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neighbours, the expenses of war- called to its service the whole acfare, multiplied by the progressive cumulated aid of all the arts and complexity of the art of war, and sciences, so much as war. War the increase of wealth, by means not only swallows up the produce of of which those expenses were de- indufry, but avails itself of the diffrayed.
coveries and inventions of philoThe armies of the first part of the fophy. Buonaparte, particularly, has Seventeenth century were more given many proofs of this position : thay doi bled by those of the second: he has availed himself of religious thole of the second part more than tolerance, and even religious versadoubled by the first part of the tality, or scepticism, and sent forth eighteenth, and those of the first the magic of moral artillery, at the part of the eighteenth century, more same time that he adopted with care than doubled by the armies of the every phyfical and mechanical imsecond. The niimoft force that was provement, that might contribute ever on foot in the wars of Louis to the maintenance of his arinies, XIV. was three hundred and fifty and the force of his arms. It is at thousand men.. The French re- the close of the most enlightened public made war on their neigh- age, that we find the greatest num. bours with a force of eight hundred: ber of regular and disciplined troops the ailles were obliged io make war in the field. We have seen more on a similar scale. The line of bat- than twelve hundred thousand men tle extended not from one strong in arms at one time in Europe only, poft, in the same territory to ano- and on the coasts of Syria and Egypt. ther : bul, fometimes, for hundreds At a time when pious philosophers of miles along the frontiers of differ- began to hail the near approach of ent countries : and invading ar- the Millennium, war broke out on a mies, making no scruple to leave scale vastly more extended than any Strongholds in their rear, boldly before known. Whole nations of marched forward, in different, though men rose in arms. Whole territoimn enfe, di ifions, to reduce, notries, measured by hundreds of one town or fortrels, but a whole leagues, were held, as it were, in fiate, as by one assault. So mighty a state of fiege. A general and and irrefifiable is the apparatus now combined attack was made, by brought helore a place belieged; contending armies, on the whole of and so ealy it is with that apparatus the opposite lines at once, all was to reduce whatever is not bomb- in motion, from the gulph of Genoa proof to ruin, that the greatest maf- to the Texel. ters in the art of war, begin now The effects of printing, which to give it as their opinion, that no burst forth fo conspicuously in the fortress frould be erected, or held fixteenth century, in religious war, in cities or town's in which there are had been continued, as in filent inhabitants. This divorcement be- and fructifying streams, for near tween towns and garrisons is among three hundred years, broke out again the first changes in war, that are in France: when the gentle streams about to mark the commencement of progressive knowledge dashed, of the nineteenth century
and foamed, in dreadful cataracts, It is greatly to be lamented, that like the falls of Niagara. As relithere is no human pursuit that has gion, in former ages, called every thing to her bar, and assumed all ethics, which has certainly not been power, in both church and state, without very considerable influence lo reason, in our age, assumed the on the minds of men. In the last power of judging every thing not century, and the beginning of this, only in the fate but the church. divines and moralifts established the Many zealous and ingenious divines foundation of moral obligation in the were rash enough, and very unne- will of God, directed by his other cessarily, to submit even the most mys- attributes, in justice, truth, the reterious doctrines to the bar et reason. lations and congruities of things: Christian philosophers or reasoners, in a word, an act of the understand. such as they were, cut and carved ing. From lord Shaftesbury's writhe holy Scriptures at a dreadful tings, re-echoing many of the furate, admitting certain portions to blime and engaging notions of Plabe authentic, but rejecting others to, there arose a school, which founde as apochryphal, and interpolation,- ed morality in some principle anaThe consequence was, that multi- logous to sensation or fense, or, at tudes of the vulgar began to listen least, to that faculty or power, by to fuch men as Thomas Paine, who which we perceive beauty, grace, taught them that this was the age and harmony, in external objects. not of faith but of reason. A spirit As this was the foundation, to was of attack on the establithments or the superstructure, benevolence, property of the church, appeared, generosity, kind affection, comin many countries, from the court pallion, 'tenderness, and indul. to the cottage. In former times, gence: in a word, all the amiable, priests, in exchange for spiritual melting, and weeping virtues, were comfor', received large tracts of all the vogue. The more masculine , land, and even whole diftricts and and fern virtues of rigorous justice, territories. The laity began, in the and the fulfilment of various levere eighteenth century, to relume the daties, began to be thought not altodonations of their forefathers. The gether indispensable in an amiable language of the profanum vulgus, to character. Hence arose such lax the clergy, was this: “ Take ye moralists as Sterne, and the myriads t'other world: we will take this to who condescend to initate that unourselves."
