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perhaps, owing to that ease and fuse you any thing that you ark." gaiety of manner that he obtained, At length, at seven o'clock at night, in the end, all that he had demand- Mallena figned the treaty for the ed. A degree of misunderfianding evacuation of Genoa, and the conhad taken place for some time be tracting parties mutually gave ho. tween the Engliti, as individuals, stages. The subitance of the treaty and the Austrians. The former was, that the right wing of the reproached the latter with the great French army, charged with the delength to which the fiege had been fence of Genoa, and the corprotracted. Maslena endeavoured mander-in-chief with his staff, should to widen and to take advantage of go out of Genoa with their arms this want of harmony, by flattering and baggage, in order to rejoin the the pride of one party at the ex- centre of the said army by land.--penle of the self-love of the other. The lame liberty was granted to He said to lord Keith, “ Do you, eight thousand one hundred men, my lord, only permit a little grain who had permission to enter France to be carried into Genoa, and I by Nire. The rest were tranta give you my word that these gen- ported by sea to Antibes, and were tlemen (looking at the Austrian duly provided with provitions.generals) fall never set foot there.” Due attention was also paid to the Toward the end of the conference hospitals and the prisoners. Pair he again adilretted lord Keith, per- porls were granted to the Genoele fonally : “ My lord, if France and patriots. The Austrians took potEngland could only undertrand one feflion of the gates of the city, and another, they would govern the the English of the entrance into world."* In the whole of this the harbour. French commiflioners conference, lord Keith treated remained at Genoa to lie the artin ! Vallena, as the general often ac- cles, that had been agreed on reknowledged, in a very civil and fpecting the fick, and the hospitals, handlome manner. His lordibip duly executed. Matlina was aldisclaimed all hard conditions. He lowed to lend a courier, with a always said, “ General, the de. pallport, to Buovaparte, to announce serce you have made has been to the evacuation of Genoa. heroic, that it is impofkble to re

* This is a compliment very common in the mouths of all Frenchmen to the Erglith nation. But if ever the English should join France, for fubduing and governing the world, they must lay their account with either subcting the French, or being, themselves, as well as the rest of the world, subdued by them. It would be better for both the French and Englih nations, if they would let the world alone.

CHAP.

CH A P. XII.

Army of Reserve.- Plan of Buonaparte for reirieving the French Affairs in

Italy.--He Marches his Army across the Alps.-- Takes Pojesion of Milan.-Decisive Battle of Maringo.

UTAD any disaster happened to fuil was well acquainted with the IT the army of Moreau, on open- skill and abilities of that officer, he ing the campaign, Buonaparte might was glad of his allistance in this enhav.: been induced to balance the terorize. neceflity of lending relief to the The principal part of the army army of Italy, with that of lending was intended to pa's by Mount St. fuccours in Germany. The fplen- Bernard; other divisions, were indid luccelles of Moreau, lelt him tended to cross by Mount Cenis, the at liberty to do that to which he Simplon, and Mount St. Gothard. was most incliner: to send the army On the fifteenth of May, Buonaof reserve into Italy. This army parte passed St. Bernard, and at was ordered to Geneva, through Remi, difiant fix leagues from the the Païs de Vaud, and the lower monafiry, first law the Austrians. Valais to Martigny, a village fix who, though inferior in numbers, leagues from the Great St. Bernard, disputed the ground step by fiep where the first conful, leaving laris with the republicans, until they on the Gxth of May, joined it, and saw another part of the army demade a stay of three days, during fiending, as if with intent to attack which preparations were made for them in the rear. the ascent of the mountain.

No part of the artillery of this The first consul had determined army had at that time crofled the upon the measure of marching an mountains. It had been collected army to Italy with the utmost ex. at the village of St. Pierre, and it pedition, on account of the fitua. may be supposed it was a work of tion in which Matiena was then no small difficulty to tranfport it placed; who was shut up in Genoa, across the Alps. It was, however, and reduced to great liraighis, by eflentially necessary that such a trantgeneral Melas. In this extremity, port should be made, and the fola Buonaparte bad resolved to fur- lowing means was used to effect it: mount every difficulty in the pallige Every piece of cannon was disof the Alps, in order to attack the mounted, and placed in troughs fear of the Autriau arny.

