posted in the upper Valley of the There the left of the united army Taro, where it coinmunicated with of the Alps and Italy, under the another, under general Klenau, command of Maffena, ended. The whose principal force was concer- centre guarded the two roads from trated on the Magra ; his advanced Coni to Nice, and in spite of the posts reaching as far as Lestria and rigour of thie season, had posts on the Varele. Such was the semicircular Col de Fenestre, and the Col de line occupied by the imperial troops Tenda. It lined the Riviera di opposite to the enemy. Some others Ponente as far as Savona, and kept were dilperled in Tuscany, the strong detachments in the middle of march of Ancona, the territories of the Ligurian Alps, and on all the Bologna and Ferrara, the Mantuan, passages which lead to the valley of and the Milanese. The reinforce. The Tanaro. The right of the French ments, which had arrived during army garrisoned Savona and Genoa, the last three months of the cam- as also the towns between them, paign, raised the number of Aur and had cantonments on the fout trians, spread over the face of roads which lead to the vallies of Italy, to at least fixty thousand: the Bormida, the Erno, the Orba; and they had about ten thousand and the Scrivia. On the first, their Piedmontele auxiliaries. About piquets went beyond Cairo ; on twenty thousand Tuscans and Nea- the second, beyond Saflolo; on the politans, too, embraced their caule: third, beyond Čampo-Freddo ; and, but they had no enemies to con- on the fourth, beyond Voltaggio, tend with, or rather to punish, but having allo, on the latter, a garrison the disarmed foldiers of the Cifal in the fort of Gavi. They faced pine, Roman, and Partheropian the imperialisis in the two roads republics.
which go from Genoa to Voghera The positions which at the end and Bobbio across the imperial fiefs, of the campaign remained in pof- polfeiled a 'part of that chain of teffion of the French, on the side of mountains which separates the val. Italy, were as follows: the right ley of the Trebbia from the Riviera
di Levante, and covered on that malady of insubordination and delide, the approaches to Genoa.- sertion, which, no less than the Upon this long and irregular line fever before mentioned, threatened from Genoa to the Great St. Bere to leave the mountains of Liguria, nard, there were not more than and the frontiers of France, withforty thousand men. From the Var out defenders. to Genoa there were scarcely twen- On the Upper Rhine, general ty-five thouland, almost all infantry. Moreau had, by the end of FebruA reinforcement of fifteen thousand aty, made the neceflary difpofitions men, from Switzerland, or from the for the immediate commencement interior, were on the inarch to join of the campaign. The force under the army of Italy. Others were his command was estiinated at one likewile promised; but those which hundred and thirty thousand men: arrived, were few in number, and without taking into the account the so great was the void in the ranks army of reserve at Dijon, under of the French army, produced by the inmediate orders of Buonaan epidemic lever, and by the deser- parte, which, it was univerlally tion, that Mallena, in the month of believed, was destined to support April following, had not more than and co-operate with that of Mothirty-five thousand men, in the reau. Neither the Austrians nos whole of the extent of the county any of the politicians of Europe, of Nice, and of the state of Genoa. penetrated the first consuls design The privations, distrelles, and mi- of marching his army, by the almost series, in which the soldiers were impracticable route, which he actulest, during the rigours of winter, ally took, into Italy.* The cavalry were felt more lensibly, and suffered of general Moreau amounted to with more impatience, during the twenty thousand; and he had eight idleness of winter-quarters, than regiments of light artillery, with they would have been amidst the thirty-two field-pieces, and fixteen toils of marches, and the tumults arquebuziers to each regiment. of 'adion. Several insurrections His head-quarters were at Strasbroke out among the troops that burg. The right wing of his army occupied the territories of Genoa. extended to the Helvetic Rhine, Companies of infantry, and even and he had a considerable body of whole battalions returned into troops assembled in the environs of France with arnis and baggage, Rheineck. To this quarter he sent Baona parte and Maliena exhaulied a numerous park of artillery, with their oratorial exhortations in vain. a corps of pontonniers, so that there Nothing but severe examples, and was every appearance that this fume bundreds of thoulands of lie wing of his army was to pass the tres extorted from the wretched Rhine at this point. The force Genoa, could stop this contagious and the position of this army an
• This however was, if not certainly foreseen, threwdly conjectured by two French generils, royalists, in London, who, when the writer of this, about the middle of March, put the question, how it could be possible for all the invention of Buonaparte co contrive means of sending relief in time to Genoa? replied, that this was not necessary; that it was posible, by a wider cordo!, to blockade and beliege the besiegers.
nounced nounced it to be the primum mobile, tive of the present campaign with of the campaign. His left wing, the active services of that brave, and his rear, were protected by the wile, and virtuous prince, who was forts of the Rhine, Hollard, and obliged to quit the army from ill the neutrality of Prussia; and the health, and perhaps fome other direction of the whole army towards circumstances. But a better choice Vienna rendered it formidable to of a commander, to supply, as far pofthe emperor. An official note fible, bis place, could not have been from Buona parte, communicated to made, than that of general Kray, the Helvetic government, the re- who took the chief command of the jection of peace by the enemies of army, on the eighteenth of March, France, and at the same time ex. But it was remarked, even at this presled a hope of his being able to early stage, as a bad omen, that force them to accept it.