principled though humourous buf. These oblervations, on the most fron.But, if that sensational or important viciffitudes in opinions sentimental philofophy is not to be and usages, religious and political, confidered, in any great degree, as are not foreign to the division of the cau's of that general relaxation mind: the third head, under which of both mind and niorals, which chaare arranged the objects of our at- racterizes the prelent period, it certention. Did our bounds admit, we tainly fuits it mighty well, and is would take a view of the vicissitudes very convenient to persons of both and progress of the philosophy of sexes. the human mind, and particularly The eighteenth century was of moral philosophy. We thall, for characterized, particulariy towards the present, content ourselves with its cluse, not only by great, but adverting to a general change, (com- many of these sudden changes. prehending many lubdivisions,) a Correspondant to the quick comkind of revolution in the fyftem of munication of ideas, was the rapid
succefiion of events. "Revolutions not only in the field of battle, but in Europe were universally predict- the more trying scenes of judicial ed, after the great revolution in condemnation to death, and lega. America, yet they came fooner than lized massacres. Never, in any they were expected. Towards the age or country, did lo great a numciole of the eighteenth century, the ber of men and women display, at balance of political power was any one period of their history, fuch overthrown : the world was ludden- undaanted resolution, and such a ly turned upside down. The pu- contempt of death. thority of religion, in some coun If so great a portion of the people. tries, was lubverted. In others it renounced religion and moral sentiwas tinged by new sentiments and ment, the same profligate contempt new 'political connections. The of both was apparent, and even Greek and Protestant churches, nay, avowed, in the conduct of the rulers the Mahometans, were the patrons of nations. The wars that had been of the pope, and the catholic reli- made from religious fympathies or gion. The Freuch pation, formerly antipathies, attachments to particu. the first in devotion to the ladies, Jar families, and the prefervation of the church, and the grand monarch, the political balance, were fucceed. departed from their refined galed by wars for fliaring and dividing Jantry, and abandoned themseives the Ipoils of the weaker among the to mere fenfuality; they perfecuted stronger. This partitioning policy the church, and they killed the was called a system of indemnities: king. Generous sentiment and al- Indemnities not for any loss luitainfection in France, and other afhliated ed, but to balance the robberies democracies, was loitin selfishness,or, committed by their neighbours, Inaccording to their new word, eguifm. stead of checking, as formerly, unIf their wild and savage common. principled aggression, from a wile wealth could be realized, it would defire of maintaining the commonexhibit a picture of men, walking, wealth of Europe, pretty well fetlike wanton fibool-boys, on their tled by the treaty of Westphalia; liands and head, instead of their great potentates winked at the rafeet.
pacity of one another, and then This delirium, however, is not to urged the necessity of following be of long continuance. The lenti- each others example. Su that, on ments of nature mutt return. A the whole, we cannot affirm, that tense of duty is not to be eradi- there has been, in our age, any cated from the human mind. Nor practical progress in religion and yet is a lente of religion from the morality. As to the former, it may brcaits of nations. The religious be questioned whether there be any Sentiment already re-appears in luch thing as progress in religion. France. The present government Religions, in their movements, are wisely fosters il.
all rather retrograde. The noble Yet in an age and nation, whore and animaling enthufiasm that cononly hope was in this world, and nects religious sects at their comwhose chief good neither was, nor mencement grows colder and colder, could be, on their principles, any and links at last into a dead indit. other than sensual gratification, the ference. In vain do priests and molt intr«pid courage was displayed, politicians whip and ipar, and ej.