hollowed out of trees cut down for - Fortunately, about this time, ge- the purpose. Thele were drawn neral Deflaix had arrived at Paris by five or fix hundred men, actrom Egypt; and, as the first con- cording to the size and weight of

the the piece. The wheels fixed to tacked by a body of hulars, that pole, were borne on mens' Moul- they were loon driven off the bridge ders; the lumbrils were empried, with a considerable lois, and Dut and placed on fleges, together themlelves up in Fort De Barre, with the axle-trees. The ammuni- built on an inaccesible rock. tion, packed up in boxes, was car. This fort, from its fitiration in a ried on the backs of mules. To narrow neck, appeared to stop the encourage the men, from four to progress of the whole army; and, if five hundred franks were allowed it could not be reduced in four days, for every piece of artillery thus every foldier must have perished transported. One half of a regi. through hunger, as the provifions ment was employed in drawing were nearly exhaufied, and no means (annon, whilst the other half bore left of procuring an additional supthe necessary baggage belonging to ply. Had general Melas foreseen their corps. The men proceeded this obstacle, he might, by a timely in fingle bles, it being impoflible opposition, have frufirated the fucfor two to draw abreaft, or to pals cels of Buonaparte's expedition. each other without danger of falling The ruck on wbich the fort is down the precipices on the fide. built, is in the thape of a lugar. The man who led, stopped, from loaf; the pass at its foot is skirted time to time, when every one took by a deep and rapid river, called the refreshment of buiscuit, mois. the Doria; on the opposite fide of tened in Inow water. It was the which is a keep inaccellible rock. labour of five hours to reach the There was no alternative; the fort monastery of St. Bernard, when must either be taken or another paleach man was refreshed with a glass fage lought. Each had its difficulof wine. They had then eighteen ties, but Buonaparte's genius lurmiles of descent, by far the molt diffi- mounted them. cult and hazardous, which they did .The suburb was taken poffeffion not accomplish till nine the next of by three companies of granadiers night, being ten hours-in perform previous to an attack on the fort, ing it. Buonaparte, and his staff, which was defended by five hundred marched on foot, and were in fe- men, and twenty-two pieces of can. veral places obliged to slide down non. The attack was made at leated on the now.

night, when the republicans climOn the fixteenth of May, the ran- bed up the rocks and over the palguard reached Aosta, garrisoned by a lutade amidst a thower of balls, and Hungarian battalion, which, afier drove the Austrians froin the works, tome loi, evacuated the place, when but were at last obliged to retreat a deputation from the town waited themselves. upon the conful to surrender it. This check made the conful re· The van-guard now proceeded to folve to find out another pallage, the attack of Chatillon, near which when a way was discovered up the place general Lannes was im oried rock Albaredo; which afcent gain. the Austrians were preparing to ed, might with a like difficulty, be oppose his passage over a bridge defcended: But the artillery could thrown across a precipice; but the not poslibly be transported this Ausirians were lo vigorously at wor; it was therefore resolved, at every hazard, to pass the carriages the next day convinced of their mira through the fuburb. Every means take, when general Lannes forced was uled, by letting out in the dark, their entrenchments, and cut them and by spreading litter along the to pieces, notwithstanding their caway to deadı n the lound, and pre- valry made some lhew of resistance. vent suspicion in the garrison ; yet, On the twenty-lixth of May, these precautions did not prevent Buonaparte gave orders for two dithe Austrians from discovering their visions to march towards Turin, defign, and the men were fiied whilst his van.guard bore upon upon and killed by every discharge. Chiusella and the Po. This was At length, Buonaparte ordered a done in order to deceive the Aus(annon to be raised, and placed trians, who thereupon crofled that upon the top of the church, which river, and took a position on the to effectually battered the tower' right bank. Whilst the attention over the gate, that the garrison, of the Austrians was taken up with fearing a second assault, lurrendered this maneuvre, gereral Murat, at at discretion.