there was not a good understanding Buonaparte, in his personal de- between the general and the mic meanor, began now to assume a nister at war, count Lherbach : military air, which indeed he had who were both of them quick in fiiftained pretty much ever fince their tempers, and of difpofihis elevation to the supreme autho- tions equally obstinate and imperity. He reviewed, in the Chanip- rions. de-Mars, all the troops that were in General Kray received a reinParis and its vicinity. The French, forcement of one thousand Wirtemas well as the imperalifts, every burghers, and as many Palatines, where moved out of their canton- who were destined to fupport the ments. Skirmishes between par- Austrians posted between Rastadt ties of hussars, advanced-posts on and Kehl.' The different corps of both sides, surprized, cannonading the Wirtemburgh, Palatine, and from one side of the Rhine to the Mayence, militia were stationed other, and the proclamations of the behind the Austrian army of the opposite generals, announced an Rhine, at the entrance of the de. approaching and terrible campaign. files of Suabia, between the river
The communication between the Enz, the Necker, and the Mayne, Austrian army of Italy and that of between Widbad and Ploutzheim, the archduke was still maintained as far as Heideberg, and from thence by the corps commanded by general by the Oderwald towards EschafDavidovich, which occupied Chia fenburg on the Mayne, and bevenna and Bellinzona, and stretched tween Frankfort and Mayance, towards the country of the Grisons, along the Nidda. Unfortunately we have it not in The Bavarian troops* assembled our power to embellish our narra- at Doncwert. The first column,
* Neither the Bavarian troops in the pay of England, nor the Wirtemburgers, nor the militia of Suabia, the Electorate, and Mayence, all of them also in the pay of Eng• Band, are to be confounded with the Palatines, Wirtemburgers, and Mayencers, who
were furnished as contingents of the empire; and of whom the first were stationed between Philipsburg and Rastadt, and the last on the Nidda, between Frankfort and Mayence.
under the orders of general baron quire fresh renown, by newatchievede Deux-Ponts, formerly in the ments. The greater part of the tervice of France, was compoled of Austrian troops that had pafled the
dead of winter, in Alexandria, Six battalions of infantry, confift. were now sent to the frontier of the ing each of 400 men - - 2400
state of Genoa. Three squadron of light cavalry, of 100 men each
General Bertier, on the twenTwo companies of arquebuziers, tieth of April, joined the army of of 40 men cach ,
So referve at Dijon, of which he took Three companies of artillery, of
the chief command, until the arrival do ca cach
of Buonaparte. This army was at Total 2000 least fifty thousand strong, well ap
pointed, and in all respects in most
excellent order. By this time, a This first division was to be raised detachment of eight hundred Aulto three thousand five hundred men, trians had taken posesion of Mount by a levy of recruits. This corps Cenis. General Bertier, informed was reviewed on the fourth of of this circumftance, on bis arrival Avril, and, on the fifth, began their at Dijon, reviewed the army, 'and march to the camp of Ridlingen, on went directly to Basle, where he the Danube.
had a conference with general MoThe second division of the Ba- reau. It was determined that mi. varian troops passed a review at litary operations (hould be begun on Donwert, on the twenty-seventh the Rhine, on the week therca!tcr. of April, and had the same defti- Intelligence being received that the tation. The corps of the one Auflrians had taken potieilion of thon und Wirtemburghers allembled Mount Cenis, general Thureau, fet at Ridlingen, and, together with out from Briançon, proceeded to three regiments of emigrant Swiss, Exiles, from thence towards Suzii, were joined to the Bavarians. The and coming up with the rear of the particular destination of the corps detachment, wbich the Austrian's of Condé was not at that time had pushed forward to Mount Co kaown. They had been in the nis, he obliged them to retreat. lervice of Russia, and had palled and took a part of this small garri. into that of England. They re- fon prisoners of war, ceived orders to march to the coast Milena, commander-in-chief of of the Mediterranean. General the French, in Italy, confidering Melas, who commanded the Aure the miferable state of his, troops, trian army in Italy, let out from came to a determination to confen. Turin on the twerty-seventh of trate the whole of his forces on the March, and, on the evening of the river of Genoa. fame day, arriveil in 'Alexandria, The general system of war, a. wiere he establilled his head quar- dopted by the consul, was, to keep ters, and inmediately issued a pro- the wbole of the troops toçether in camalion to the army, announcing a mass on fume favourable points, the opening of the campaign, and whether for office or lesence.-exhurting the troops to remember The reader already percives his les their former bravery, and 10 ac- cret design, in cflabidhing what, for VOL. XLII.
a blird to the enemy, he called the all that they had lost in Italy, was army of reserve, though it was de. to keep the French armies, in Switfined to be the most active, at Die zerland and on the Rbine, in plav, jon. From this central point be while they should puth with all menaced at once Germany, Swit- pobible viour the fiege of Genoa : zerland, and Italy; but those coun. the pofletlion of which was alone tries the most where his attack was wanting to render them complete not intended. The war in Ger- nasters of all Italy. This object, many he confided to the strong which they confidered as now witharmy under Moreau, while he, with in their grafp, and soon to be acthe army under his command, thould complimed, would have enabled go to reconquer Italy, the theatre them to bear with their whole of his moft fplendid victories. But united force on Switzerland, by the first objec, in his present the posledion of which, it would be career, was to arrive in time to in their power to force the French fave Genoa, and the unfortunate to keep on the defenfive, on the army of Masleria, which defended fide of the soutlı as well as of the that place; the most important in east. Such then, being the oppoall Italy, to be preserved or to be fite views of the two contending conquered.
armies, it will be proper to hegin The principal object and aim of our narrative of the campaign with the Aufirians, who, in the courle of the memorable hege of Genoa. the last campaign, had recovered