deavour Jeavour to drum a nation into à one course of action rather than the religious tone, after the genuine spi- contrary. But, as to the praitical rit of enthusiasm is loft. In Enge influence of this on fociety, it is in land, and other countries, the higher truth, as we apprehend, but very and middling ranks, perceiving, trifling. Nothing has yet been done, at last, the connection beiween a or can be done, for humanizing and reverence for religion and the pre- loftening the human heart, to much servation of rights and properties, as the Christian religion. The mobecame very regular attenders at rality of that divine dilpentation is church. But it was only a ceremo- the most pure and sublime that can nious and cold business. The mo- be conceived, and it is recommenda tive of their attendance was ob- ed and enforced by every contider.. vious to every one. To men of ation that can imprefs the understanddiscernment this constrained respect, ing or captivate the atjections. It is for the exteriors of religion, ap- divinely benevolent and impreslive peared ludicrous, and, to people beyond the limits of all human rule fincerely p'ous, impious. With re- or art. The morality of the Christian quard to morality, it has already been religion, however, was the fame in oblerved, that ihere seems to be a the latt and some preceding centutendency in most of the systems of ries, when individuals were more morals, since Shafubury and Huch. harsh in their private intercourles, infon, to nurse up the amiable, even and the laws more rigorous and leat the expenle of what we shall on vere in many relpecis ihan at prelent. the prelent occasion, for the sake of The Christian religion was more contra-distinction, call the respecta- firinly believed in, when lord Rutlible and levere virtues. What hare ven, having imprisoned, in one of that amiable philosophy may have his cafties, the young king James had in sostening and harmonizing VI. of Scotland, laid, when the the world, cannot be ascertained. captive boy cried, “ Better that In fact, it is not probably very bairns should greet than bearded great. Moral appeals to men them- men.” There was more faith in the lelves, to the constitution of their world, wlien men, convicted of le nature, and to the grace and beauty, ditious practices, or other crimes, and propriety of virtue, what do not only fibod on the pillory, but they amount to? Little more than loft their cars : when puriciuphers this, that men onghi to be morally and fiatelmen, and those of even good, if they pleaje. It is the au- large and patriotic views auviled; thority and sanction of the Supreme in times of dreadful (carcity, that Ruler alone, that can give vital elli- the neceflitous and helpicts idould cacy to any moral system. It is an fell themlelves and children, as ingenious ainulement to metaphy- bondimen and bondilwomen, iu richi fcans to analyse our moral fenti capitalisis.* The prelent age, in rements, and inquire what is the prin- fpect of former times, may be called ciple on which, independently of the age of humanity: Whence this al authority, and all puniments happy change. Not from the plus or rewards, we conceive ourselves greliive etlects of moral ditquisitions (as we all do, even sometimes in and leclures: not even from the pro1pite of ourselves) bound to follow greflive effects of preaching, trin• Fletcher, of Saltown.
med med up by the artifices of compofi-. flourished, for a long time, is the dea tion, taught by professors of rhetoric; scriptive. The muses that now anibut from the progressive intercourses mate poetry, are the sciences: the of men with men, minds with minds, sciences that can give dignity to all of navigation, commerce, arts, and things, by combining them with the sciences.
general laws of moral and physical Solitary, barbarous, and rude na- nature. tions; have few restraints on their In painting, gardening, and arappetites and passions. Multiplied chitecture, there has been a happy relations, and attentions to propriet.y, retreat from too much drapery, ora grace, and decorum, and the opi- nament, and various nick-nackery, nions of mankind, in a state of cul- and an approach to the fimple, lovetivated and polite society, mingle, ly, and majestic form of nature. In modify, and reduce, as it were, the music, there has been much imcorrosive sublimate of the selfish and provement in harmony and contraangry pallions of men, into a gentle punto; but none of the mathemasympathy with all around them.- tico-musical compositions of our mu. The sciences arrest prejudice and fical doctors, for real effect on the pallion, and teach men to think imagination and heart, are to be fairly and candidly on the situations compared with some of those fimof other men, and other individuals, ple melodies that have been formed as well as on themselves. Still more by a mere imitation, or rather, inimmediately is the cause of humanity deed, participation of human fenpromoted by the arts : in all of timent and passion. which, we principally contemplate We Avall wind up this sketch of and sympathize with human nature, the eighteenth century, with an placed in various attitudes and situ- anecdote of some mad philolophers, ations. In poetry, painting, sculp· which, though ridiculous, may serve ture, mulic, and architecture, it is perhaps to illustrate our present substill human nature, icen or fancied, ject more than all that has been now that gives the principal charm : hu- said. About the year 1790, the man pallions, feelings, emotions, and progress of discovery, particularly conveniences.
in chymistry and mineralogy, had -Dediciffe fideliter artes,
become so great, and the reign of Emollit mores nec finit efle feros. art over nature so extensive, that
HORAT. some of the lame philofophers, who Of the progress and state of the let up for political reformers, partiarts, in the eighteenth century, we cularly thole connected with a lemi. have little to observe, that can be nary of diflenters at Hackney, beconfidered as characteristical of that lieved not only that the period was period. The epic poem, which de- approaching, when men were to be pends on machinery and fable, af- governed by the purity of their own ter some respectable efforts by Vol: minds, and the moderation of their taire, Glover, and Wilkie, has, at own defires, without any external last, died a kind of natural death; coercion, but when the life of man having pined away under the too might be prolonged, ad infinitum, powerful rays of the lun of science, and philolophers, if they chose it, The only species of poetry that has become immortal.