the head of a division of cavalry, A pallage was now opened to entered Vercelli the next day, on the republican army, which expe- the road to Milan. Other divisions, sienced no larther obstruction until about the same time, took pofleflion it reached Ivrea, a town betwixt of Suza and Brunelle, and Ariolo. Aofia and Turin, from both which The Austriaus, finding themselves places it is diftant about eight not in sufficient force to defend leagues; and whither the ariny pro- Milan, against the republican army, ceeded as foon as the soldiers had evacuated that city on the second of refreshed themselves with the pro- June, after a light opposition; and vifions found in Fort De Barre.. it appears that the French were well This place was elcaladed and taken, received by the inhabitants, who with fourteen pieces of cannon, on were already revolutionized. the twenty-third of May, by a di. After fome short stay at Milan, vifion under general Boudet, before the ran-guard of the army marched the main army reached it.

and took pofleffion of Pavia, on the Buonaparte, instead of continuing filib of June, on which day Genoa his course fouthwards, to Turin, surrendered to the allies; and on turned off to Romagno, eastwards, which very day orders were sent to having received intelligence of a general Oit to raise the fiege. At force collecied there of lix thousand Pavia, the republican army found men, partly composed of Austrian considerable magazines, and five troops, woich he had driven before hundred pieces of cannon, with a him, and a number drawn from large quantity of ammunition. Turin. This body had taken a po. During this time, general Melas fition at Romagno, and was in- was at Turin, and the greatest part trenched behind the Sefia, a deep of his army in the Genoele terriand rapid river. They appeared tory, a polition which he prelerred to be ignorant as well of the strength too long ; perhaps, partly owing to of the French army, as that it bad orders he had received from VienBuonaparte with it, and treated its na, and partly to his ignorance of designs with contempt, but were Buonaparte's real strength. To this security the miscarriages and mies. The van-guard, under genemisfortunes of the Austrian army, ral Lannes, had luffered confiderawhich followed, may be attributed. bly, when it was reinforced by

To make a powerful diversion, general Watrin's divifion, which Melas delached general O'Reilly to decided the battle in favour of the Placentia, and general Otto, upon republicans ; and, the Austrians the Tellino. A detachment of fix having lost fix thousand 'prisoners, thousand men was likewise sent to and twelve pieces of cannon, with ChivasTo, upon the Po, which, turn- several fficers of distinction, killed ing off to Vercelli, retook three or wounded; were forced to retreat hundred Austrian prisoners. to Voguera.

The mantuvrë of advancing as · The day following; the French far as Chiavafto, which is within army marched through Voguera, fifteen miles of Turin, was a faint and took some positions before Torfor misleading the Austrians, by tona, which city the van-guard seeming to threaten that city. Surrounded without opposition. The

The concentration of the Austrian Austrian army had now arrived from forces seemed to discover an inten. , Genoa, and had fixed its headtion of offering batile. General quarters at Alexandria. As a geo' Murat defeated O'Reilly, and made neral engagement appeared to be himself master of Placentia, from unavoidable, every preparation was whence O'Reilly fell back upon made for it. : Otto, at Stradello and Montebello. The French army quitted its poa

The French army had now taken fition near Tortona, and advanced a position on the Po, where it is into the plain betwixt that city and joined to the Tellino, and becomes Alexandria, forming in order of then of equal depth with the Rhine. battle, as the several divisions arriThe republicans had no longer tó ved. Meanwhile Buonaparte caredo with small detachments: but fully examined the plain and village were met by the Austrian advan- of Maringo; but, ihe day proving ced-guard of eighteen thousand wet, nothing was done until the men. The French army was now following (the sixteenth of June), encreasing, and was joined by a which was usered in by leveral diviGon of the army of the Rhine, discharges of cannon; and the prewhich had leparated at Ulm, and paratives on the side of the Aus. had passed the Alps, by Mount St. trians appeared to be decisive for Gothard.

battle before noon. The French van-guard crossed Buonaparte and Berthier had enthe Po, and made a vigorous at. tered the plain, and the fire of tack upon the Austrian army, which cannon and mutketty began to be they drove before them into the brisk. The Aulirian line extended marshes, until night put a stop to fix miles in length, and steadily the parfuit, which was followed the preserved its positions, particularly next day by the battle of Monte- at the bridge over the Bormida; bell.

but, the principal point of aclion, The battle of Montebello was and whereto they directed their very bloody; that place was taken chief attention, was at Sans-Stefano, and retaken by the contending ar- from which point the Auftriang VOL. XLII.

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